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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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In its vicinity is a reservoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once to catch the waters as they come down from the sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three leagues N N W of its capital.

ACAXUCHITLAN the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tulazingo, to the N E. It contains 406 Indian families, and is a curacy of the bishopric of La Puebla de los Angeles. Distant four leagues to the E of its capital.

ACAYUCA, the alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, and of the province of Goazacoalco. Its jurisdiction is very extended, and consists, for the most part, of places of a hot and moist temperature, but so fertile is it that it gives annually four crops of maize; and as there is no demand for this production in the other provinces, it follows, of course, that the Indians here are little given to industry. Indeed the ground never requires the plough, and the whole of their labours during the seedtime consist merely in smoothing the surface of the mountains, and in scratching up the ground with a pointed stick. It is at times infested by locusts, which destroy the plants and crops ; and having never been able to find a remedy against this evil, the inhabitants had recourse to the protection of the virgin of La Conception, which is revered in the head settlement of the district of the Chichimecas ; and it is said that, owing to her mediatory influence, the plague has been thought to diminish. This province is watered by the abundant river of the Goazacoalco. The settlements of this alcaldía are, Xocoteapa, Macayapa, Menzapa, Molocan, Theimanquillo, Tinantitlan, Chinameca, Zoconusco, Olutla, Otcapa, Pochutla, Ostitan, Cozolcaque, Ixhuatla, Macatepeque.

another, the capital of the above, situate on the coast of the N. sea. Its inhabitants are composed of 30 families of Spaniards, 296 of Indians, and 70 of Mustees and Mulattoes. It lies a little more than 100 leagues S E of Mexico. Lat. 17° 53' N Long. 94° 46' 30" W.

another, settlement in the alcaldía mayor of Pachuca, in the kingdom of Nueva España, annexed to the curacy of Tezayuca, and containing 100 Indian families.

Acacingo, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate in a plain of a mild temperature, and watered by two streams which run close to all the houses of the settlement, to the great comfort of the inhabitants. In the middle of the above plain there is a beautiful fountain, a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, a very ancient building, and some other buildings, which have been erected since the conquest of the country. The parish church is a piece of the most ancient architecture. The inhabitants are composed of 150 families of Spaniards, 104 of Mustees, 31 of Mulattoes, and 700 of Indians; 3 1/4 leagues E to the NE of its capital.

ACAZUTLA, a port of the S sea, on the coast of the province of the alcaldía mayor of Zuchitepec, in the kingdom of Guatemala, between the point of Los Remedios, and the settlement of Guapaca. [Lat. 14° 42' N Long. 90° 3'.]

ACCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru, situate on the skirt of a mountain, which has a prominence, seeming as though it were about to fall upon the settlement. This mountain is constantly dwindling away without any assignable cause. Lat. 13° 19 s. Long. 71° 13' W

ACCHA-AMANSAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru.

ACCHA-URINZABA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masque in Peru.

Aceites, a river of the province and government of Caraccas, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains, and enters the Orituco.

[ACCOCESAWS. The ancient town and principal place of residence of these Indians is on the W side of Colorado of Rio Rouge, about 200 miles S W of Nacogdoches, but they often change their place of residence for a season : being near the bay, they make great use of fish, oysters &c.; kill a great many deer, which are the largest and fattest in the province ; and their country is universally said to be inferior to no part of the province in soil, growth of timber, goodness of water, and beauty of surface; they have a language peculiar to themselves, but have a mode of communication by dumb signs, which they all understand: number about 80 men. Thirty or forty years ago, the Spaniards had a mission here, but broke it up, or moved it to Nacogdoches. They talk of resettling it, and speak in the highest terms,of the country.]

[ACCOMACK County, in Virginia, is situated on a peninsula, bounded N by Maryland, E by the ocean, and on the W by Chesapeak bay, and contains 13.959 inhabitants, including 4.262 slaves.]

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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.

ADORATORIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru, situate w. of Larin.

ADSON’S Town lies near the n. e. line of New Jersey, and s. e. of the Drowned Lands; 27 miles n. of Morristown, and 24 n. w. of Patterson . ]

ADUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of the lake of this name, on the e. side.

ADVANCE. See Forward.

AEIQUAIA, the head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tonala in Nueva Espana.

AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.

AFFREUX, a lake of the province and colony of Virginia, near the coast.

AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.

[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.

AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.

AGALTECA, a river of the province and government of Honduras, in the kingdom of Guatemala.

AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]

AGAMENTIGUS, a mountain of considerable elevation in the district of Maine, distant about six miles from Bald Head, and eight from York harbour. Lat. 43° 12' n, and Long. 70°

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43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.

Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.

Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.

Rochester hill, n. 64° w,

Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.

Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.

Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.

Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.

Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]

AGAMUNTIC, or Amaguntic Pond, in the district of Maine, sends its waters northward to the Chaudiere, through the west branch of that river.]

AGCHILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru. It has in its district seven public chapels, within four leagues distance.]

AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.

AGIQUA, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. w. and afterwards turning to the w. enters the Cherokees.

AGNALOS, a nation of infidel Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the mountains w. of the river Apure.

AGNAPURAS, a chain of mountains, or a cordillera of the kingdom of Peru, whicli run for leagues from n. to s. without termination, and separate the Taucas from the Chizuitos Indians.

AGOMISO, an island of Hudson’s bay, near its w. coast; n. n. e. from Albany fort.] >

AGONICHE, a river of Nova Scotia, running

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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre tended rights acquired by certain European na tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

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shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large coloured river), or of the North.

ALCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Libitaca.

ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of the province of Venezuela. They are of a docile and affable disposition, and live upon the borders of the lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are much diminished, from the treatment they received from the German Weltzers, who, through a covetousness to possess the gold of these people, killed the greater part of them.

ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees; not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mild temperature, and in its district were the once celebrated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in and destroyed, having been almost unparalleled for the quantity of silver that they produced. Eight leagues from its capital.

ALDAS, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Santa Ana, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana.

ALDEA, DEL Espiritu Santo, a settlement of the province and captainship of Tondos Santos in Brazil, situate on the coast, at the mouth of the river Joana.

Aldea, del Espiritu Santo, another settlement of the province and captainship of Seregipe, in the same kingdom (Brazil), situate on the shore, and at the entrance of the river Real.

[ALDEN, Fort, in Cherry Valley, in the state of New York.]

ALU WORT, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district and parish of Santiago, on the coast.

ALEBASTER, or Eleuthera, an island of the channel of Bahama. See Alabaster.

ALEGRE, a settlement of the province and captainship of S. Vincente in Brasil, situate s. of the settlement of Alto.

[ALEMPIGON, a small lake northward of lake Superior.]

ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerly called Belhaven, and situated on the southern bank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county, about five miles s. w. from the Federal city, 60 L from Baltimore, 60 n, from Fredericksburgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 from the. sea; 38° 54' n. lat. and 77° 10' w. long. Its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soil is clayey. The original settlers, anticipating its future growth and importance, laid out the streets

on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about 400 houses, many of which are handsomely built, and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon opening the navigation of Patowmac river, and in consequence of its vicinity to the future seat of the federal government, bids fair to be one of the most thriving commercial places on the continent. Nine miles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebrated seat of the late General Washington.]

[Alexandria, a township in Grafton county. New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, incorporoted in 1782.]

[Alexandria, a township in Hunterdon county. New Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclusive of 40 slaves.]

[Alexandria, a small town in Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branch of Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadelphia.]

ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the river Formoso and Cape S. Agustin.

ALFARO, S. Miguel de, a settlement of the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians; situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has a good port, from whence it is also known by the name of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however, at present destroyed, and the ruins alone remain.

ALFAXAIUCA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It contains 171 Indian families, and is seven leagues e. n. e. of its capital.

ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the province and correscimienlo of Bogota in the new kingdom of Granada.

Alfeuez, a river of the province and captainship Rey in Brazil; it runs w. and enters the lake of Mini.

[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145 miles w. from Boston.]

[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moor county, North Carolina.]

ALfjrARROBO, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of the river Perico, in an island which it forms in th« serranias of Guamoca.

ALGODON, Island of the, one of those which are in the N. sea, between the s. point of the Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado.

Algodon, a settlement of the same name. See Biezmet.

ALGODONALES, a .settlement of the province

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