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390

tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to
the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head
settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cui-
catlan
; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain
which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80
families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in
cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits.
It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title
of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of
Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los
Llanos
, in Nueva España. It contains 210 fami-
lies of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement
and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ix-
miquilpan
in Nueva España. It contains 215
families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of
Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It
is of an extremely cold and moist temperature,
and its commerce depends upon the working of
the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly
worked here, but these yielded so base a metal,
and in such small quantities, that they were en-
tirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded
by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to
the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. Ame-
rica
, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the
straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the
e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos
Ayres
, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and
on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios.
472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magal-
lanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts
of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The
Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried
his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in
lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first
Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year
1335, and began its conquest, which was after-
wards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pe-
dro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and
afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the
hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner
by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the
most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they
have maintained, by a continual warfare, their inde-
pendence of the Spaniards, from whom they are
separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit
of the country possessed by them ; and though
the Spaniards have penetrated through different
entrances into their territories, and there built va-
rious towns and fortresses, yet have all these been
pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They
are most dexterous in the management of the lance,
sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana
wood ; and although they are equally so in the
practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom,
saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They
are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their
horses are excellent, since those which run wild,
and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not
degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best
which that country produces. The part which
the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its
whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo
to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the
isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues,
at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as
it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of
the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and
rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys,
and forming a country altogether charming and
luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the
convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in
regular season, all the most delicate fruits of Ame-
rica and Europe. The summer here begins in
September, the estio (or hot summer) in December,
the autumn in March, and the winter in June.
The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the
temperature varies according to the elevation of
the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru,
and which are very low, are of a warm tempera-
ture, and lack rain, having no other moisture than
what they derive from some small rivers descend-
ing from the cordillera^ and running, for the space
of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other
provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion
as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter,
from April to September ; for which reason they
are more fertile. These provinces are watered by
more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the
cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow
melted in the summer, swelling them to a great
height. They generally abound in fish of the
most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~
gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many
others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of main-
taining a vast population by the shell-fish found
upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most
delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ;
here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy
a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados,
pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes,
and tunnies, which come at their seasons on
the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadra-
bas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt
down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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