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Pages That Mention Paraguay

The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the English in this brave contest having been commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.J Besides the capital tliere are in this island the towns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewise those of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Conanama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, and Mulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for the most part retired in the mountains and Avoods to the s. These towns were converted to the faith by the society of the Jesuits, who had here established a mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.

(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n. by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woods and mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. by the country of the Portuguese on the borders of the Maranon.) The principal rivers which water it, and which empty themselves into the Atlantic ocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya, and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhich is manufactured in various mills by the Negroes. (In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs. of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton, 26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timber and planks.)

Cayenne, the capital of the above island, is small, well built, and populous. It is at the n. point of the island, at the foot of the castle of San ljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the one called Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with a handsome, convenient, and large port ; the greater part of the houses, which amount to about 200, are built of wood. Besides the parish called San Salvador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Jesuits, as also an excellent house for the governor. The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, well fortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.

Cayenne, a river of the above province, (which rises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runs through the country of the Galibis, a nation of Caribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; the island which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)

(CAYES, Les, a sea-port town on the s. side of the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, 13 leagues w. by s. of St. Louis. Lat. 18° 12' n.)

CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the division of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of the swamp which takes the name of this town. It is one of those new establishments founded in the year 1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.

Cayetano San, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva España; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris

Indians, on the banks of a river between the settlements of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.

Cayetano San, another settlement of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the Rio Grande.

(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop of Arequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America, in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the mountains of the same name, which are very rich, though they have been worked for a long time. The country round it is cold and barren. There is an office here for receiving the king’s fifths and vending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)

(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leagues n. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indies the most s. of which is called the Great Caymans, which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descendants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour for ships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring place on the s. w. The climate and soil are singularly salubrious, and the people are vigorous, and commonly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds of produce for their own use and to spare. Their chief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacent islands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last they supply Port Royal and other places in great quantities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long. 81° 33' w.)

(CAYMITE, Grande, an island on the n. side of the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, two leagues long and one broad.)

(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga, county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long, about two miles wide, in some places three, and abounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. It lies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n. end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e. part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake Ontario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house, where good attendance is given. The reservation lands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of the lake, at its n. end.)

CAZAPE, or Cazapa, a settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate to the s. of the town of Espiritu Santo.

(CAZARES, a town of Mexico. See Angelo.)

CAZAUTAS, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquía ; situate in the sierra Morena, on the shore of an arm of the river San Jorge.

(CAZENOVIA, a new and thriving township in Herkemer county, New York, 40 miles w. of Whitestown. By the state census of 1796, 274 of its inhabitants are electors.)

CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin

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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of gold and silver, which had grown quite discoloured, to the amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.

CHANEL, some islands near the coast of the country of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence. They are numerous and very small, one of them being very long and narrow ; forming a channel with the coast, and giving its name to the rest.

CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Paraguay ; dwelling to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and bounded by the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have their houses near the lakes, and maintain themselves by fishing.

CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea, and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and government of Tierra Firme. They are two in number, being situate near the coast, and having between them a shallow or quicksand, by which they are communicated. They abound in a species of birds, from which they take their name.

CHANGO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chacayan.

CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory or cape of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues to the s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers the mouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados, with the other cape, which is to thes. called De la Ballena.

CHANTACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of San Pedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies upon the bank of a small river, being of an excellent climate.

CHANTALI, a settlement of the province and government of aen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

CHANUSSI, a river of the country of Las Amazonas, which runs from c. to w. through the woods lying towards the w. and enters the Guallaga on its ^ sido

CHANXEWATER, an English settlement in the province and colony of New York ; situate near the e. arm of the river Delaware.

CHAO, Farallones de, two small islands of the S. sea, near the coast of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru.

Chao, Morro de, a mountain of the coast of the same corregimiento.

CHAPA, Puerto de, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the juris-

diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near the rivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of the Montana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.

CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, or mountain of San Antonio. Through it passes a small river, which runs down from this mountain, and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of a very cold temperature, and lies in the middle of a wood. Lat. l°40's.

CHAPADA, Sierra, mountains of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Todos Santos. They run from e. to w. until they reach nearly as far as the coast.

CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of this name ; has a good convent of the monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, which is very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds of seed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many delicious fruits.

Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate in a plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 families of Indians, who trade in seeds and other fruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds. It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ; lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.

Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on account of its size, is navigated by many vessels, and is extremely well stocked with fish ; from which the inhabitants of the immediate settlements derive their source of commerce.

CHAPAMARCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingdom of Quito; situate to the s. of the capital.

CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.

CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. It rises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Intinuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs in an inclined course to the e. and enters the Marmore Grande, forming a good port.

CHAPARIPARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná, runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of Triste.

CHAPARRA, Valle de, a valley of the province and corregimiento of Cumaná in Peru ; in the vicinity of which is a mine abounding in a metal called chumillo.

CHAPARRAL, a small settlement of the corregimiento of Coyaima in the Nuevo Reyno de

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America called New South Wales. Its territory consists of a white dry sand, and it is covered with small trees and shrubs. This island has a beautiful appearance in the spring to those Avho discover it after a voyage of three or four months, and after having seen nothing but a multitude of mountains covered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in the strait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrified with eternal ice. This island appears at that season as though it were one heap of verdure. The air at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit. and nearer to the sun than London, is excessively cold for nine months, and extremely hot the remaining three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. The soil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces all kinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, which are cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert. Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.

CHARNACOCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru,

CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayor of the province and bishopric of Mechoacán in Nueva España, of a mild and dry temperature, being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ; the heights of which are intersected with many veins of metals, which manifest themselves very plainly, although they have never yet been dug out ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pits render the roads impassable. It is watered by the river which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid, and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, and the fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertile and productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongs to the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to the Dukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced to some ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour, and to the capital, which has the same name, and which contains a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin, this being one of the first temples built by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the present dilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony to its great antiquity. It contains 430 families of Pirindas Indians, employed in labour and in the cultivation of the land, and in making bread, which is carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neighbouring ranchos and estates. It should also have 45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulattoes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and two to the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat. 19“34'.

CHARON, a small river of Canada, which runs e. and enters the lake Superior in the bay of Beauharnois.

CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.

coast of the island of Martinique, between the town and parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.

CHARPENTIER, a small river of the same island which runs n. e. and enters the sea in the former bay.

CHARQUEDA, a lake of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil, near the coast which lies between this lake and that of Los Patos.

CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Paraguay, who inhabit the parts lying between the rivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians are the most idle of any in America, and it has been attempted in vain to reduce them to any thing like a civilized state.

Charruas, a settlement of this province and government.

Charruas, a river of the same province, which runs s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.

CHARTIER, Bahia de, a bay on the s. coast of the straits of Magellan, between the bay of San Simon and the point of Tunquichisgua.

Chartier, a settlement of Indians of the province and colony of Virginia ; situate on the shore of a river of the same name. It runs s. and enters the sea in the county of Hampshire.

(Chartier, a township in Washington county, Pennsylvania.)

(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg and Morganza.)

(CHARTRES, a fort which was built by the French, on the e. side of the Mississippi, three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or the Rock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve, on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in 1772, being untenable by the constant washings of the Mississippi in high floods. The village s. of the fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mile above this is a village settled by 170 warriors of the Piorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians, who are idle and debauched.)

CHASPAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aricá in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Tarata.

CHASSES, a small river of N. Carolina, which runs n. n. e. and enters that of Cutawba.

CHAT, Trou de, a settlement of the parish and island of Martinique ; situate near the bay of the Cul de Sac Royal, and to the n. e. of the capital.

Chat, a river of the island of Guadalupe, which rises in the mountains of the e. coast, and running e. enters the sea between the rivers Grand Bananier and Trou au Chien, or Hole of the Dog.

Chat, a cape or point of land on the coast of the river St. Lawrence, on the shore opposite to the port of San Pacracio.

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cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines, though they produce at present very sp:n ingly; some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful, have lately filled with water, and attempts have been made in vain to empty them. Indeed the only mines which have produced any great wealth are those found in the mountains of Aullagas, and from them, for some years past, metals of the rarest qualities have been extracted. In the woods of the valleys, which produce very fine and excellent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and other wild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also a species of bees, which form their combs in the hollows of trees, and the honey of which they call de charas. There is a river in this province composed of several streams, and which unites itself with the Cochabamba. The number of its inhabitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into 27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amount to 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollars per annum. It is one of the richest provinces of Peru.

The capital is of the same name, and the other settlements are,










San Pedro





de Macha,





San Francisco dc Micani, San Marcos de Mirailores,


Santiago de l\Ioscari,

San Pedro de Buenavista, Acasio,




CHEANE, a river of the province and government of Paraguay.

CHEARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Huaiama.

(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county, Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joins Monongahela river, three or four miles within the Pennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at its moutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement, 50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, except in dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 miles from this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth of Savage river.)

CHEBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-

nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between some mountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a, cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, and barley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of 40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorder of the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21 leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

CHEBANONKOGUE, a town of the French, in Canada ; situate in the country of the Mistasuis Indians, on the n. shore of a lake which gives it its name.

CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It rises from a small lake near the settlement and fort of Sackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines, or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.

(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e. coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss of a French fleet in a former war between France and Great Britain. Near the head of this bay, on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the capital of the province.)

CHECA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tinta in Peru.

CHECACUPI, a settlement of the same province and kingdom as the former.

CHECACUPI, another, in the province of Quispicanchi or Urcos in the same kingdom.

CHECASA, La Nueva, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru.

CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n. side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beech or playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.

CHECODIN, a small lake of the province and country of the Iroquees Indians in Canada, lies between the lake Oswego and the river Ohio.

CHECHAS. See Chancay.

(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, a large and deep bay on the easternmost part of Nova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso. Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Salmon river falls into this bay from the w. and is remarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in the world.)

CHEDIAC, a small river of Nova Scotia, which runs e. and enters the sea in the strait formed by the coast and the island of San Juan.

(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e. by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end of Slave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s territory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same in breadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)

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tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.

Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.

Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.

CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.

CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-

fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a

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