The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CONGO, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ; situate on the shore of a river, which gives it its name, and of the coast of the S. sea, within the gulf of S. Miguel.
CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement of the head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldta mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of the Rio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and contains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57 of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captital Pasquaro.
CONICARI, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore and at the source of the river Mayo. It is a reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits.
CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-
regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Moxo.
CONNECTICUT, a county of the province and colony of New England in N. America. It is bounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ; is separated from the large island by an arm of the sea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with part of the colony of Massachusetts, and the other part of the same colony to the n. It is traversed by a river of the same name, which is the largest of the whole province, and navigable by large vessels for 40 miles. This province abounds in wood, turpentine, and resins ; in the collecting of which numbers of the inhabitants are occupied, although the greater part of them are employed in fishing, and in hewing timber for the building of vessels and other useful purposes. The merchants of the province once sent to King Charles II. some timber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve for masts of ships of the largest burthen. The great trade of woods and timbers carried on by means of the river has much increased its navigation. This territory is not without its mines of metal, such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of these have yielded some emolument, but the others have never yet produced any thing considerable, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been made to work them. This county is well peopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwards of 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastations that it has suftered through the French, the Indians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne, when all the fishing vessels were destroyed. When this colony was first founded, many great privileges were given it, which have always been maintained by the English governor, through the fidelity which it manifested in not joining the insurrection of the province of Massachusetts, until, in the last war, it was separated from the metropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited States OF America.
(Connecticut, one of the United States of North America, called by the ancient natives Qunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42° 2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Its greatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles; bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ; s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ; and w. by the state of New York. This state contains about 4674 square miles; equal to about 2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties, viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and New London, which extend along the sound from w. to c. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham, extend in the same direction on the border of the] 3 T 2
York, wliicli falls into a bay at the s. side of the island. It lies two miles to tlies. of Rockonkama pond.)
CONNESTIGUCUNE, an establisliment of tlie English, in the county of Albany, inthew. part and to the e. of Chenectady, or of (he river Mohawk, where it gives a fall from above 70 feet in lieiglit. See Arm any.
CONNETABLE, anotlier small island of tire same province, witli the addition of Petite, to distinguish it from the former.
CONOCOTO, a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimimto of the district of the Cinco Leguasde la Ciudad, in the district of which is a rising ground called A Halo, and upon the skirts of this are many warm-water mineral streams, much frequented as baths for the curing of infirmities.
CONOMA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions. It is formed from some waste water of the river Madera, very near its shore, and at a small distance from the river of Las Amazonas.
CONSOLACION, Nuestra Senora de, asettlement of the government of Neiba in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of the town of La Purificacion. It is situate on the shore of the river Pardo, is of a hot temperature, abounding in the vegetable productions of a similar
climate, and in troublesome and venomous insects. It contains more than 200 house-keepers.
CONSOLACION, a point or long strip of land called Possession, on the n. coast of the straits of Magellan ; one of those which form Possession bay, and where are to be seen the ruins of the fort named Jesus, which was founded by the Admiral Pedro de Sarin iento.
CONSTANTINO Perez, an island of the river Valdivia, in tlie kingdom of Chile, opposite the same city, with two other small islands, the one before, the other behind it, and which, together, form the celebrated port of this name. The passage on both sides is navigable, but the channel on the s. side being the most wide, is the course uniformly taken by large ships and vessels, and in the same manner the n. channel is mostly, as it is narrower, entered by frigates and small craft.
C U A
island of Cuba, called Cruz del Principe (Cross of the Prince. )
CUAITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Metlatlan, <x\\A. alcaldia mayor of [Papantla]], inNueva Espana. It contains 8i families of Indians, and is three leagues from its head settlement, 16 s. w. of the capital.
CUALAQUE, a scttlerneut of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains two families of Spaniards, eight of Mustees^ 140 of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. It is of a mild temperature, and its principal commerce consists in making painted cups of fine manufacture. Four leagues w. of its capital.
CUANALA, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the bead settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the pleasant valley of (3culma. It is surrounded by many small settlements or wards, in which there are reckoned 212 families of Indians, and 10 of Muslees and Mulattoes ;* all of whom are employed as drovers or agriculturalists. Two leagues n. of its capital.
CUATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Ixtlahuacan, and alcaldia mayor of Colima ; .situate on the margin of a river which fertilizes the gardens lying on either of its banks, the same abounding in ail kinds of fruits and herbs. It is
of a mild temperature, and its commerce consists in maize, French beans, and in the making of mats. In its precincts are six estates or groves of coco trees ; and in those dwell .nine families of Spaniards and Miistees. In the settlement are 70 families. It is three leagues e. of its head settlement.
CUAUTLA, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, another settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in the same kingdom ; situate in a fertile and beautiful open plain near the settlement of Mazate.pec. It contains 23 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mulattoes, who employ themselves in fishing for small but well-flavoured bagres, which are found in great abundance in a river which runs near the town.
CUBA, a large island of the N. sea, and the largest of the Antilles ; situate at the mouth or entrance of the bay of Mexico. It is 235 leagues in length from c. to a', from the cape of St. Antonio to the point of Maizi, and 45 at its widest part, and 14 at the uarrow'est. To the n. it has Florida and the ijiicayes isles ; to the c. the island of St. Domingo, and to the s. the island of Jamaica, and the s. continent; and to the w. the gulf or hay of Mexico. It is betw een and 23°15'n. Int. and
from 74° 2' 3'^ to 84°55'tw. long It was discovered by Admiral Cliristopher Columbus in 1492, in his first voyage, before he discovered St. Domingo ; and he mistook it for the continent, and landed upon it. In tJie year 1494, it was found to be au island by Nicholas do Obando. lie measured its circumierence, and careened his ve.s.sel in the port of the Havana, which from that time has been
c y L
linas and that of Chirgua, in the space left by these rivers as they run to enter the Portuguesa.
CULIACAN, a province and alcald'm mayor of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia ; bounded n. and n. e. by the province of Cinaloa, s. by that of Copala, s. w. by the kingdom of Niieva Fizcaya, s. by that of Chiamatlan, and w. by the gulf of California. It is 60 leagues in length and 50 in Avidth. It is fertile, apd abounds in all sorts of productions; is watered by various rivers, particularly the Umaya, Avhich is very large, and in which are caught great quantities offish. It empties itself into the S. sea, in the port of Navitoos. It abounds in various earths, salt, and silver mines, and in many settlements of Mexican Indians, reduced by the missionaries of the religion of St. Francis. The capital is of the same name. Lat.24°58'??.
CULIACAN, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, a town which was founded by Nunez de Guzman in 1531 ; situate on the banks of a small river, Avhich afterwards unites itself Avith the Umaya. It is 160 leagues from Guadalaxara, and 260 from Mexico. The other settlements of this province are,
CULIACAN, a river of this province (Sonora), which divides the jurisdiction of the same from that of Cinaloa. It runs into the sea at the entrance of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. At its mouth or entrance are some very dangerous shoals of the same name. See St. Michael.
CULLOUMAS, a settlement of Indians, of ths province and colony of Georgia ; situate on the shore of the river Apalachicola.
CULLURQUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cotabambas in Peru, in the vicinity of which, in an estate for breeding cattle, is a poor chapel of Santa Rosa, and near to this two very large rocks, Avhich, being touched with small stones, send forth a sound similar to bells of the best temper and metal.
CULPEPPER, a county in Virginia, between the Blue ridge and the tide waters, which contains 22,105 inhabitants, of whom 8226 are slaves. The court-house of this county is 45 miles from Fredericksburg, and 95 from Charlottesville.]
CULUACAN, San Lucas de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcatdia mayor of Yzucár in Nueva Espana. It contains 50 tamilies of Indians, and Avas formerly the capital of the jurisdiction. Here there still remain some baths of warm water, celebrated for the cure of many infirmities. It is two leagues to the s. Avith a slight inclination to the 5. e. of its head settlement.
CUMA, San Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Marañan in Brazil. It contains a good parish-church, two convents of monks, one of the order of Carmen, and the other of La Merced ; and at a short distance from the town is a house Avhich was the residetice of the regulars of the company of .Jesuits. This town belongs to the lordship of the house of Antonio Alburquerque Coello de Carballo. It is three leagues from its capital.
C U M
bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. by Susqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dauphin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county. It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has 10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. The county is generally mountainous; lies between^ North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Conedogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, and well cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabitants, of whom 223 are slaves.]
[Cumberland, a post-town and the chief township of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies on the «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river, and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek. It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 measured miles above Georgetown, and about 105 ». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberland stood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’s creek.]
[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the «, side of Appamatox river, which divides it from Prince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, of whom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28 miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 from Richmond.]
[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part of the uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee, between the districts of Washington and Hamilton and Mero district, and between the two first named districts and the state of Kentucky. The ridge is about SO miles broad, and extends from Crow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e. The place where the Tennessee breaks through the Great ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250 miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone is found on both sides the mountain. The mountain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggy rocks of any mountain in the w. country ; in several parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, even to the Indians on foot. In one place particularly, near the summit of the mountain, there is a most remarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles in length, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpendicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand than any artificial fortification in the known world, and apparently equal in point of regularity.]
[Cumberland River, called by the Indians “ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,” falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth of Tennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. from fort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It is navigable for large vessels to Nashville in Tennessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s or Obas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones, Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some of them are navigable to a great distance. The Cumberland mountains in Virginia separate the head waters of this river from those of Clinch river ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line of Kentucky, when its course is w. in general, through Lincoln county, receiving many streams from each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the state of Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, inclosing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee counties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and reenters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence it preserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennessee river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide. It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its whole length is computed to be above 450 miles.]
CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.
[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, a sound and village on the e. side of Washington island, on the n. w. coast of N. America. The port is capacious and safe. In this port Captain Ingraham remained some time, and he observes, in his journal, that here, in direct opposition to most other parts of the world, the women maintained a precedency to the men in every point ; insomuch that a man dares not trade without the concurrence of his wife, and that he has often been witness to men’s being abused for parting with skins before their approbation was obtained ; and this precedency often occasioned much disturbance.
CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of