The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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Cotagaitilla, Escara, Chacnacocha, Chequelti, Colnaca, Calccha, Tomola, Tumula, Estarca,
Ingenio del Oro
Nueva Cbocaya, Talina,
And in the district of Tarija,
Tarija de Vieja, La Concepcion,
San Bernardo de Tarija, Berraeo.
The district of Tarija is a territory full of quehradas and craggy mountains, as far as the punas and lofty plains of Escayache and Tacsora, where there are two salt lakes. It is composed of four fertile valleys lying on the skirts of hills, and in these are found human bones of a prodigious size, petrified, shin-bones of a yard and a quarter long, and teeth larger than a fist. In the midst of one of these valleys is the town of San Bernardo de Tarija, which is the capital of the province. Its repartimiento used to amount to 82,350 dollars, and its alcavala to 558 dollars per annum. For the settlements of this district, see above.
(Chichester, a small township in Rockingham county, New Hampshire, about 35 miles n. w. of Exeter, and 45 from Portsmouth. It lies on Suncook river, was incorporated in 1727, and contains 491 inhabitants.)
CHICHICAPA, a settlement and capital of the alcaldia mayor of the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, and was anciently the real of the most esteemed silver mines; but is at present much fallen of, the working of the mines having been for
the most part abandoned from the want of hands, in as much as the natives have given themselves up to the trade of cochineal, in which its territory abounds : it produces also much seed and maize. Its jurisdiction includes some of the finest and richest provinces. It consists of five head settlements of districts, to which are subject as many other. Its capital contains 430 families of Indians, and some of Spaniards, Muslees, and Mulattoes. Ninety leagues s. e. of Mexico. The other settlements are.
Zimitlan, Tepezimatlan, La Magdalena, Atzozola.
Rio Hondo or Thequila,
San Agustin de Losi-
CHICHICATEPEC, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana, is of a cold temperature, contains 26 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
CHICHIMEQUILLA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zitaquaro, and alcaldia mayor Maravatio, in the bishopric of Mechoacan and kingdom of Nueva Espana. It contains 84 families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league to the s. of its head settlement.
(CHICKAHOMINY, a small navigable river in Virginia. At its mouth in James river, 37 miles from point Comfort, in Chesapeak bay, is a bar, on which is only 12 feet water at common flood tide. Vessels passing that may go eight miles up the river; those of 10 feet draught 12 miles ; and vessels of six tons burden may go 32 miles up the river.)
(CHICKASAW Bluff is on the e. bank of the Mississippi, witiiin the territories of the United States, in lat. 35 n. The Spaniards erected here a strong stockaded fort, with cannon, and furnished it with troops, all in the space of 24 hours, in the month of June 1795. It has since been given up, .according to the treaty of 1796.)
(Chickasaw, a creek which falls into the Wabash from the c. a little below Post St. Vincent.)
(Chickasaw, a river which empties into the Mississippi, on the e. side, 104 miles from the mouth of Margot, and 67 s. w. of Mine au Fer. Tlie lands here are of an excellent quality, and covered with a variety of useful timber, canes, &c. This river may be ascended during high floods upwards of SO miles with boats of several tons burden.)
(Chickasaws, a famous nation of Indians, who inhabit the country on the e. side of the Mississippi, on the head branches of the Tombigbee, Mobile, and Yazoo rivers, in the n. zo. corner of the state of Georgia, and n. of the country of the Chactaws. Their country is an extensive plain, tolerably well watered from springs, and of a pretty good soil. They have seven towns, the central one of which is in lat. 34° 23' «• long. 89° 30' w. The number of souls in this nation has been formerly reckoned at 1725, of which 575 were fighting men. There are some Negroes among the Chickasaws, who either were taken captive in war, or ran away from their masters, and sought safety among the Indians. In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, with 900 men, besides seamen, sailed from Cuba with a design to conquer Florida. He travelled n. to the Chickasaw country, about lat. 35° or 36° ; and three years after died, and was buried on the bank of Mississipi river.)
Chico, a river of the province and government of Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains to the s. of the istmo, or isthmus, near the settlement of Chepo ; and runs s. ze. and enters the sea in the bay or gulf of Panama.
CHICOLAPA, a settlement of the head settlement, and alcaldla mayor of Coatepec, in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of its capital. It contains 187 families of Indians, who celebrate every Friday throughout the year a teanguis or fair, at which are sold cattle and other productions of the country. At these times it is a place of general rendezvous for the inhabitants of all the contiguous provinces ; and this fair has, from the great concourse of people usually assembling here, obtained the title of the famous teanguis of S. Vicente de Chicolapa. It is extremely fertile and pleasant, and surrounded by several very small settlements or wards.
CHICOMESUCHIL, a settlement and head settlement of tlie alcaldia mayor of Yxtepexi of the province and bishopric of Oaxaca in Nueva Espana, is of a hot temperature, and contains 300 families of Indians, who exercise themselves in the making scarlet cloths and cotton garments.
CHICOMOCELO, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa. in the kingdom of Guatemala ; [having a cave very narrow at the entry, but spacious within, with a stagnant lake, which is, however, clear, and is two fathoms deep towards the banks.]
CHICONAUTA, St. Tomas de, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Ecatepec in Nueva Espana; annexed to the curacy of its capital; from whence it is distant one league to the n. n. e. It contains 160 families of Indians.
CHICONCUAC, S. Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcuco in Nueva Espana. It contains 123 families of Indians, and six of Spaniards. It produces a good proportion of grain, seeds, and cattte, from the fleeces of which they derive great emolument, as also from the coarse stuffs manufactured of the same. It is one league to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUASO, a settlement of the head
tal, the settlement of this name, is 70 leagues to the w. n. w. of Mexico.
Chilchota, another settlement of the head settlement of Huautla, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan ; situate at the top of a pleasant mountain which is covered with fruit trees. It contains 80 families of Indians, who live chiefly by trading in cochineal, saltpetre, cotton, seeds, and fruits. It is eight leagues from its head settlement.
Chilchota, another, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro. It is of the head settlement of Quimixtlan, and alcaldia mayor of S. Juan de los Llanos, in Nueva España. It contains 210 families of Indians.
CHILCUAUTLA y Cardinal, a settlement and real of the mines of the alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva España. It contains 215 families of Indians, and in the real are 27 of Spaniards, and 46 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It is of an extremely cold and moist temperature, and its commerce depends upon the working of the lead mines. Some silver mines were formerly worked here, but these yielded so base a metal, and in such small quantities, that they were entirely abandoned for those of lead, which yielded by far the greatest emolument. Five leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHILE, a kingdom in the most s. part of S. America, bounded on the n. by Peru, on the s. by the straits of Magellan and Terra del Fuego, on the e. by the provinces of Tucuman and Buenos Ayres, on the n, e. by Brazil and Paraguay, and on the®, by the S. sea. It extends from n.ios. 472 leagues ; comprehending the Terras Magallanicas from the straits and the plains or deserts of Copiapo, which are its most n. parts. The Inca A upanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, carried his conquests as far as the river Mauli or Maulle, in lat, 34° 30' s. Diegro de Almagro was the first Spaniard who discovered this country, in the year 1335, and began its conquest, which was afterwards followed up, in 1541, by the celebrated Pedro de Valdivia, who founded its first cities, and afterwards met with a disgraceful death at the hands of the Indians, having been made prisoner by them in the year 1551, 'These Indians are the most valorous and warlike of all in America ) they have maintained, by a continual warfare, their independence of the Spaniards, from whom they are separated by the river Biobio. This is the limit of the country possessed by them ; and though the Spaniards have penetrated through different entrances into their territories, and there built various towns and fortresses, yet have all these been pulled down and destroyed by those valiant de-
fenders of their liberty and their country. They are most dexterous in the management of the lance, sword, arrow, and w^eapons made of Macana wood ; and although they are equally so in the practice of fire-arms, they use them but seldom, saying, “ they are only fit for cowards.” They are very agile and dexterous horsemen, and their horses are excellent, since those which run wild, and which are of the A ndalucian breed, have not degenerated, or become at all inferior to the best which that country produces. The part which the Spaniards possess in this kingdom extends its whole length, from the aforesaid valley of Copiapo to the river Sinfordo, (unfathomable), beyond the isle of Chiloe, in lat. 44°-, but it is only 45 leagues, at the most, in breadth ; so that the country is, as it were, a slip between the S. sea and the cordillera of the Andes ; from these descend infinite streams and rivers, watering many fertile and beautiful valleys, and forming a country altogether charming and luxurious ; the soil abounds in every necessary for the convenience and enjoyment of life, producing, in regular season, all the most delicate fruits of America and Europe. The summer here begins in September, the estio (or hot summer) in December, the autumn in March, and the winter in June. The climate is similar to that of Spain, and the temperature varies according to the elevation of the land ; since the provinces lying next to ‘Peru, and which are very low, are of a warm temperature, and lack rain, having no other moisture than what they derive from some small rivers descending from the cordillera^ and running, for the space of 20 or SO leagues, into the sea. In the other provinces it rains more frequently, in proportion as they lay more to the s. especially in the winter, from April to September ; for which reason they are more fertile. These provinces are watered by more than 40 rivers, which also descend from the cordillera, being formed by the rains, and the snow melted in the summer, swelling them to a great height. They generally abound in fish of the most delicate flavour, of which are eels, trout, ba~ gres, reyeques, ahogatos, pejereyes, and many others. The sea-coast is of itself capable of maintaining a vast population by the shell-fish found upon it, of twenty different sorts, and all of the most delicious flavour. Other fish also is not wanting ; here are plenty of skate, congers, robalos, sienasy a species of trout, viejas, soles, machuelos, dorados, pejegallos, pulpos, pampanos, corbinas, pejereyes, and tunnies, which come at their seasons on the coast, in the same manner as in the Alraadrabas of Andaluda. For some years past they salt down cod-fish in these parts, which, although of a
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los Llanos. Its inhabitants amount to about 200, besides 100 Indians.
CHIPATA, a settlement of the corregimiento of the jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and it is healthy, though by no means abounding in the productions peculiar to its climate. Its inhabitants are very few, and the number of Indians is 50. It was one of the first settlements entered by the Spaniards, and where the first mass ever celebrated in that part of the world was said by the Friar Domingo de las Casas, of the order of St. Domingo ; and is situate very close to the city of Velez.
[CHIPAWAS. See Chepawas.]
[CHIPPAWYAN Fort, in N. America, from whence M‘Kenzie embarked, on the lake of the Hills, when he made his way as far as the N. sea, in 1789.1
[CUJPPEWAY River runs s. w. into Mississippi river, in that part where the confluent waters form lake Pepin.]
CHIPURANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas. It rises in the mountains which are to the s. of Yurimaguas ; runs in a serpentine course from s. to n. and enters the Guallaga on the e. side, in lat. 7° 8' s.
CHIQUILIXPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zayula in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 families of Indians, and in the mountains in its vicinity are some mines of copper, which have been worked at different times ; but not having produced a benefit proportionate with the expences incurred, they have been abandoned. It is, 15 leagues n. w. of its head settlement.
CHIQUINQUIRA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, but is healthy ; its situation is delightful, and it abounds in productions. It is watered by a river which runs through the centre of it, the waters of which are unwholesome : at a small distance another river passes through a plain ; this is called Balsa, or Raft, since, before the bridge was thrown across it, it was passed by rafts. It rises from the lake Fuguene, and abounds in most exquisite fish. The settlement, which was formerly but small, is now of great note, and its inhabitants are about 500, besides 70 Indians. It has a good convent of the religious order of S. Domingo, and is noted for the sanctuary of the virgin of its title. Under the large altar, at which is placed this image, there is a small fountain of water, renowned for the curing of infirmities, as is also the earth which is extracted from thence; it being by no means the least part of the prodigy, that although this earth has been constantly taken out for upwards of 200 years, the excavation formed thereby is comparatively exceedingly small. The faith in, and devotion towards this image, are throughout the kingdom very great, and not lesa so with regard to strangers, who visit it in great numbers from far distant provinces. This settlement is nine leagues from Tunja, and 15 to the n. zeJ. of Santa Fe.
CHIQUITI, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from s. w. to n. e. between the rivers Vichi and Cuche, and enters on the s. side into the river of Las Esrneraldas.
CHIQUITOI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It is at present destroyed, and the few surviving inhabitants afterwards collected together at the settlement of Santiago de Cao, and it then became merely a small estate or hamlet, preserving its original name, and being inhabited by a few Indians.
CHIQUITOS, a numerous and warlike nation of Indians of Perú, whose country or territory extends from lat. 16° to 20° s. It is bounded w. by the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; on the e". it extends itself for upwards of 140 leagues as far as the lake of Los Xarayes ; on the n, as far as the mountains of the Tapacures, the which divide this country from that of Moxos ;
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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. enters the lake Mini.
CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.
Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica), which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma, begins its course to the e. and forming a large bend towards the n. enters the Beni just at its source, and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.
CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains of Bogota. It waters the territory of Merida, passing opposite the city, and enters through the s. side into the lake of Maracaybo.
CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlenidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla, in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of an higli mountain, and from it may be seen all the settlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its population amounts to 183 families of Indians, and it lies to the n. of its head settlement, three leagues distant from this, and 14 from the capital.
CHUMBE, a village of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. It is to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of one of the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not far from it are some excellent hot baths, of which no use is made. LHere the stately melastoma and the embothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000 feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this village in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]
CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and corof Parinacochas in Peru, where there is a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting of the blessed virgin, said to have been given by a pontitf to the curate of this settlement when he was at Rome.
CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebrated for a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues from a small settlement called Canaria, which is at present abandoned and deserted.
CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the province of Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilques and Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cotabamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Condcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. by that of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature is for the most part cold, although in some places temperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar to either climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, papas, and other seeds, though none in abundance, but plenty of neat cattle. In this province are found the lofty and vast snowy mountains called Condesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundaries of the province of Parinacocha, being separated from it by the river which flows down from the province of Camana. Here much cloth peculiar to the country is manufactured ; and in its district are many mouths of gold and silver mines, the mounds and pits of which, together with the remains of several mills for working metal, indicate that in former times they were probably worked to no small advantage. They gather here a great quantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, with which cloths are dyed of very fine colours. It has likewise fountains and mineral streams of hot water, and is subject to earthquakes. Its repartimento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its alcavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants, including the district of Condesuyos, amount to 16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following settlements :