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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade
from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It
contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ;
and that of the magistracy, which consists of
a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very
beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort
with four bastions, the rest of the fortification con
sisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alli
ances have been made with the Indians. It was
taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this
province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «.
of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank,
and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by
enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of
which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inha
bitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style,
with the gable end to the street, which custom the
first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new
houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabit
ants are collected from various parts of tlie world,
and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the
English predominates ; and the use of efery other
is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for
situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navi
gation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world.
It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural em
porium of the increasing trade of a large extent of
country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil,
abounding in every article for the W. India
market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes,
creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapid
ity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions
of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low
Dutch church, of ancient and very curious con
struction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presby
terians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one
for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a hand
some brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson,
whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat
to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands.
The improvements in this city have, of late
years, been very great in almost all respects.
Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets
have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and
handsome style of building introduced. One mile
n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house
of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very
ingeniously constructed extensive and useful
works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee
snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds,
chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, split
pease, and hulled barley. These valuable works
are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who un
fortunately lost a complete set of similar works by
fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of
remark, and is evincive of the industry and enter
prise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre«
sent buildings and machinery were begun and
completed in the short space of eleven mouths.
These works are decidedly superior to any of the
kind in America. All the articles above enume
rated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manu
factured by the aid of water machinery. For the
invention of this machinery, the proprietor has
obtained a patent. These Avorks give employ
ment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a num
ber of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42°
40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of New
France
, which takes its rise from the lake Chris
tinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’s
bay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New South
Wales
, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81°
51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape on
the n. coast, in the head settlement of the island
of Santo Domingo, and in the French territories.
It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bom
bon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very lofty
mountain, always covered with snow, in tlie new
kingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians of
the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the
river Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedi
catory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement
of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of
Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22
Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head
settlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river
of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends
from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the coun
try and the city of Merida, running n. of this
city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and
colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which
is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It pro
duces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the
winter is very temperate. This colony was esta
blished in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it,
who equipped, at their own expence, three ships,
and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provi
sions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchan
dize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ;
to which they sent resources yearly, in the pro
portion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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