The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, andeight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province andcaptainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It risesin the mountains near the coast, runs almost di-rectly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu orTiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and go-vernment of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the king-dom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlementof San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Yteneswith a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, inthe straits De Magellan, one of those which form thes. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island,on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet andthe bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Mar-tinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to dis-tinguish it ; another settlement of the same islandand dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settle-ment of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Vallado-lid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ;in which district there are some cultivated lands,and in these, as well as in the settlement, residesome Spanish families, and some of the Musteesand Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling theground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Fourleagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of thehead settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec inNueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow partof a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants,who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoaland timber, these being the articles of their com-merce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settle-ment of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor ofTezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of ahill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans,and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes,and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory isvery fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in thesame jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lackof moisture, there being no running streams. Theyare used to gather most abundant crops of wheat,maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ;they have large breeds of hogs, both in the villageand in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls,which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla,and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a headsettlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec inNueva España; it contains 524 Indian families,including those who inhabit the wards of its dis-trict, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
and it is, indeed, pretty generally believed thatthis cross was left here by the above apostle.
CARACARES, a large lake of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It is 26 leagues inlength, and has many fertile islands, inhabited bybarbarian Indians, and empties itself through acanal into the river Paraná on the e. side. It isin 30° 41' s. lat.
CARACAS, Santiago de Leon de, a capitalcity of the province of Venezuela, founded byDiego Losada in the year 1566, in a beautiful andextensive valley of more than four leagues inlength. It is of a very mild temperature, beingneither troubled with excessive heat or cold. It iswatered by four rivers, which fertilize its territory,and make it abound as well in delicate waters asin exquisite fruits and flowers: the streets are wideand straight, the buildings elegant and convenient,and it is ornamented by four marts. It is the seatof the bishopric, erected in the city of Coro in1532, and translated to this spot in 1636. It hasa beautiful cathedral church, besides some parishchapels, which are Nuestra Señora de Alta Gra-cia ; San Pablo, which is also an hospital, andNuestra Señora de la Candelaria, out of the wallsof the city. There is also an hospital De la Ca-ridad (of charity) for women ; a convent of the re-ligious order of Santo Domingo, in which is heldin high respect the wonderful image of the Virginof the Rosary, presented by Philip II. There isanother convent of San Francisco, in which ispreserved a piece of the wood of the cross left bythe Governor Don Martin de Robles Villafañate ;another of our Lady of La Merced ; a monasteryof religious women of La Concepcion ; another ofthe Carmelites Descalzas (barefooted) ; a college andseminary for the education of youth, with five ca-thedrals ; four hermitages dedicated to San Mau-ricio, Santa Rosalia de Palermo, La Divina Pas-tora, and La Santisima Trinidad. Charles II.granted to this city the privilege of allowing itsalcaldes to govern the province in the vacancy ofa governor ; and Philip V. permitted a commer-cial company of Biscayans to be established, whoreaped considerable affluence, especially in the ar-tiles of cacoa and sugar, the chief source of its re-venues ; but this company was abolished in thereign of Charles III. in the year 1778 ; which cir-cumstance was considered by the city and the pro-
vince as a most considerable privilege. The num-ber of inhabitants amounts to about 1000, besidesan infinity of people of colour by whom it is in-habited. The natives have shown themselves tobe of an ingenuous disposition, clever, affable, andcourteous. Its arms are a grey lion rampant in afield of silver, having between his arms a scollop-shell of gold, with the cross of Santiago ; and thecrest is a crown with five points of gold. It wassacked in 1566 by Sir Francis Drake, who camethither in an English cruiser ; also by the Frenchin 1679. It is three leagues distant from the portof Guaira. Long. 67° w. Lat. 10° 30' n.
The bishops who have presided in this city.
1. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of the holychurch of St. Domingo, the chief of the visitationof the bishopric of Puertorico; elected on the 27thOctober 1535, and who died in 1542.
2. Don Miguel Gerónimo Ballesteros, dean ofthe church of Cartagena of the Indies ; electedin 1543.
3. Don Fr. Pedro de Agreda, of the order ofSt. Domingo, collegiate of San Gregorio of Val-ladolid ; presented to this bishopric in 1558, andtaking possession of it 1560. In his time the citywas sacked by the English : he died in 1580.
4. Don Fr. Juan de Manzanillo, of the order ofSt. Domingo ; presented in the year 1582 ; he re-built the church, and died in 1593.
5. Don Fr. Diego Salinas, of the order of St.Domingo, native of Medina del Campo, colle-giate of San Gregorio de Valladolid, prior in dif-ferent convents, procurator-general in the court,and elected bishop in the year 1600 : in the fol-lowing year he died.
6. Don Fr. Pedro Martin Palomino, of the orderof St. Domingo ; elected in 1601 : he died the sameyear.
7. Don Fr. Pedro de Oña, native of Burgos, ofthe order of our Lady of La Merced ; he was even-ing lecturer in the university of Santiago, electedbishop in 1601, canonized in the convent of Val-ladolid, and before he came to his church, waspromoted to the bishopric of Gaeta, in the king-dom of Naples, in 1604.
8. Don Fr. Antonio de Alcega, of the order ofSt. Francis ; he Avas formerly married, and heldthe office of accountant to the royal estates in Yu-catán, when he became a widower, and giving allhe possessed as alms to the poor, he took to a re-ligious life, and Philip III. being charmed withhis virtues presented him to this bishopric in1664 ; he celebrated the synod in Caracas theyear following, and died in 1609.
9. Don Fr. Juan de Bohorques, native of Mex-
CARAMPANGUE, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ;it runs n. n. w. near the coast, and enters the seabetween the rivers Laraquite and Tibiil. At itsentrance the Spaniards have the fort of Arauco.
CARANGAS, a province and corregimiento ofPeru, bounded on the n. by the province of Pa-cages, e. by Paria, s. by Lipes, and w. by Arica ;it is 36 leagues in length, n. to s. and 30 in widthat the most. Its climate is extremely cold andsubject to winds, so that it produces no other fruitsthan such as are found upon the sierra. It hasconsiderable breeds of cattle both of the large andsmall kind, huacanos^ sheep peculiar to the country,called llamas, and no small quantity of vicunas ;also in that part which borders upon the provinceof Pacages are some herds of swine. Its silvermines are much worked, and of these the mostesteemed is that called Turco, in which is foundthe metal mazizo. Towards the w. are some un-peopled sandy plains, in which pieces of silver arefrequently found, commonly called of these,
lumps have been picked of such a size as to weigh150 marks. It is watered by some streams, but byno considerable rivers ; the corregidor used hereto have a repartimiento of 340,526 dollars, and itused to pay annually 436 dollars for alcavala. Theinhabitants, who are almost all Indians, amount• to 1100, ajid they are divided into 25 settlements.The capital is Tarapaca, and the others are.
Asiento de Carangas,Ribera de Todos Santos.Negrillo.
corregidor used to reside, until they were removedto Tarapaca, at 30 leagues distance. It thus be-came reduced to a scanty population of Indians,annexed to the curacy of Huachacalla.
CARANGUES, formerly a barbarous nation ofIndians, to the n. of the kingdom of Quito ; thedistrict of which at present belongs to the corregi~miento of the town of Ibarra, wliere, on a largeplain, are still to be seen the ruins of a magnificentpalace which belonged to the Incas : in its vici-nity is a settlement called Carangui, distant 23leagues s. of the town of Ibarra.
Carangues, with the dedicatory title of St. An.-tonio, another settlement of the same province andcorregimiento, situate in the road which leads downfrom Popayan.
(CARANKOUAS, Indians of N. America, wholive on an island or peninsula in the bay of St.Bernard, in length about 10 miles, and five inbreadth ; the soil here is extremely rich and plea-sant ; on one side of which there is a high bluff, ormountain of coal, which has been on fire for manyyears, affording always a light at night, and astrong thick smoke by day, by which vessels aresometimes deceived and lost on the shoally coast,which shoals are said to extend nearly out of sightof land. From this burning coal, there is emitteda gummy substance the Spaniards call cheta, whichis thrown on the shore by the surf, and collected bythem in considerable quantities, which they arefond of chewing; it has the appearance and con-sistence of pitch, of a strong, aromatic, and notdisagreeable smell. These Indians are irreconcile-able enemies to the Spaniards, always at war withthem, and kill them whenever they can. TheSpaniards call them cannibals, but the French givethem a different character, who have always beentreated kindly by them since Mons. de Salle andhis party were in their neighbourhood. They aresaid to be 500 men strong, but we have not beenable to estimate their numbers from any very accu-rate information. They speak the Attakapo lan-guage ; are friendly and kind to all other Indians,and, we presume, are much like all others, notwith-standing what the Spaniards say of them.)
CARANQUE, an ancient province of the In-dians, in the kingdom ofQuito, towards the «. Fromthe same race is at the present day composed thetown of St. Miguel de Ibarra. The natives roseagainst the Inca Huaina Capac, but he succeededin reducing them to obedience by force of arms,causing the authors and accomplices of the insur-
rection to be drowned in the lake Yaguarcocha,which from thence takes its name, and signifies thelake of blood, with which it was quite polluted ;tlie Indians stating, .according to their traditions,that no less than 20,000 people were thus sacri-ficed. Part of this province is at present compre-hended in that of Ibarra, and part in that ofOtavalo.
CARAQUES, Bay of, on the S. sea-coast, andin the province and government of Guayaquil. Itis close to cape Pasao, and near the equinoctialline. There was a settlement here, bearing the samename, the ruins of which are still visible.
CARARE, a large river of the new kingdom ofGranada. It rises in the valley of Alferez, to then. of the city of Tunja, runs from s. ton. and join-ing the Zarbe, enters the large river of Magdalena.On the e. side, near the narrow pass which formsits shores, the French have constructed a fort toguard against invasion from the infidel Indians.
CARARI, a strait of the large river Magdalena,formed by great rocks. There was formerly herea fort, which has been moved to a place at somelittle distance. The course of the waters in theabove strait is so rapid as to render it sometimesimpossible for vessels and canoes to pass through it.
Carauele, a small island of the N. sea, situatenear the n. e. coast of the island of Martinique,on the n. side of Carauele point.
CARAUELLES, a river of the province andcaptainship of Puerto Seguro in Brazil. It risesat the foot of the « Fria, and describing a smallcircle, runs s. e. and according to Cruz, e. andenters the sea opposite the island of Pajaros.
Carbet, two very high mountains of the aboveisland. They are full of sharp points similar tothose on Montserrat in Cateluila. They are nearthe coast, lying towards the n. w. part ; and theFrench call them Pitons de Carbet.
Carbet, a point on the e. coast of the island
[boyes. or pretended magicians, sacrifices and wor-ship ; wounding themselves on such solemnitieswith an instrument made of the teeth of the agouti,which inflicted horrible gashes ; conceiving, per-haps, that the malignant powers delighted ingroans and misery, and were to be appeased onlyby human blood,]
Caribe, a settlement of the same province andgovernment ; situate on the windward coast of thecape of Tres Puntas. In its district are 26 plan-tations, 15 of cacao, and the rest of vines andmaize, which yield but indifferently, from a wantof water; although they find means of supplyingthis in some degree by the rain. The communityconsists of 1070 souls ; and is five leagues dis-tant from the settlement of Carupano.
(CARIBEANA, now called Paria or NewAndalucia, which see.)
CARIBES, a barbarous and ferocious nation ofIndians, who are cannibals, inhabiting the pro-vince which by them is called Caribana. Theyare divided under the titles of the Maritiraos andMediterraneos : the former live in plains and uponthe coast of the Atlantic, are contiguous to theDutch and French colonies, and follow the lawsand customs of the former, with whom they carryon a commerce. They are the most cruel of anythat infest the settlements of the missions of theriver Orinoco, and are the same as those calledGalibis. The Mediterraneos, who inhabit thes. side of the source of the river Caroni, are of amore pacific nature, and began to be reduced tothe faith by the regular order of the abolished so-ciety of the Jesuits in 1738, The name of Caribesis given not only to these and other Indians of theAntilles, but to all such as are cannibals. See Ca-ribe.
CARICHANA, a settlement of the province ofGuayana, and government of Cumana ; one of themissions of the Rio Meta, which was under thecare of the society of Jesuits, of the province ofSanta Fe. It is situate on the shore of the Ori-noco, by the torrent of its name ; and is at presentunder the care of the religious order of Capuchins.
Carichana, Torrent of, a strait of the river
Orinoco, formed by different islands, some coveredby, and some standing out of, the water, so thatthe navigation is very difficult and dangerous. Itis near the mouth of the river Meta.
Carimbatay, a river of the above provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theXexuy near the town of Curuguato.
CARIOCOS, a lake of the country of the Ama-zonas, in the Portuguese territories, on the shoreof the river. It is formed by the Topinamba-ranas, which, according to Mr. Bellin, makes thissheet of water before it enters the former river.
CARIPE, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Cumaná in the kingdom of TierraFirme, situate in the middle of a serranía; one ofthe missions in that province belonging to theAragonese Capuchin fathers.
CARIPORES, a settlement of S. America, tothe n. of Brazil and of the river of Las Amazo-nas : although of barbarian Indians, it deservesparticular mention, on account of its virtuous andpacific customs, so different from the brutality andsloth of the surrounding nations. These Indiansare handsome, lively, bold, valorous, liberal, ho-nest, and affable, and in short the most polishednation of Indians in all America ; they esteem ho-nour, justice, and truth; are enemies to deceit, eatbread made of cazave, which they have a methodof preserving good for three or four years. Theydo not scruple to eat the flesh of some ugly snakesfound in their woods, but are not cannibals ; nei-ther do they revenge upon their prisoners takenin war the cruelties they experience from theirenemies.
(CARIY, a parish of the province and govern-