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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


ABACU, a point of land on the S coast of the island of St. Domingo.

ABADES, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the district and jurisdiction of San Juan de Pasto.

ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,

Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7

Abancay, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river Paute.

ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.

ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.

ABARANQUEN, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalusia. It rises in the country of the Quiriquipas Indians, runs from S to N and enters the Aruy.

ABARY, a small river of Guayana, between the Berbice and the Demerary. See Mahaica.

ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.

ABBOTS, a small river of N. Carolina, which runs S W and enters the Pedi, at a little distance from the source of this river, in the territory of the Granville limits.

ABECOCHI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Cousa. The English have a settlement here, with a fort for its defence.

ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

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from which they are enabled to make sugar. It is intersected by three rivers, which are of no use whatever to it, being too low in their beds ; but they unite and form the Pachachaca, which enters the province of Abancay, and has more than 40 bridges of wood and cord thrown over it in different parts. There are innumerable veins of gold and silver ore in this province, which are not worked, from the want of energy, and from the poverty existing among the inhabitants ; and thus only some trifling emoluraeul is now and then derived from one or the other. It was otherwise in former times, but these mines are now almost all filled with water. Some mines of quicksilver have been discovered, but the working of them has been forbid. Here is little of the cattle kind, and no cloth manufactures peculiar to the country arc made here, with the exception of a sort of thick quilt, which they call Chuces ; and a kind of grain is gathered here, known by the name of Maino. This province was united to the empire of Peru by Capac Yupanqui V. Emperor of the Incas. The language of the natives is the same as that which is most universal throughout the kingdom. The capital formerly consisted of a large and w ell ordered settlement, which was called Tintay, but which is at present but thinly inhabited, on account of the scarcity of water, and from a plague, in which almost all its inhabitants perished. The number of souls in the whole of the province may amount to 15,000. It eontains 50 settlements within its jurisdiction. The yearly tribute received by the corregidor used to amount to 800,100 dollars, and the duties paid upon the alcavahif (a centage on goods sold), to 688 dollars.

The settlements of its jurisdiction are ;

Chaluanca. Ayahuasa.

Colca. Huancaray.

Mollebamba. Sabaino.

Carabaniba. Catarosi.

Matara. Antilla.

Antabamba. Huaquirca.

Oropesa. Pocoanca.

Totora. Tapairihua,

Traparo. ChalvauL

Chacoche. Caypi.

Caleauzo. Caracara.

Viru Sanaica.

Pampamarca. Huaillaripa.

Silco. Pichihua.

Atuncama. Amoca.

Chacna. Yanaca,

Capaya. Saraico.

Muitu. Subyunca.

Pachaconas. Lucre.

Sirca. Pichurhua. Colcabamba. Soraya. Huairahuacho. Toraya.







AIMAHAPA, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It is one of those which enter the Cuyum near where it joins the Esquivo.

AINACA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Cochamarca.

AINACOLCA, a gold mine of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. It is famous for the excellent quality of this metal, but it is very difficult to be worked, on account of the hardness of its stone.

AIO, a settlement of the province and corregU miento of Condensuyos de Arequipa in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Chichas.

AIOAIO, a settlement of the province and corregirniento of Sicasica in Peru, eight leagues from its capital.

AIOCUESCO, Santa Maria de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Antequera, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan in Nueva España. It is of a hot temperature, contains a convent of the religious order of Santo Domingo, and 400 Indian families, who carry on some commerce in the cochineal, (the plant producing which they cultivate), and a very considerable one in the manufacture of Pulgues^ on account of the abundance of Magueyes which are found here. Seven leagues s. of its capital.

AIOTITLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Amola in Nueva Espana, immediately upon the coast of the S. sea, and situate between two deep ravines. Its temperature is very hot and troublesome to live in, on account of the various venomous animals and insects that abound in its territory. It contains 76 Indian families, whose trade consists in making troughs and trays very finely painted. This settlement, in which there is a convent of the order of St. Francis, is beautifully surrounded with plantations. Fifteen leagues distant from its capital.

AIONANTOU, a settlement of Indians of New France, situate in the county of Canahoque, on the shore of one of the salt marshes that are found there.

AIOZINAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España, of a hot and moist temperature, ?,ijd abounding in cochineal, fruit, and pulse, with 2

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ; and that of the magistracy, which consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort with four bastions, the rest of the fortification consisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alliances have been made with the Indians. It was taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «. of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inhabitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, which custom the first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabitants are collected from various parts of tlie world, and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the English predominates ; and the use of efery other is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil, abounding in every article for the W. India market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapidity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low Dutch church, of ancient and very curious construction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presbyterians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson, whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands. The improvements in this city have, of late years, been very great in almost all respects. Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and handsome style of building introduced. One mile n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very ingeniously constructed extensive and useful works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds, chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, splitpease, and hulled barley. These valuable works are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who unfortunately lost a complete set of similar works by fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of remark, and is evincive of the industry and enterprise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre« sent buildings and machinery were begun and completed in the short space of eleven mouths. These works are decidedly superior to any of the kind in America. All the articles above enumerated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manufactured by the aid of water machinery. For the invention of this machinery, the proprietor has obtained a patent. These Avorks give employment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a number of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42° 40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of New France, which takes its rise from the lake Christinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’s bay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New South Wales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81° 51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape on the n. coast, in the head settlement of the island of Santo Domingo, and in the French territories. It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bombon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very lofty mountain, always covered with snow, in tlie new kingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the river Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22 Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head settlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the country and the city of Merida, running n. of this city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It produces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the winter is very temperate. This colony was established in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it, who equipped, at their own expence, three ships, and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provisions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchandize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ; to which they sent resources yearly, in the proportion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and worship ; wounding themselves on such solemnities with an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti, which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, perhaps, that the malignant powers delighted in groans and misery, and were to be appeased only by human blood,]

Caribe, a settlement of the same province and government ; situate on the windward coast of the cape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plantations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines and maize, which yield but indifferently, from a want of water; although they find means of supplying this in some degree by the rain. The community consists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues distant from the settlement of Carupano.

(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or New Andalucia, which see.)

CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation of Indians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the province which by them is called Caribana. They are divided under the titles of the Maritiraos and Mediterraneos : the former live in plains and upon the coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to the Dutch and French colonies, and follow the laws and customs of the former, with whom they carry on a commerce. They are the most cruel of any that infest the settlements of the missions of the river Orinoco, and are the same as those called Galibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit the s. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of a more pacific nature, and began to be reduced to the faith by the regular order of the abolished society of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribes is given not only to these and other Indians of the Antilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Caribe.

(CARIBOU, an island towards the e. end of lake Superior in N. America, n. w. of Cross cape, and s. w. of Montreal bay.)

CARICARI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Toledo.

Caricari, also called Laguacina, a point of land on the coast of the province and government of the Rio del Hacha.

CARICHANA, a settlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana ; one of the missions of the Rio Meta, which was under the care of the society of Jesuits, of the province of Santa Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Orinoco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at present under the care of the religious order of Capuchins.

Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river

Orinoco, formed by different islands, some covered by, and some standing out of, the water, so that the navigation is very difficult and dangerous. It is near the mouth of the river Meta.

CARIJANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Camata.

=CARILLON==, a fort belonging to the French, in New France.

(CARIMBATAY, a parish of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate a little to the n. w. of the town of Curuguaty. Lat. 24° 33' 35". Long. 55° 57' w.)

Carimbatay, a river of the above province and government, which runs w. and enters the Xexuy near the town of Curuguato.

CARIMU, a small river of the province and colony of the Dutch, in Surinam ; one of those which enter the Cuium on the s. side.

CARINIS, a small river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It rises in the country of the Aritus Indians, runs e. and enters the Guiriri.

CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shore of the river. It is formed by the Topinambaranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes this sheet of water before it enters the former river.

CARIPE, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one of the missions in that province belonging to the Aragonese Capuchin fathers.

CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, to the n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazonas : although of barbarian Indians, it deserves particular mention, on account of its virtuous and pacific customs, so different from the brutality and sloth of the surrounding nations. These Indians are handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, honest, and affable, and in short the most polished nation of Indians in all America ; they esteem honour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eat bread made of cazave, which they have a method of preserving good for three or four years. They do not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakes found in their woods, but are not cannibals ; neither do they revenge upon their prisoners taken in war the cruelties they experience from their enemies.

CARIUITOS, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra Firrae.

(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-

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CHACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huariaca.

CHACOTA,a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aricá in Peru ; situate close to the Quebada de Victor.

CHACRALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Abucara.

CHACRAPAMPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huayama.

CHACTAHATCHE, a river of S. Carolina, which runs s. and enters the Chicachas.

CHACTAW, a settlement and capital of the Indian district of this name in Louisiana, in which the French had a fort and establishment. (The Chactaws, or Flat-heads, are a powerful, hardy, subtle, and intrepid race of Indians, "vpho inhabit a very fine and extensive tract of hilly country, with large and fertile plains intervening, between the Alabama and Mississippi rivers, and in the w. part of the state of Georgia. This natioti had, not many years ago, 43 towns and villages, in three divisions, containing 12,123 souls, of which 4041 were fighting men. They are called by the traders Flat-heads, all the males having the fore and hind part of their skulls artificially flattened when young. These men, unlike the Muscogulges, are slovenly and negligent in every part of their dress, but otherwise are said to be ingenious, sensible, and virtuous men, bold and intrepid, yet quiet and peaceable. Some late travellers, however, have observed that they pay little attention to the most necessary rules of moral conduct, at least that unnatural crimes were too frequent among them. Dift'erent from most of the Indian nations bordering on the United States, they have large plantations or country farms, where they employ much of their time in agricultural improvements, after the manner of the Avhite people. Although their territories are not one-fburth so large as those of the Muscogulge confedraey, the number of inhabitants is greater. The Chactaws and Creeks are inveterate enemies* to each other. There are a considerable number of these Indians on the w. side of the Mississippi, who have not been home for several years. A bout 12 miles above the post at Oachcta on that river, there is a small village of them of about 30 men, who have lived there for several years, and made corn ; and likewise on Bayau Chico, in the n. part of the district of Appalousa, there is another village of them of about fifty men, who have been there for about nine years, and say they have the governor of

Louisiana’s permission to settle there. Besides these, there are rambling hunting parties of them to be met with all over Lower Louisiana. They are at war with the Caddoques, and liked by . neither red nor white people.)

(Chactaw Hills, in the n. w. corner of Georgia river.)

(CHACTOOS, Indians of N. America, who live on Bayau Boeuf, about 10 miles to the s. of Bayau Rapide, on Red river, towards Appalousa ; a small, honest people ; are aborigines of the country where they live; of men about 30 ; diminishing; have their own peculiar tongue; speak Mobilian. The lands they claim on Bayau Bceuf are inferior to no part of Louisiana in depth and richness of soil, growth of timber, pleasantness of surface, and goodness of water.. The Bayau Bceuf falls into the Chaffeli, and discharges through Appalousa and Attakapa into Vermilion bay.)

CHACURIES, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Pedraga, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of the missions which were held there of the order of St. Domingo. It is but small, and its climate is hot.

(CHADBOURNE’S River, district of Maine, called by some Great Works river, about 30 miles from the mouth of the Bonnebeag pond, from which it flows. It is said to have taken its latter name from a mill with 18 saws, moved by one wheel, erected by one Lodors. But the project was soon laid aside. The former name is derived from Mr. Chadbourne, one of the first settlers,, who purchased the land on the mouth of it, of the natives, and whose posterity possess it at this day.)

CHAGONAMIGON, a point on the s. coast of lake Superior, in New France.

CHAGRE, a large and navigable river of the province and government of Panamá in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, has its origin and source in the mountains near the valley of Pacora, and takes its course in various directions, making many windings, which are called randa/es, until it enters the N. sea. It is navigated by large vessels called chatas, (having no keels), up as far as the settlement of Cruces, where is the wharf for unlading, and the royal custom-houses ; the greater part of the commerce being conducted by this means, to avoid the obstacles occurring from a bad and rocky road from Portobeloto Panama. It has different forts for the defence of its entrance ; the first is the castle of its name, at the entrance or mouth ; the second is that of Gatun, situate upon a long strip of land formed by a river of this name ; and the third is that of Trinidad, situate in a simb

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