The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ACACUNA, a mountain of Peru, in the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru. It is very lofty, and is four leagues distant from the S. sea; is very barren, and situate between the promontory of Ilo and the river Sama. Lat. 70° 29' S [Long. 18° 35' W.]
ACADIA, a province and peninsula of N. America, on the E coast of Canada, between the island or bank of Newfoundland and New England, by which it is bounded on the w. It is more than 100 leagues in length from N W S E and nearly 80 in width, from NE to SW from the gulph of St. Lawrence to the river Santa Cruz. It was discovered in 1497 by Sebastian Cabot, sent thither from England by Henry VII. The French, under the command of Jacob Cartier, of St. Maloes, established themselves here in 1534, in order to carry on a codfishery on the bank of Newfoundland; and in 1604, Peter Guest, a gentleman of the household of Henry IV of France, was sent by that king to establish a colony, which he founded at Port Royal. The English entered it under Gilbert Humphry, in consequence of a grant which had been made to this person by Queen Elizabeth, and gave it the title of Nova Scotia. In 1621 King James I made a donation of it to the Earl of Stirling; and in 1627 the French, commanded by Kirk de la Rochelle, made themselves masters of it, destroying all the establishments of the English, who were obliged to surrender it up, in 1629, by the treaty of St. Germains. The French shortly afterwards lost it; a Governor Philip having taken possession of it; but they, however, regained it in 1691, through the conduct of Mr. De Villebon. In order to settle the pretensions of the rival courts, commissioners were, by mutual consent, appointed in the peace of Riswick, in 1697, to consider which should be the limits of Nova Scotia and New England; and in the peace of Utrecht, it was entirely ceded to the English, who afterwards returned to it. This beautiful country contains many rivers and lakes; the principal of these is the Rosignol, well stocked with fish: there are also many woods, full of excellent timber, and thronged with very singular birds; as, for instance, the Colibri, or hummingbird, and various others. The same woods abound in many kinds of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is very fertile in wheat, maize, pulse of all sorts, and also produces cattle of various kinds, animals of the chase, and abundance of fine fish. Its principal commerce is in skins and salt fish. The winter is longer and colder than in Europe. The capital is Port Royal.— [The name of Acadia was first applied to a tract from the 40th to the 46th degree of N lat. granted to De Mons, Nov. 8, 1603, by Henry IV of France. For the present state of this country, see NOVA SCOTIA.]
ACAGUATO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldía mayor of Tancitaro. It is so reduced as to consist of no more than 15 families of Indians, who maintain themselves by sowing some maize, and other vegetable productions. — Eight leagues S of the capital.
ACAMBARO, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Zelaya, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán. It contains 490 families of Indians, 80 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and a convent of the order of St. Francis. In its district there are other small settlements or wards.— Seven leagues S of its capital.
ACAMISTLAHUAC, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tasco, annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it is distant two leagues to the E N E. It contains 30 Indian families.
ACAMUCHITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Texopilco, and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec. It contains 60 Indian families, whose commerce is in sugar and honey. It produces also maize, and cultivates many vegetable productions. — Five leagues N of its head settlement.
ACANTEPEC, the head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tlapa. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 92 Indian families, among which are included those of another settlement in its vicinity, all of whom maintain themselves by manufacturing cotton stuffs.
ACANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains which lie towards the N and empties itself into the sea between Cape Tiburon and the bay of Calidonia.
ACAPALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldía mayor of Chiapa, in the kingdom of Guatemala. Lat. 16° 53' N Long. 93° 52' W [It is situate on the Tobasco river, near the city of Chiapa, and not far from a bay in the S. sea, called Teguantipac.]
A G A
vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.
AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.
(CANNARES, Indians of the province of Quito in Peru. They are very well made, and very active ; they wear their hair long, which they weave and bind about their heads in form of a crown. Their clothes are made of wool or cotton, and they wear fine fashioned boots. Their women are handsome and fond of the Spaniards ; they generally till and manure the ground, whilst their husbands at home card, spin, and weave wool and cotton. Their country had many rich gold mines, now drained by the Spaniards. The land bears good wheat and barley, and has fine vineyards. The magnificent palace of Theomabamba was in the country of the Cannares. See CANARIS.)
(CANNAVERAL Cape, the extreme point of rocks on the e. side of the peninsula of E. Florida. It has Mosquitos inlet n. by w. and a large shoal s. by e. This was the bounds of Carolina by charter from Charles II. Lat. 28° 17' n. Long. 80° 20' w.')
CANOGANDl, a river of the province and
government of Chocó in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the sierras of Abide, runs to the w. and enters the Paganagandi.
CANOMA or Guarihuma, or Guarihuma, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Andirases Indians, and enters a kind of lake formed by different branches of the river Madera.
CANONA, a lake of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese, and in one of those numerous islands which form the arms of the river Madera, on the side of the island of Topinambas.
(CANONNICUT Island, in Newport county, Rhode island, lies about three miles w. of Newport, the s. end of which, (called Beaver Tail, on which stands the light-house), extends about as far s. as the s. end of Rhode island. It extends n. about seven miles, its average breadth being about one mile ; the e. shore forming the w. part of Newport harbour, and the w. shore being about three miles from the Narraganset shore. On this point is Jamestown. It was purchased of the Indians in 1657, and in 1678 was incorporated by the name of Jamestown. The soil is luxuriant, producing grain and grass in abundance. Jamestown contains 507 inhabitants, including 16 sIaves.)
(CANONSBURGH, a town in Washington county, Pennsylvania, on the n. side of the w. branch of Chartier’s creek, which runs n. by e. into Ohio river, about five miles below Pittsburg. In its environs are several valuable mills. Here are about 50 houses and an academy, seven miles n. e. by e. of Washington, and 15 s. w. of Pittsburg.)
CANOTS, or Canoas, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the province and captainship of San Pablo. It rises near the coast opposite the island of Santa Catalina, runs to the w. in a serpentine course, and serves as the source of the large river Uruguay.
[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]
Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.
CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.
CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.
CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.
Presurapscot river. It has a good harbour at its mouth for small vessels, and has several mills upon it ; two miles higher a fall obstructs the navigation. Between it and Kennebeck there are no rivers ; some creeks and harbours of Casco bay throw themselves into the main land, affording harbours for small vessels, and intersecting the country in various forms.)
CASIBANI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises in the cordillera of the Mochovos and Pichambios Indians, runs in a serpentine course to the n. then inclining for many leagues to the s. e. enters the Maranon or Amazonas, near the settlement of N uestra Seilora de Guadalupe.
CASIDI, a river of the province and government of Guayana : it enters the Orinoco, according to Beilin, but which is afterwards contradicted by his own map, since it is^there represented as having its source to the e. of the city of Pamplona, and as running into the river Apure.
CASIMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago de los Atalayas, in the government of San Juan de los Llanos, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada : it is of a very hot temperature, and abounds in fruits of a similar climate. Its natives, who are numerous and consist of the Neolitos Indians, are very industrious, docile, and of good dispositions, having been reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished society of Jesuits. The settlement is at present in the charge of the barefooted order of St. Francis, and lies three leagues from the settlement of Surimena, on the shore of the large river Meta.
CASIPA, a large lake of the province of Nueva Andalucía Austral or South, to the w. ofthe Vacaronis Indians : it is 30 leagues in length from n. to s. and 24 in width from e. to w. Four large rivers flow from it, the principal of which areArous or Aroi and Caroa, the which enter the Orinoco on its e. side. Its woods are inhabited by some barbarous
nations of Caribes Indians, such as are the Canuris to the n. the Bsparagois to the e. the Aravis to the s. and the Chaguas and Lasipagotes to thezw. In this lake tortoises and alligators abound ; its waters are hurtful, and the climate here is unhealthy; hurricanes are frequent here, from the winds which blow from the neighbouring mountains.
Casipoure, a cape or point of the coast opposite the side of cape Orange.
CASIRI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacocha in Peru ; annexed to the .curacy of its capital : in its vicinity is an elevated mountain, in which great Indian wealth is said to be secreted.
CASIRIAQUI, Cano de, a large and copious arm of the river Negro, by which this communicates with the Orinoco, and through that with the Maranon or Las Amazonas ; which communication, however, has been frequently doubted and controverted since the short time of its having been discovered.
CASIRRUENTI, a large and copious river abounding in fine fish, of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos : it passes through the llanuras of Cazanare and Meta, and, near the settlement of San Joaquin de Atanari, enters the Meta.
CASIUINDO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Xuxuy ; annexed to the curacy of Cochinoca ; it has two hermitages, which serve as chapels of ease, with the dedicatory title of Rinconada and Rio de San Juan. The natives fabricate powder of excellent quality, and in its district are gold mines, which are not worked.
CASMA, Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Santa in Peru ; situate on the coast of the S. sea, with a moderately good port. It was sacked in 1586 by Edward David, an English pirate.