The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern
vince and government, on the shore of the river Masparro, between the cities of New and Old Barinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river which enters the Gila, between the settlements of San Cosme and San Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escudo de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fertile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had in it a settlement defended by two castles, called Santiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with the town, were destroyed by an English pirate, John Morgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and although it was recovered in the same year by the president of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perez de Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there is also a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains 20 families in its neighbourhood, and produces only some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of the province and government of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, also called Chira, at the part where it enters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desert mountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the waters of several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n. until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, which enters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it then turns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the 5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of the rivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all of which enter it on the s. side. Being swelled with these, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settlement of this name, situate on its shore. Near its mouth this river is called Colan, and it empties itself into the sea in the corregimiento and province ofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertile and beautiful, and its banks are covered with orchards and plantations of sugar-canes of the territory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, and in the valleys formed by this river the inhabitants are much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its waters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city of the province and government of Tucumán, founded by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertile and extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort to repress the encroachments of the Indians. The name of Canete was given it in honour to the viceroy who then commanded in Peru ; this was afterwards changed to London, in honour to the queen of England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. The inquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by the infidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis de Cabrera, son of a governor of that province, in 1663, to remove it to another not less fertile valley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Rivero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king, in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valley of Catamarca ; where it still remains, under the same title, at 80 leagues distance from its first station. It has, besides the parish church, a convent of the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; an hospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence, which formerly belonged to the regulars of the company of Jesuits. On the w. side of the valley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ; and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ the skirts of which are for many leagues covered with estates and cultivated grounds, and filled, from the abundance of fine pastures, with lage and small cattle and with mules. A tolerably large river runs through the valley in the rainy season, and terminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by it about 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce of this city is very small, so that there is no coin current ; and even the payments of the royal duties are paid in effects, and in the productions of the country, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy, and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same province and government ; situate in the district of this city.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close to the torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copious river of the province and country of the Iroquees Indians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e. and continues its course as far as Quebec, from whence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, and then enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the seven which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, and belonging to the nation of the Salivas Indians. The Caribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bank of the e. branch of Susquehannah river, opposite the mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 miles n. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island in the captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, belonging to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cananea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. inhabited by Indians, wiio assist the Portuguese against their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak 27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
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CENIS, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Louisiana, situate in the road which leads to Mexico. It has a fort whicli was built by the French when they had possession of the province.
CENOMANAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, descended from the Naunas, who live in the woods, and without any fixed abode, along the banks of the great river Magdalena.
CENOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, to the n. of the river Marañon, w ho inhabit the woods near the river Aguarico. They are at continual war with that of the Encabellados.
CENTA, a small river of the province and government of Tucumán. It runs from the z£. to e. and enters the Bermejo. The Fathers Antonio Salinis and Pedro Ortiz de Zarate, of the extinguished company, suffered martyrdom upon its shores whilst pn'aching to the barbarian Indians.
CENTERVILLE, the chief town of Queen Anne’s county, and on the e. side of Chesapeak bay, in Maryland. It lies between the forks of Corsica creek, which runs into Chester river, and has been lately laid out; 18 miles s. of Chester, S4 s. e, by e. of Baltimore, and 93 s. xso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n,~\
CEPEROUX, a French fort, called also San Louis, in Cayenne ; situate at the mouth of the river, and on a lofty spot commanding the entrance of the same. It was taken by the Dutch in 1676 ; and in the following year it was recovered by the French ; which date has been mistaken by Mons. Martiniere, who mentions it as having been lost the year preceding.
CEPITA, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Charcas in Peru, above the channel of the great lake Titicaca, near the famous bridge that was built by the Emperor Capac Yiipanqui over the channel, and which is 160 yards in length. The Indians of this settlement are diligent in keeping this bridge in repair, and assist in helping and directing the cavalcades which are continmdly passing it,
CEQUER, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito, to the n. of this city, and on the shore of the river Telembi. Its temperature is cold, and it is the direct road for such as are going to the province of Barbacoas.
CEQUIN, a mountain of the province of Los Canelos in the kingdom of Quito. Its skirts are washed by the river Puyuc, and on the other side by the Bobonasa : from it rise the rivers Tinguisa and Paba-yacu, which run from w. to e. until they enter the Bobonasa. It is entirely covered with thick woods, save upon the top, where there is ncifher tree nor plant.
CERCADO, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Chancay, n.e. by that of Canta, e. by that of Huarochiri, by that of Cañete, and w. by the S. sea; is 13 leagues long s. and eight wide at the widest part; is of a very mild and kind temperature, but somewhat sickly ; and is neither subject to tempests nor high Avinds, although it is often visited by earthquakes. It only rains in the winter, and this is a species of small sprinkling shower which they call garua; so that they have no necessity for houses with roofs, and they are covered only with clay or mortar. The whole of its territory is fertile, and abounds in seeds and fruits. The herb alfalfa, which is good forage for horses, is particularly cultivated, there being a great demand for it at Lima. Here are many estates of sugar-cane, from Avhich sugar is manufactured, as Avell as honey, and a kind of drink called guarape. Chica is also made here; this being the common drink of the Indians throughout the whole kingdom. It is irrigated by the rivers Rinac and Lurin, which run down from the province of Guarochiri, and by the Carrabayilo, which runs from the province of Canta : all three of them are small ; but in the months of December, January and February, which is the rainy season in the sierra^ they swell greatly. Its population consists of seven parochial settlements, and as many others thereunto annexed. Its repartimiento used to amount to 10,000 dollars, and it paid an alcaxala of 80 dollars per annum. The capital is of the same name, and the other 14 settlements are,
San Joseph de Bellavista.
Cercado, San Cristoval de, a settlement to the s. of the city of Lima, to which it is as a suburb. It is inhabited only by Indians, who are governed by a cazique ; and until 1776, it was a cure of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, who had in it a college.
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C H A
de Granada, rises in the valley of Cerinza, runs n. and passing tlirough the city of San Gil, turns to the w. and enters the Suarez or Sabandija.
CHALCO, Hamanalco, a district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España ; situate between the n. and s. of the city of Mexico, at eight leagues distance ; is very fertile, and abounds in productions and the necessaries of life, especially in wheat and maize; the crops of the former usually amount to 30,000 (argas (a measure containing four bushels) yearly, and of the latter to 25,000. Besides this it produces great quantities of seeds, woods, sugar, honey, and the fruits of a hot climate, all of which arc carried to Mexico, as well by land carriage as by the lake, which is so favourable to its commerce. In the sierra of the volcano of this jurisdiction, there are silver mines, but they are not worked, on account of the great expence. The population consists of 46 settlements, of which 16 are head settlements of districts, and in 15 of these there are parish churches. Tlie capital is of the same name, and it is situate on the shore of a lake enjoying a mild temperature, and well known from the fair which it celebrates every Friday throughout the year, to which flock a great number of people from the neighbouring provinces with merchandize ; some even coming from the most distant parts in canoes by the lake, or with droves of mules on land. It lies between the rivers Fiamanalco and Tenango, which run into the lake, and the waters of this serve, when it is necessary, to replenish the lake of Mexico, for which purpose there are proper sluices provided. It contains 350 families of Indians, and some Spaniards and Mustees ; is seven leagues from Mexico. The other settlements are,
San Pedro de Ecazingo, Ayapango,
San Juan Tenango, Ayozingo,
CHALCO, with the dedicatory title of San Agustin, another settlement of the head settle-
ment of Coxcotlan, and the alcaldia mayor of Valles, in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Aquismon ; is of an extremely hot and moist temperature, on account of which it has been abandoned by several Indian families who resided in it formerly ; 12 of these families only are now remaining ; is 23 leagues from its capital.
CHALCO, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan ; situate in the plain of a deep break or hole made by mountain floods ; is of a hot temperature, and contains 35 families of Indians ; lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.
(Chalco Lake. See Mexico.)
(CHALEURS, a deep and broad bay on the w. side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. From this bay to that of Verte, on the s. in the s. e. corner of the gulf, is the n. e. sea line of the British province of New Brunswick.)