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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds in large alligators and mosquitoes, which render its navigation very troublesome. Its shores are covered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited by a variety of birds and apes of several species, which make an incredible chattering and noise. It was by this river that the pirate John Morgan came when he took and sacked Panama in 1670. It was discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527, when he called it the river of Lagartos, but its mouth was before discovered by Lope de Olano in 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, a very small fish of the size of a pin, called titles, and these are so abundant, that putting into the water a large basket, it is certain to be drawn out full ; they are fried, and make very savoury fritters.

CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lorenzo, a settlement of the same province and kingdom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at the entrance or mouth of the former river. It has for its defence a strong castle, which was built by the order of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uan Bautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirate John Morgan, after having made a glorious defence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt and sacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English, commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirely destroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied by two strong batteries, which hindered the English from making a breach, for the third time, when they came with three frigates of war : but they were driven back by Captain Don Juan de Hermida, who was formerly captain of the regiment of Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in the most perfect manner, by the lieutenant-general and engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor of Cartagena, who came hither for this purpose by order of the king. In this fortress several personages of distinction' have been held prisoners, ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina, ])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of the kingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Portobelo.

CHAGUANES, an island of the river Orinoco, formed at its entrance into the sea by various canals or arms, is large and inhabited by Indians of the Mariussa nation.

CHAGUARAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela, situate on the confines of the province of Cumana, near the river Manapire.

CHAGUARAMA, a bay on the coast of the province of Cumaná, on the n. e. side ; being formed by the island of Trinidad, and by the mouths of

the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulf Triste.

CHAGUAREM, a small river of the province and government of Venezuela, which runs s. and enters that of Los Aceytes.

CHAHUALTEPEQUE, Santiago de, a settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Mexilcaltzingo in Nueva España. It contains 138 families of Indians, and is three leagues from its capital.

CHAHUANTLA, a small settlement or ward of the alcaldía mayor of Guauchinango in Nueva España ; annexed to the curacy of Naupan.

CHAIALA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chayanta or Charcas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Pocoata.

CHAILLON, Cabo de, a cape on the e. coast of lake Superior, in New France.

CHAINAR, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán ; situate on the shore of the river San Miguel.

CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in which was venerated, ever since the time of the conquest, a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which, with the temple, was burnt a few years since, and the parishioners being much afflicted at their loss, the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito, sent them another equal to the first : at the celebration of the festival people assemble from all the neighbouring districts.

CHAIUIN, a river of the province and government of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile, which runs s. e. and enters Valdivia near its entrance into the sea.

CHALA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru.

Chala, with the distinction of Alta, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Saña in the same kingdom , situate on the shore of the river Chicama.

CHALA, another, with the addition of Baxa, in the same kingdom and province; situate near the former.

CHALA, a large and beautiful valley on the sea shore, in the province and corregimiento of Cumaná.

CHALA, a small port, frequented only by fishermen, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHALACOS, a settlement and asiento of the silver mines of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huancabamba.

==CHALALA, a large river of the Nuevo Reyno

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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsome and well built, on the margin of the river of the same name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Montreal, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken by the Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by the British, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)

CHAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba in the kingdom of Quito.

Chambo, a very large river, which rises near the former settlement, and runs with such rapidity that it cannot be forded ; is consequently passed over by means of various bridges made of osiers.

CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Natá in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near a river, and two leagues from the coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plantains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, and other birds, with which it supplies, by means of canoes, the markets of the city of Panama, from whence it is nine leagues distant.

CHAMELUCON, or Chamaleton, a river of the province and government of Honduras. It runs n. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name, between La Caldera and the river Ulua.

CHAMETLA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Guajuaha in Nueva España. It contains ISO families of Indians.

CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bounded n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xalisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacatecas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is 30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ; is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater part of it is a mountainous and rugged country, abounding in. noxious animals and insects, and on this account uninhabitable in the summer and in the rainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan de Ibarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold, which were formerly worked, but which at present are all abandoned, as well from their having filled with water, as from the scantiness of the means of the inhabitants to work them. The royal mines, however, are productive of some emolument, and are in fafct the support of the place. It produces some maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, to which article the soil is exactly suited, though not so to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. On the banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left a thick incrustation of salt in the month of April ; and although the inhabitants spare no pains to collect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of it is lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere the heats come on, when it very quickly disappears.

Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badly peopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it were desert, having only three settlements and some estates. It is irrigated by a river which flows down from the sierra Madre, and passes through the capital, the waters of which are made useful for the working of the mines. The same river enters the sea two leagues from the settlement of Chametlan, and has abundance of fish, which are caught with ease, as well upon its shores as in marshes which it forms. Tlie capital, which is the residence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Rosario.

Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldía mayor ; from thence taking its name. It contains only five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of the year, live in the estates which they have for the breeding of large cattle, and on the farms for the cultivation of maize and cotton.

CHAMESA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits corresponding to such a climate, particularly wheat, which is of the best quality. It contains 100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, and is a little more than eight leagues from its capital.

CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of the province and government of Chocó ; situate in the district of Thatama, near the ruins of the city of San Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of Santiago de Arma.

CHAMIANOS, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of the river Guallaga.

CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in 1670 by the Father Lorenzo Lucero. '

CHAMILPA, San Lorenzo de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva España.

CHAMPANCHIN, Sierra de, a chain of mountains in the province and government of Tucumán, running s, s.e. on the shore of the river Quarto.

(CHAMPLAIN,a township, the most n. in Clinton county, New York, which takes its name from the lake on which it lies. It was granted to some Canadian and Nova Scotia refugees, who were

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either in the service of the United States during the war, or fled to them for protection. The indigence or ill habits of these people occasioned the breaking up of the settlement, and a better sort of inhabitants have now taken their place. The lands are fertile, and two rivers run through it, well stored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and three slaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the inhabitants are electors.)

CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, of more than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to 12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It was discovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tlie name of Champlain, who gave it his name, which it still retains. It communicates with a smaller lake called Sacrament, and the canal passing from one side to the other of these is extremely rapidand dangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. At the distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some very lofty mountains, which are covered with snow, and in which are found castors and a variety 'of animals of the chase; and between these mountains and the aforesaid lake are some beautiful level meadows or llanuras^ which, when first discovered, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; but these have greatly diminished in numbers, through the continual wars Avith the French and English. [This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and lies e. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing line between the states of New York and Vermont. It took its name from a French governor, who was drowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake. Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s, a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadth is from one to 18 miles, being very different in different places ; the mean width is about five miles, and it occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is sufficient for the largest vessels. There are in it above sixty islands of different sizes : the most considerable are North and South Hero and Motte island. North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, and from two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderoga the waters of lake George from the s. s. w. which is said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of this lake. Half the rivers and streams which rise in Vermont fall into it. There are several which come to it from New York state, and some from Canada ; to which last it sends its own waters a n. course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into the St. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish, particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, and pickerel, and the land on its borders, and on the banks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in several places appear to be marked and stained with the former surface of the lake, many feet higher than

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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The waters generally rise from about the 20th of April to the 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the greatest variation is not more than eight feet. It is seldom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle of January, Between the 6th and 15th of April the ice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon for many square miles of it to disappear in one day.]

CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, in which there is a mountain abounding greatly in silver mines. Here is also a mission Avhicli Avas established by the regulars of the company for the reduction of the natives : is 12 leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.

CHAMPOTON, a river of the province and government of Jucatan. It runs into the sea near the lake of Tenninas.

CHAMUINA, a river of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the limits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.

CHAMULA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHANAR-PUGIO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the district and jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, and eight leagues from the same.

CHANCAILLO, a small port of the S. sea, in the province and corregimiento of Chancay, to the n. of Lima ; little frequented, from lying exposed, and being insecure. In lat. 12° 3' 5.

CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Santa ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by that of Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado. It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and the same in width e. w. and has on its coast some ports and creeks not remarkable for their security. It comprehends in its district two territories, one of a cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, called De los Checras; and another of a warm temperature, lying in the valleys towards the sea, called De Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, one on the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the other Huama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge, which was built in the time of the viceroy, the Marquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of which are two rocks, through which the river passes. On the e. and in the cold part of this province, are found the productions peculiar to the climate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat and maize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of gold and silver, which had grown quite discoloured, to the amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of the country of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence. They are numerous and very small, one of them being very long and narrow ; forming a channel with the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Paraguay ; dwelling to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and bounded by the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have their houses near the lakes, and maintain themselves by fishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea, and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and government of Tierra Firme. They are two in number, being situate near the coast, and having between them a shallow or quicksand, by which they are communicated. They abound in a species of birds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory or cape of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues to the s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers the mouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados, with the other cape, which is to thes. called De la Ballena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of San Pedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies upon the bank of a small river, being of an excellent climate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province and government of aen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Amazonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woods lying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga on its ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement in the province and colony of New York ; situate near the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands of the S. sea, near the coast of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast of the same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near the rivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of the Montana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, or mountain of San Antonio. Through it passes a small river, which runs down from this mountain, and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of a very cold temperature, and lies in the middle of a wood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. until they reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of this name ; has a good convent of the monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, which is very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds of seed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many delicious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate in a plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 families of Indians, who trade in seeds and other fruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds. It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ; lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on account of its size, is navigated by many vessels, and is extremely well stocked with fish ; from which the inhabitants of the immediate settlements derive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom of Quito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. It rises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Intinuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs in an inclined course to the e. and enters the Marmore Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná, runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the province and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; in the vicinity of which is a mine abounding in a metal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the corregimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore of the river Choromoros.

(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St. Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock counties, in the district of Maine. The carrying place from boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in the Ketmebeck, is only five miles.)

(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine miles above Quebec, on the opposite shore, and about three or four miles back from the river St. Lawrence, into which the river Chaudiere disembogues itself. The river is seen at a distance, emerging from a thick wood, and gradually expanding from an almost imperceptible stream till it reaches die cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360 feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, which iippear to have been rent from their bed by some violent convulsion of nature, break the course of the waters, and precipitate them from a height of 120 feet into an immense chasm below. In some parts large sheets of water roll over the precipice, and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in other places the water dashes from one fragment of the rock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellowing and foaming with rage in every hollow and cavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence it rushes down with the rapidity of lightning into the boiling surge beneath, where it rages with inconceivable fury, till driven from the gulf by fresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself in the waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenery which accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere is beautiful and romantic beyond description. In the centre, a large fragment of rock, which first divides the water, at the summit of the precipice, forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree, which grows upon it, is thus placed in a most singular and picturesque situation. The forest on either side the river consists of firs, pines, birch, oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs, intermingled in the most wild and romantic manner. Their dark green foliage, joined with the brown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments over which the water precipitates itself, form a striking and pleasing contrast to the snowy whiteness of the foaming surge, and the columns of sparkling spray which rise in clouds and mingle with the air.)

CHAUGE, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tugelo.

CHAUICO, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement of Tlacotepec, and alcaldía

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mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It contains 57 families of Indians.

CHAUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-Vireyna in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chupamarca in the province of Yauyos.

Chauin, another settlement in the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla in Peru.

CHAUINA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Paraisancos.

CHAUINILLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pachas.

CHAUITAS, La Presentacion de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito.

CHAULAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanuco in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huacar.

CHAUNAMILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Maule in the kingdom of Chile ; situate upon the shore and at the source of the river Jecudahue.

CHAUPICOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Atabillos Baxos.

CHAUPIMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Tapú.

CHAUTLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHAUX, PUNTA DE, an extremity of the e. coast of the island of Martinique, one of the Antilles. It runs into the sea nearly equal with that of Carabelle.

CHAXAL, a river of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Higueras.

CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Cochabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e. by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by that of Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leagues in length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Its temperature is various, since it contains the settlements of Puna and Valles ; in the former of these are found in abundance the productions of the sierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and other seeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic with the surrounding provinces, especially in the articles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred

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