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CHILE.

391

smaller size, are more delicate, and of superior
flavour to those caught in Newfoundland. Am-
bergris is also found upon the coast. The moun-
tains abound in trees of the most beautiful kind,
laurels, oaks of four sorts, the carob-tree, the
wood of M'hich is extremely hard, reulis, cinna-
mon-trees, Cyprus, sandal, paraguas, hazel-nut,
ivall-nut, volos, and alerces, which are a kind of
cedar, of which they make planks in great num-
bers to carry to Lima and other parts. Many of
these trees are green the whole year round, from
the moisture and shelter they derive from the cor-
dillera, which contains in its bowels much fire, as
appears from the volcanoes found upon it, and
which are 12 in number, without counting many
others, even as far as the straits of Magellan. Al-
though these mountains and woods are so immense,
beasts of a savage kind are rarely to be found, ex-
cepting such, now and then, as a tiger or leopard ;
but there are great numbers of deer, stags, vicunas,
and Imanacos, which served as food for the In-
dians; as likewise of birds, as ducks, vandurrias,
swans, herons, kites, doves, piuguenes, tarlales,
parrots, hawks, falcons, goshawks ; and many sing-
ing birds, as goldfinches, larks, starlings, diucas,
trillies, and many others. Its present vegetable
productions are wheat, barley, Indian wheat, grains
of different kinds, oil of the finest olives, excellent
wines, much esteemed in Peru; all kinds of suc-
culent fruits, oranges, lemons, innumerable sorts of
apples, and every kind of garden herb. Flax and
liemp is cultivated here, from which they make
rigging for vessels trading to the S. seas ; and this
could be supplied in a proportion equal to any de-
mand. This kingdom keeps up a considerable
trade with Peru ; for, one year with the other, it
sends to Lima from 150 to 180,000 bushels of
wheat, 120,000 quintals of grease, much wine,
and other productions, as almonds, nuts, lentils,
a sort of wild marjoram and bastard saffron ; and
takes in exchange sugar and cloths of the country.
It derives also great emolument from large herds
of the cow kind, from flocks of sheep and goats,
of the skins of which they procure fine tanned lea-
ther, leathern jackets, sharaois leather, and soles of
shoes : from these animals is also procured much
fat or tallow. Flere are numerous breeds of most
beautiful horse.s, and some of these, from excelling
all the others in the swiftness of their paces, are
called aguiliUias. It also abounds in mules, and
it would still more so, if, as formerly, they were
in request at Peru, where their skins were used
instead of fine cloths and carpets. Baizes arc still
made ; as likewise some sorts of small cord, coarse
€tutfs, and many kinds of sackcloth, which is the

common vesture, and consists of a square garment,
with an opening to admit the head ; but many
looms have been lost through a want of Indians in
the manufactories. The greater part of these
people still prefer their original uncivilized state,
depending upon the natural fruits of the earth for
for their food ; for, besides the productions above
enumerated, they used to gather, without the
trouble of cultivation, all sorts of delicious fruits,
such as pines, though different from those of Eu-
rope; and to make excellent chiclia of the murtilla.
Indeed the luxuriance and abundance of delicate
flowers, and aromatic and medicinal herbs, is al-
most incredible ; of the last the following are the
most esteemed for their virtue, viz. the cancliala-
gua, quinchemali, alhahaquilla, and culen. It
contains many mines of the richest gold, silver,
copper, lead, tin, quick-silver, brimstone, load-
stone, and coal : yielding immense riches, which
the Indians never appreciated, nor even gave
themselves the least trouble about, until the con-
quest of the Incas, who began to work them ;
sending portions of gold to Cuzco for the orna-
ment of the temples and palaces, rather by way of
gift than of tribute. The incursions and rebel-
lions of the Indians, principally of the Arauca-
nians, who, in the year J599, took and destroyed
six cities, viz. Valdivia, Imperial, Angol, Santa
Crux, Chilian, and Concepcion, is the cause why
the population is in many places not large, and
that it consists of poor people, living in small
communities ; the fact being, that they are alwaj^s
living in constant dread of a surprise from the In-
dians; not but that on the confines there are gar-
risons, well defended by Spanish troops, with ne-
cessary provisions of artillery, victuals, and am-
munition. The war which has from the begin-
ning been sustained by the Spaniards against these
most ferocious Indians, has tended greatly to re-
duce the numbers of the former ; some having
been killed on the spot, and others doomed to be
slaves to their indignant conquerors. Indeed,
when it was found that arms were of no avail
against them, some missionaries of the society of
the Jesuits were sent among them, in the year
1612, in order to propagate the gospel ; when the
Fathers Horacio Vechi and Martin de Aranda
suffered martyrdom at their hands: after which a
treaty of peace was made by the Governor Mar-
quis de Baides, A. D. 1640, and which has since
been renewed yearly ; their deputies coming re-
gularly to the capital to receive the presents from
the king of Spain. They have, notwithstanding,
at different times broken the treaty, making in-
cursions into the Spanish towns, and their manner
4

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