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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the RachcsIndians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. untilit enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix,opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto,which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government andjurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno deGranada. It is of a very mild climate, andabounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and manysorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branchof its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them forsale to the capital, which lies at a small distancefrom hence, in the road leading to M6rida andGibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost asmany indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are threemiles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of theprovince and colony of Maryland, [emptying it-self into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same pro-vince Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay ofChesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the pro-vince and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians,of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwellingimmediately upon the mountains and forests ofFosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitchtheir huts near the river Bermejo. But little isknown of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed tothe curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province andcorrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the dis-trict of the former, and annexed to the curacy ofTupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plainsor llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touchingtoAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogo-les, and extending n. as far as the mountains ofthe Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They areat present reduced to the Catholic religion, and aremixed with those of other nations ; but some fewof them still persist in their idolatry, and livedispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumaraand the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom ofChile. It has the hard lot of being scantily sup-plied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lordrinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this provinceand kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point ofits name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdictionand akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom ofTierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S.sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, onthe 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, witha detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; an-nexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate onthe coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province andgovernment of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishmentof the French, in their possessions inGuayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ;annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in thevalley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large andbeautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province andgovernment of Buenos Ayres, near a small lakeabout 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35°33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Caxamarca inPeru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, thoughonly two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth.It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions,in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they foundits temperature to be intensely sultry.]

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CHOTE, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Tennessee.

CHOTECHEL, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile ; situate in theinterior of it, and on the shore of the river Como-Leuvre.

CHOUEE, Montañas de, mountains in theprovince and colony of N. Carolina, which followthe course of the river Tennessee,

CHOUMANS, a settlement or village of theprovince and colony of Louisiana ; situate on thebank, and at the source of the river Maligna orSabloniere.

CHOUSSIPI, a small river of the country ofLabrador. It runs s. w. and enters that of St.Lawrence.

CHOWAN, a district and jurisdiction of theprovince and colony of Virginia, between that ofPequima and the river Pansemond. The principalsettlement bears the same name.

[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N.Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. Itcontains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves.Chief town, Edenton.]

[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls intothe n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is threemiles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as youascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Vir-ginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Notta-way, and Black rivers, which all rise in Vir-ginia.]

CHOXLLA, a settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Cicasica in Peru, annexed to thecuracy of Yanacache.

[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston dis-trict, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, ofwhom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]

[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N.America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any par-ticular tract of country. They are well disposedtowards the whites, and treat their traders Avith re-spect. The country in which these Indians roveis generally open plains, but in some parts, parti-cularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, itis marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber,as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to whichthey sometimes resort. From the quantity ofbeaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofeof that article than they do at present. They arenot esteemed good beaver-hunters. They mightprobably be induced to visit an establishment onthe Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Theirnumber has been reduced by the small-pox sincethey Avere first known to the Canadians.]

[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastlecounty, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creekof its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. ofWilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. Thetown, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presby-terian church, stands on a declivity which commandsa pleasant prospect of the country towards the De-laware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadel-phia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place be-tween the navigable Avaters of the Delaware andChesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at thisplace. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, andthus called after their queen.]

[Christiana Creek, on which the above townis situated, falls into Delaware river from the w.a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut acanal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direc-tion from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (sixmiles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Mary-land, about a mile below Elkton. See Delawareand Wilmington.]

[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles,called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the sameparallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues moreto the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of thew. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Do-minica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay thename of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre deDios by the Spaniards. This island produces cot-ton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is depo-sited in the museum of the Massachusetts HistoricalSociety.]

CHRISTIANO, San, a settlement of the province and captainship of Serigipé in Brazil ; situateon the coast, and at the mouth of the river Cirii.

[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Mont-gomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery fewhouses ; has a court-house and goal, situated neara branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway.Lat. 37° 5' ».]

[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in theisland of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of theisland, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of theDanish governor, and is defended by a stone for-tress.]

[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean,lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant fromthe Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesason the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, onaccount of his first landing there, on Christmasday. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by dig-ging. A ship touching at this desolate isle mustexpect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. Itis about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, andbounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of

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[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privycouncil, 1788, at a medium of four years, andby a return to house of commons in 1805, at amedium of two years from 1803, was as follows :

Average of

Imports.

Re-exports.

Retained.

Four years to 1787

658

102

556

Tw o years to 1803

971

124

847

By report of privy council, 1788, and by subse-quent estimate, the population amounted to

Years.

Whites.

People of

Slaves.

Colour.

1787

1912

1908

20,435

1805

1800

198

26,000

See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for thelater political inquiries, see West Indies.]

Same name, a settlement of the headsettlement of the district and alcaldia mayor ofToluca in Nueva Espana. It contains 64 familiesof Indians, and lies a small distance to the n. of itscapital.

Same name, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in the samekingdom, lying two leagues from its capital.

Same name, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tetelaxonotla in thesame kingdom, lying two leagues to the w. of thatplace.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimienio of Angaraes in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of San Antonio, and situate on the contraryside of the river.

Same name another, settlement of the province andeorreghniento of Conchucos in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of San Marcos.

Same name, another settlement of the province andcorregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ;annexed to the curacy of its capital.

Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan,in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families ofIndians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its headsettlement.

Same name, another settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuquio in the samekingdom ; situate near to the conflux of the riversMesquital and Grande, its population is large.

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and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province ofGuadalaxara.

Same name, another settlement of the head settle-ment of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula,in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of thegreat lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 faj-milies of Indians, who employ themselves in fish-ing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of itshead settlement.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand country of the Amazonas, in the PortugueseK ossessioiis ; situate on the shore of the riverlaranon, at the mouth where it enters the Ovari-pana.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand government of Cartagena in the district ofSinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, inthe division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu.It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, bythe Governor Don Juan Piraienta.

Same name another settlement of the kingdom ofBrazil ; situate on the shore of a river whichenters the Yguan to the s. of the settlement of JesusMaria.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand captainship of Sergipé in the same kingdom (Brazil) ;situate on the sea-coast, between the river Sirugipaand thatof Vazabaris.

Same name another settlement of the provinceand kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; situate near itscapital.

Same name,of the missionswhich were held by the regulars of the companyof the Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, andkingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

Same name another settlement of Nuevo Mexico ;situate on the shore of the Rio Grande del N.(Large River of tlie N.) where this enters the Con-ch os.

Same name, a bay on the coast of theprovince of California, in the part opposite thecoast of Nueva Espana.

Same name another settlement, an isle of the N. sea, in theinterior of the bay and port of the Cul de Sac Grand,of the island of Guadalupe.

[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.]CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdomof Tierra Firme, in the province and governmentof Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.

==CHUAPA, a settlement and head settlement ofthe alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana.It contains 112 familes of Indians, and is 12 leaguesn. e. of its capital.

Same name, a river of the kingdom of Chile.

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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera.On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort ofshell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea inlat. 31° 40'.

Same name, a volcano of the same kingdom (Chile), ce-lebrated for the irruptions it has made. It is 23leagues from the coast, and to the n. of the cityof San Juan de la Frontera, in lat. 31° 30' s.

CHUAZINGO, a settlement of the head settle-ment and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Es-pana. It contains 124 families of Indians, and istwo leagues to the n. n. w. of that of Tlapa.

CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missionswhich belong to the religious order of St. Francis,in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e.one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of themines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leaguesto the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates,called Fresnos and Charcas.

CHUCAPA, a settlement of the province andnorregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ; annexed to thecuracy of Acoria.

Same name another settlement, in the province and corre-ghniento of Xauja in the same kingdom.

CHUCANTI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien, in the kingdom of TierraFirrae. it rises in the mountains towards the n.and enters the sea between the islands Las Palmasand Pinos.

CHUCAY, a settlement of the province of Venezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situate onthe extremity of the peninsula formed by the capeof San Roman.

CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, andlying quite in the interior of the same. It is anharbour, or second port, of a circular figure,closed in on all sides, its access being through anarrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.

CHUCHE, a small island of the S. sea, in thebay and gulph of Panama. It lies the farthest ofany from the coast, and to the w. of the largeisland of Rey.

CHUCHULAIA, a settlement of the provinceand corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexedto the curacy of Combaya, in which there is apious sanctuary of Our Lady, much frequented.

CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the provinceof Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. Itrises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria,collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers lessthan itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.

CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the provinceand government of Jaen do Bracamoros in thekingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of theriver of its name, having a port, which is a lad-ing-place for the river Maranon. The above riverrises in the sierra of the province of Luya andChilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to theCumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon,and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Itsmouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.

CllUCMI. See Julumito.

CHUCO, Santiago de, a settlement of theprovince and corregimiento of Huamachuco inPeru.

CHUCUITO, a province and government ofPeru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name,and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by thatof Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ;and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coastwhich looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagueslong from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremelypopulous at the time of the conquest, and was onthat account considered wealthy. Its governorshad the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyedthe title of vice-patron and captain-general of theimmediate provinces, including some which layupon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy tempe-rature, particularly in the rainy months, whichare December, February, and March. It producessweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum,bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some ofthe glens, where the soil is moister, they growpulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This provinceabounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs,and native sheep, which the natives use for trad-ing instead of asses ; the regular load for eachbeing four or five arrohas. Here are also bredalpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizca-chas, which are similar in shape and figure to ahare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and os-triches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kindsof woven articles are made for useful and orna-mental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from thewool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, andmantles of various designs and colours. This pro-vince has many silver mines, which are workedwith emolument ; also streams of hot medicinalwaters. It is situate on the shores of the greatlake of Chucuito, from which large quantities offish are taken, and sold for a good price to theneighbouring provinces. It is watered by severalrivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest ormost considerable of them is the Hilava. Its na-tives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 differentsettlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars an-nually. The capital is of the same name. This

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belongs to the bishopric of La Paz, and is so situateas to have a fine view of the lake. It is a settle-ment at once the most pleasant and convenient,fertile, and abounding in fruits and cattle, butits temperature is excessively cold. It has twoparishes, with the dedicatory title of Santo Do-mingo and La Asuncion, and two hermitages de-dicated to St. Barbara and St. Sebastian. Theother settlements are,

Asiento de Minas de Mi- Asiento del Desagua-

chacani, dero,

Asiento de San Ante- Acora,

nio de Esquilache, Hi lave,

Pomata, *July,

Asiento de Huacullani, Santiago,

Zepita.

Same name, The lake of, which, although it bethus called, is also known by the name of Titicaca,is 51 leagues in length from n. w. to s. e. and 26in width, although in some parts less. On its shoresare six provinces or corregimientos^ which are.The province of this Paucarcolla,name, Lampa,Pacages, Asangaro.Omasuyos,This lake is of sufficient depth for vessels ofany size, since in many bays not far in from itsshores there are from four to six fathoms of water,and within it, some places from 40 to 50. It is, asfar as is ascertained, without any shoals or banks.Near it grow some herbs, called clacchos, eaten bythe cows and pigs ; also a great quantity of theherb called totora, or cat’s tail, which in someparts grows to the length of a yard and an half.Of this the Indians make rafts, not only for fishingbut for carrying to and fro the cattleand productionsof the harvest and crops growing in the variousislands lying in this lake. Some of these islandsare so covered and hemmed in with the herb totorathat it requires much force and labour to cut a pas-sage through it. In one of the largest of theseislands the Incas had a magnificent temple, dedi-cated to the sun, the first that was ever built. Thislake is not without its tempests and squalls ; theyare, on the contrary, frequent, and have at timescaused no inconsiderable mischief. Its watersare thick, but are nevertheless drank by the cattle,and even the Indians ; particularly by those ofthe nation of the Uros, who are a poor ignorantpeople, who formerly lived upon the islands ingreat wretchedness, and who by dint of great solici-tations have been prevailed upon to leave them forthe mainland^ where they now reside in some mi-serable caves, excavated places, or holes in theearth covered over with fiags of totora^ maintain-

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ing themselves by fishing. This lake containslikewise various kinds of fish, such as trout,ormantos, cuches, anchovies, and boquillas inabundance; these are, for the most part, aboutthe length of a man’s hand, and three fingersthick. The Indians of Yunguyo take upwardsof 700 yearly, and sell them at four and six dollarsthe thousand. They also catch some small peje-reyesy and an infinite variety of birds, which aresalted, and afford excellent food. It is confidentlyand repeatedly asserted by the Indians, that thegreater part of the riches of the country was throwninto this lake when the Spaniards entered it at thetime of the conquest ; and amongst other valuablesthe great gold chain made by the order of theInca Huayanacap, which was 2S3 yards in length,and within which 6000 men could dance.

CHUCURPU, an ancient settlement of warlikeIndians of the province and corregimiento ofCuzco in Peru. It lies to the e. of this city, andwas subjected and united to the empire after along resistance by Pachacutec, emperor of theIncas.

CHUCUTI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Darien in the government of TierraFirme. It rises in the mountains towards the e.and following this course, enters the Taranena at asmall distance from its source.

CHUDAUINAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, to the s, e. ofthis city. They inhabit the part lying s. w. ofthe river Pastaza, and are bounded on the s. e, bythe Ipapuisas, and w. by the Xibaros. They arenot numerous, owing to the continual wars whichthey have maintained with their neighbours ; andthough of a martial spirt, they are of a docile andhumane disposition. Some of them have 'Unitedthemselves with the Andoas, in the settlement ofthis name, which lies upon the w. shore of theriver Pastaza.

CHUECA, San Agustin de, a settlement ofthe province and corregimiento of Lipes, and archbi-shopric of Charcas, in Peru ; annexed to the cu-racy of San Christoval.

CHUETI, a river of the province and govern-ment of Choco. It rises in the sierras of Abide,runs w. and enters the Paganagandi.

CHUFIAS, a barbarous nation of Indians whoinhabit the e. of the river Aguaricu, bounded onthe n. w. by the nation of the Encabellados, withwhom they are in continual warfare.

CHUGOD, Santa Catalina de, a settlementof the province and corregimiento of Caxamarcain Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chetu.

CHUI, a river of the province and captainship3 o

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