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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

536
Indexed

C R U

C R U

Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches, dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop of Puertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605; died at the advanced age of upwards of 100 years.

2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the religious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.

3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native of Velez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor of Seville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruz in 1634.

Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religious Dominican, native of Lima, was prior and provincial in his religion, first professor of theology and writing in that university, qualificator of the inquisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruz in 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1661.

5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native of Lima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted from Paraguay to this bishopric in 1666.

6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order of St. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first professor of theology.

7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the order of preachers, native of Lima.

8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native of Lima, collegian of the royal college of San Martin, canon of its holy church.

9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order of St. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of his religion in the province of San Juan Bautista del Peru.

10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, of the order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, elected in 1701.

11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, dean of the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.

12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, elected in 1744 ; he died in 1745.

13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tucuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.

14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native of Arequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in 1760.

15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, native of Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1766.

16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Rigucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promoted to the archbishopric of the holy metropolitan church of Lima in 1780.

17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.

Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province, which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno de Chaves in 1557, after that he had passed along the shores of the river Paraguay to discover a communication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants, however, not being able to stay in it through the incessant sallies of the Indians who surrounded them, were under the necessity of changing their settlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place, some of them united together, and founded the city of Santiago del Puerto, and others that of San Lorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capital, the former city being entirely abandoned.

Cruz, Santa, a settlement of the province and corregimunto of Yauyos in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Pacaran in the province of Canete.

Cruz, Santa, another, a conversion of Indians of the missions which were held by tlie regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, between the cities of Cumanagoto and Cariaco.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Popayan ; situate to the s. of the city of Almaguer, in the limits of the jurisdiction ol Quito.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement and alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Espana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country, containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cutting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues to the cU. of its capital.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Paccho.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of St. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 families of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation of the land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leagues from its head settlement.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Pari.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Huehuetlan, and alcaldia mayor oi Cuicalian, in Nueva Espana; situate on the middle of a raoun-

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C R U

vince and government of Buenos Ayres, founded in ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.] t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of the Antilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its territory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain seasons, from the low situation. It has many rivers, streams, and fountains, with three very good and convenient ports. It was for a long while desert, until some English settled themselves in it, and began to cultivate it; afterwards the French possessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it the following year to the knights of Malta, from whom it was bought, in 1664, by the West India company. In 1674, it was incorporated with the possessions of the crown by the king of France. Its inhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St. Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to a company of Danes, of Copenhagen, who now possess it. It was the first of the Antilles which was occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues

from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight from Puertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and five from that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugars cane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which render it very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000 or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W. India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is in a high state of cultivation, and has about 3000 white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A great proportion of the Negroes of this island have embraced Christianity, under the Moravian missionaries, whose influence has been greatly promotive of its prosperity.

The official value of the Imports and Exports of Santa Cruz were, in

1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.

1810, 422,033, 89,949.

And the quantities of the principal articles im--

ported into Great Britain were, in

Coffee.

Sugar.

Rum.

Cotton Wool.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Brit. Plant.

For. Plant.

Cwt.

Cwt.

Cwt.

Cwt.

Galls.

Lbs.

1809, 297

1479

280,211

374

181,594

610,903

1810, 31

290,933

236,307

174,294

Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w. See West Indies.]

Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits ©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Admiral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for the crown of Spain, that making the tenth time of its being captured.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Rey, between that coast and the island of Santa Catalina.

Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n. coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sandbank of Cumplido.

Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the province and government of Honduras, called Triunfo de la Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between the port of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues from the gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.

Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or Large Bay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines. Lat. 50° 10' s.

==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. It runs into the sea.

Q

Cruz, Santa, a small river of the province and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Dulce, opposite the shoals ofS. Antonio.

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea between the point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,

Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Maracaybo. It rises in the sierra of Perija, runs e. and enters the great lake on the w. side.

Cruz, Santa, a lake of the province and country of the Chiquitos Indians in Peru, formed from a drain issuing from the side of the river Paraguay, opposite the cordillera of San Fernando.

Cruz, Santa, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes; situate near the coast, between the two islands of Catalana and San Joseph.

Cruz, Santa, a small port of the island of Curacao, in the w. part, opposite the island of Oruba.

Cruz, Santa, a mountain on the coast of the Malvine or Falkland isles.

Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx

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C IT C

dom of Guatemala, in the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa.

CUCHUNA, a large settlement of Indians, and formerly the capital of a small province of this name in Peru, to the w. of the mountains of (he Andes. It was founded by Maita Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, after that he had literally starved the country into obedience. These Indians were treacherous, and used to give their enemies a very deadly poison ; the said emperor caused many to be burnt alive for having practised this abominable custom, and their houses to be destroyed, together with their cattle and possessions.

CUCIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Perucho, and alcaldia mayor of Guimco, in Nueva Espana. It contains 140 families of Indians, and is a quarter of a league from its head settlement.

CUCUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of the river Magdalena.

CUCUCHO, San Bartolome de, a settlement of tlie head settlement of Arantzan, and alealdia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 27 families of Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture, cutting wood, and making earthen-ware and

CUCUCHUCHAU, San Pedro de, a settlement of the bead settlement of the city of Cucupao, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on the shore of the lake. It contains 18 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the s. of its head settlement.

CUCUISAS, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It rises to the e. of the settlement of Encaramada, and enters the Itari.

CUCUMAYA, a river of Spanish island, or St. Domingo, which rises near the s. coast, runs s. and enters the sea between the Seco and the Bomana, opposite the island Cataline.

CUCUNUBA, a settlement oiihe corregimiento of Ubate in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits of this climate. It consists of 100 families, including those of its vicinity, and of 80 Indians; is nine leagues to the n. of Santa Fe.

CUCUNUCO, a mountain to the e, of the province and government of Popayan, eternally covered with snow. From it rises the river Purase, as also the river La Plata. It takes its name from a nation of Indians, by whom it was inhabit-

C U E 549

ed, and of whom a few only, who are reduced to the,faith, remain.

CUCURPE, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the river of its name, between the settlements of Dolores and Ticapa.

CUCURULU, a river of the kingdom of Peru, which runs through the country of the Canisiencs Indians to the e. of the Andes, it abounds in fish of a very fine quality, which serve as food to the barbarians; runs e. and being much swelled by the waters it collects from others, enters the river Santa Rosa.

CUCUTA, San Joseph de, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, though healthy, of great commerce, owing to the cacao with which it abounds, and which is brought by persons coming from various parts, the greater portion of it being embarked on the river Sulia for Maracaibo. It contains more than 100 rich Indians, but is infested with snakes, lice, and other noxious insects and reptiles.

CUCUTA, an extensive valley of this province (Pamplona), between the cities of Pamplona and S. Christoval, discovered by Juan de San Martin in 1534 ; celebrated for its fertility, and excellent breed of mules, by which the kingdom is supplied. It is watered by many streamlets which render it luxuriant and fertile, and most particularly in cacao of the finest quality. The herb on which the mules chiefly feed is wild marjoram.

CUDAJA, a lake of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by the Portuguese. It is formed by one of the arms w hich is thrown out by the river Maranon, and returns to enter the same, in the country of ihe Cabauris Indians.

CUDIHUEL, a settlement of Indians of the district of Guadalabqueu in the kingdom of Chile, on the shore of the riv'er Valdivia.

CUDUUINI, a small river of the province and government of Cumaná. It rises in the ser~ of Irnataca, runs s. and enters the Curguni on the n. side.

CUEBAYA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate at the source of the river Bezani, to the w. of the garrison which takes this name.

CUECA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chipan.

CUELLO, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Tocayma, and government of Mariqnita, in

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CUM

shoal of rock, Vfliich runs into the sea at the entrance of the river Maranan, in the same province.

CUMAIPI, a small river of the country of Las Amazonas, or part of Guayana possessed by the Portuguese. It runs c. under the equinoctial line, and enl^ers tlie Marailon, at its mouth or entrance into the sea.

CUMANA, a province and government of S. America, called also Nueva Andalucia ; though, properly sj)eaking, the latter is only a part of Cuinana, which contains in it also other provinces. It extends 76 geographical leagues from e. to w. from the point of Piedra, the oriental extremity of Tierra Firme, on the coast of Paria, and great mouth of Drago, as far as the mouth of the river Unare, the deep ravines of which form, as it Avere, limits to the w. between this province and that of Venezuela; the waters of the aforesaid river running for a great distance towards the serrama or settlement of Pariguan ; from wliich point the line of division is undecided as far as the river Orinoco, 20 leagues to the s. From the w. to s. it is 270 leagues, namely, from the sea-coast to the great river or country of Las Amazonas, the territory of which is divided by the renowned river Orinoco. On the e. it is terminated by the sea, which surrounds the coast of Paria, the gulf Triste, the mouths of the Orinoco, the river Esquivo and Cayenne ; on the s. no. it is bounded by the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which extends its limits as far as the river Orinoco, being divided by this river from Guayana. It is a continued serTanitty running along the whole coast from e. to w. being nine or 10 leagues wide ; and although it is not without some llanos or extensive plains, these are but little known, and are entirely impassable, owing to the swamps and lakes caused by the inundations of the rivers which flow down from the sierra. The sierra, in that part which looks to the n. is barren, and in the vicinities of the coast the soil is impregnated with nitre, and is unfruitful. The temperature is healthy but cold, especially at night. The most common productions of this province are maize, which serves as bread, supplying the want of wheat, ^uca root, of which another kind of bread is made, cosabe, plantains, and other fruits and pulse peculiar to America ; also cacao, although with great scarcity, and only in the n. part ; and sugar-canes, which are only cultivated in a sufficient degree to supply the sugar consumed here. It has some cattle ; and although there are means of breeding and feeding many herds, the natives choose rather to supply themselves from

ANA.

the neighbouring province of Barcelona, notwithstanding the difficulty of bringing them hither over sucli rugged and almost impassable roads. Tlie whole of the coast yields an immense abundance of fish, also of shell fish of various kinds, and of the most delicate flavour. Of these the consumjitiou is very great, and a great proportion of them are salted, and carried to the inland parts ; and to the province of Venezuela alone upwards of 6000 quintals yearly. It has several convenient and secure ports and bays, and indeed the whole coast is covered with them, as the sea is here remarkably calm, and peculiarly so in the celebrated gulf of Cariaco, as also in the gulfs of the lake of Obispo, Juanantar, and Gurintar. It has many very abundant saline grounds, so much so, that the whole coast may be looked upon as forming one ; since in any part of it as many might be established as were necessary ; and this without mentioning that celebrated one of Araya, and those of the gulf Triste, between the settlements of Iraca and Soro, and the Sal Negra, (Black Salt), used only by the Indians. In this province there are only three rivers of consideration, that of Cariaco, of Cumana, and of Guarapiche : the others which flow down from the serrama are of little note, and incorporate themselves with the former before they arrive in the valley. Its jurisdiction contains six settlements belonging to the Spaniards, seven belonging to the Indians, 13 to the missions supported by the Aragonese Capuchin fathers, and 16 belonging to the regular clergy. [From the river Unare to'the city of Cumana, the soil is very fertile. From the Araya to the distance of between 20 and 25 leagues, more to the e. the coast is dry, sandy, and unfruitful. The soil is an inexhaustible mine both of marine and mineral salt. That which is near the Orinoco is fit only for grazing, and this is the use to which it is put. It is here that all the pens of the province are kept. All the rest of this country is admirably fertile. The prairies, the valleys, the hills, proclaim by their verdure and by the description of the produce, that nature has deposited here the most active principles of vegetable life. The most precious trees, the mahogany, the Brazil and Campechy woods, grow even up to the coast of Paria ; and there are found here many rare and agreeable birds. In the interior of the government of Cumana are mountains, some of Avhich are very high : the highest is the Tumeriquiri, which is 936 fathoms above the surface of the sea. The cavern of Guacharo, so famous among the Indians, is in this mountain. It is immense, and serves as an habitation for thousands of night birds, 1 4 B 2

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CUM

CUM

found in the environs of Cumana what the Spaniards call til spa, a species of the Jesuits’ bark ; the calaguala, a plant, the root of which is dissolvent, aperitive, and sudorific ; the pissiphii, a species of emetic ; the caranapire, a species of sage ; and the tualua, a more powerful purgative than jalap. There arc also a great number of spices, which are suffered to rot on the spot where ' first they grew. In lat. 10° 27'. Long. 64° IS'.] The settlements of the province of Cumana are,

San Baltasar de los Cum pa,

Arias, Rio Caribes,

San Felipe de Austria, A raja.

Those of the missions,

Cocuisas, San Francisco,

San Feliz, Santa Maria de los An-

San Lorenzo, geles,

Chacaracuan, San Antonio.

Of the doctrines {dodrinas),

Cacuar,

Unare,

Punccres,

Guanaguana,

Soro,

Caicara,

Irapa,

Yaguara,

Caripe,

Teresen,

Guayuta,

Tipirin,

Amacuro,

Paro.

Cumana, a river of the above province (Cumaná) and government, which rises in the spot called Cocoyan, in the serrama. It runs n. following this course continually through the sierra until it flows down to the plain near the city, from whence it enters the gulf, first having divided itself into four arms. In the winter time it generally overflows ; but as the distance from the sierra to its mouth, or where it enters the sea, is so short, it quickly subsides within its proper bed, when it leaves water enough for the navigation of a barge ; and there w ould be sufficient for large vessels, were it not for the bar which is at its mouth and impedes its entrance. In the summer time, however, it becomes so dry, tliat it is scarcely navigable for canoes.

CUMANACOA, a city lying s. e. of Cumana 14 leagues ; in the middle of the valley of the same name. The population amounts to 4200 people ; the air is wholesome, the w aters have a diureticquality not commonly to be met with. This city wants nothing but hands to avail itself of the productions which the richness of the land would yield, if it were cultivated. The fruits have here an uneommonly fine savour, taste, and substance. The government gives this city the name of San Baltasar de los Arias, but that of Cumanacoa has so much prevailed, that it is the only one by which it is now known. See Cumana.

2

CUMANAGOTA, a city of the former province and government ((Cumaná), in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, called also San Baltasar de los Arias. It has a good, convenient, and secure port ; is situate on the skirts of the most elevated part of the serrama, in a fertile valley, which abounds in streams, which irrigate 26 estates of yucales, some small plantations of cacao, and some cattle. The productions of all these estates are consumed in the country ; since, through the unevenness of the roads, it is impossible to carry^them out of it, with the exception, however, of tobacco, with which Cumana is supplied. The soil is the most fertile of any in the province, especially to the n. of the sietTa, where there might be established some very good cacao estates ; but this is not to be accomplished, considering the scarcity of its inhabitants, and their great poverty. This city, just after the conquest of these countries, was noted for its famous pearl-fisheries, which were afterwards abandoned. Its vicinity was inhabited by many gentile Indians, who were at continual enmity with the Spaniards and the other inhabitants ; but these troublesome people were reduced to obedience by Don Juan de Urpin, who had held consultations for that purpose with the council of the Indies. The population amounts to 800 souls, including the Negro slaves and the people of colour.

CUMAPI, a large lake of the country of Las Amazonas. It is a waste water of the large river Caqueta, in the territory of the Guayonas Indians.

CUMARA, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by the Portuguese, is an arm of the Cuchivara or Purus, which enters the Maranon before the other streams which are tributary to this river.

CUMAREBO, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the seacoast, and at the point of its name, with a good, though small port, and one that is much frequented by vessels.

CUMARU, Los Santos Angeles de, a settlement of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese; situate on the shore of a large river.

CUMATEN, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the mountain of Areyuctuquen, and runs, collecting the waters of many others, to enter the Cuyuni on the s. side.

CUMATl, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs s. and enters the large river of the Portuguese.

CUMAYARIS, a barbarous nation of Indians,

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