The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, of Villa Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shore of a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in this province, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake of the Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. of the Maraiion, and following its course towards the n. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter the Ucayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receive the waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito : it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, and enters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruins of the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Conturnaza ; in the district of which there is, at three leagues distance, a large piece of hewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of a yard wide on every face, particularly rough and unpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, which is formed from different arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and communicates itself with the lake of Arechona ; both of these lakes being near the last river, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain desert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreads n. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and cape Small Point on the n. e. Within these points, which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated. The land on these islands, and on the opposite coast on the main, is the best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast of this country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoit bay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. The waters of Casco extend several arms or creeks of salt water into the country. The waters go up Meadow’s river, where vessels of a considerable size are carried by the tide, and where it flows within one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. On the e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the sea called Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscot river, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag, which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens to the waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; its extent is not great, but it has several valuable mills upon it. Rayal’s river, called by the natives W estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
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wreck, and amongst these many valuables of gold and silver, which had grown quite discoloured, to the amount of 40,000 dollars. Lat. 2°2l' s.
CHANEL, some islands near the coast of the country of Labrador, in the gulf of St. Lawrence. They are numerous and very small, one of them being very long and narrow ; forming a channel with the coast, and giving its name to the rest.
CHANESES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Paraguay ; dwelling to the n. of the Rio de la Plata, and bounded by the Xarayes and Xacoces. They have their houses near the lakes, and maintain themselves by fishing.
CHANGAME, some small islands of the S. sea, and of the bay of Panamá, in the province and government of Tierra Firme. They are two in number, being situate near the coast, and having between them a shallow or quicksand, by which they are communicated. They abound in a species of birds, from which they take their name.
CHANQUI, or Achanqui, a promontory or cape of the province and corregimiento of Valdivia in the kingdom of Chile ; being eight leagues to the s. of San Marcelo. It forms and covers the mouth or entrance of the gulf of Los Coronados, with the other cape, which is to thes. called De la Ballena.
CHANTACO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, to the w. of Chuquri-bamba, and to the s. of San Pedro, consists entirely of Indians, and lies upon the bank of a small river, being of an excellent climate.
diction of the city of Cordoba ; situate near the rivers Segundo and Tercero, at the foot of the Montana Nevada, or Snowy mountain.
CHAPACOTO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chimbo in the kingdom of Quito ; situate at the skirt of the Gran Cuesta, or mountain of San Antonio. Through it passes a small river, which runs down from this mountain, and empties itself in the river of Chimbo ; is of a very cold temperature, and lies in the middle of a wood. Lat. l°40's.
CHAPALA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Caxititlan in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of this name ; has a good convent of the monks of St. Francis, and in its valley, which is very fertile, there is an abundance of all kinds of seed, as wheat, maize, French beans, and many delicious fruits.
Chapala, another settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zaiula in the same kingdom ; situate in a plain of a mild temperature. It contains 42 families of Indians, who trade in seeds and other fruits, since its district abounds in garden grounds. It has a convent of the religious of St. Francis ; lies 22 leagues between the e. and n. of its capital.
Chapala, a great lake of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, called Mar de Chapala, on account of its size, is navigated by many vessels, and is extremely well stocked with fish ; from which the inhabitants of the immediate settlements derive their source of commerce.
CHAPANCHICA. See Madrigal.
CHAPARE, or Parati, a river of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. It rises in the serrania of the Altos or Lofts of Intinuyo, from two small rivers which unite ; runs in an inclined course to the e. and enters the Marmore Grande, forming a good port.
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito, who had served as captain of cavalry in the regiment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was governor of the province of Moxos, being of the rank of colonel ; he was nominated as president by way of reward for his services, in having been instrumental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru, and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, which was besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786, when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aullaga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac, fourth monarch of the Incas. At present they are reduced to the Christian faith in the government of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are marked the boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those of Nueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spaniards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of Indians dispersed in the rancherias and the estates of its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to the n. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 to the n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'. Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of the mines of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from the capital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco, in which they work with quicksilver the metals of the mines. To its curacy, which is adminstered by one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed two small settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whom are found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called anciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream, the principal branch of which rises from a pond bordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Holliston and Bellingham, and divides Medway from Med field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thence into Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms a peninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream called lother brook runs out of this river in this town, and falls into Neponsit river, forming a natural canal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a number of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham the course of the river is n. dividing Newton from Needham, Weston, and Waltham, passing over romantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e. through Watertown and Cambridge, and passing into Boston harbour, mingles with the waters of Mystic river, at the point of the peninsula of Charlestown. It is navigable for boats to Watertown, seven miles. The most remarkable bridges on this river are those which connect Boston with Charlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereare seven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.] [Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland, lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Its chief town is port Tobacco, on the river of that name. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth 24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including 10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is generally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina, is one of the best of N. America, excelling in beauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situate upon a long strip of land between two navigable rivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and the greater part of it upon the latter. This forms in the city two small bays, the one to the n. and the other to the s. The town is of a regular construction, and well fortified both by nature and art, having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; on the side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction of til is town by the British in 1775, several brandies of mannfadures were carried on to great advantage, some of which have been since revived : particularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes, ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches, silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walks have lately been erected in this town, and tlie increase of its houses, population, trade, and navigation, have been very great within a few' years past. This town is a port of entry in conjunction with Boston. At the head of the neck there is a bridge over Mystic river, which connects Charlestown with Malden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island of Nevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inch there are beautiful houses and shops well provided with every thing ; is defended by a fort called Charles. It has a market every Saturday, beginning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whither the Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs, fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a piece of sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of an opening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphur gut, which is so hot as to be telt through the soles of the shoes when being trodden upon. At the foot of the declivity of this same part of the city, is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which being supposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itself shortly in the sand. Towards the side lying next the sea are two fountains, one of hot water, the other of cold, and of these two are formed the lake of Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderate warmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, being nearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the place where are caught eels and silver-fish, resembling the cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of which lias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodigious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in an earthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity, which is still to be seen. The altitude of this mountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestown bay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ; and from the said bay to the top, four miles. The declivity from this mountain to the town is very steep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] In Lat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island of Barbadoes ; the situation of which is two leagues from that of San Miguel. It has a good port defended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other, and both commanding the city and the road: in the middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitants carry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river, about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the state census of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are electors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county, Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth of Lauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, and is six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lexington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of 70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120 w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Philadelphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and contains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church, a court-house, and an academy. The road from Boston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat. 43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internal trade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county, Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; six mites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannah river, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb. from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses, chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in the herring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower country of S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. This large district, of which the city of Charleston is the chief town, lies between Santee and Combahee rivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. It sends to the state legislature 48 representatives and 13 senators, and one member to congress. It contains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 are free.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washington county, Rhode Island state, having the Atlantic ocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the 71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some of its ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers into the sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, and contains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. A few years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in the state ; the greater part of them resided in tin's township. They are peaceable and well disposed to government, and s|5cak the English language.)
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(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largest river which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida. It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. entering the bottom of the bay through several mouths, but so shoal that only a small boat or canoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended this river about 25 leagues, where there was a small settlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and timber on the banks of the river resemble very much those of Escambia.)
(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river in Georgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bears this name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid, and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are light and sandy, and the clay of a bright red. The lower creeks are settled in scattering clans and villages from the head to the mouth of this river. Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of the clay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns. The distance from this river to the Talapose river, is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crosses at the falls, just above the town of the Tuckabatches.)
(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county. New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad. Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course, connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake is conveniently situated fora communication between lake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enough for boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany to the n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there is a portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour on lake Erie, over ground capable of being made a good waggon road. This communication was once used by the French.)
niently for the fishery ; in which they have usually about 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabitants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See Cape Cod.)
(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district, N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It contains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves. Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a few miles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fear river.)
(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cheraws district ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w. side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highly cultivated and rich country, and at the head of a navigable river, bids fair to render it a place of great importance. At present it has only about 30 houses, lately built.)
(Chatham County, in the lower district of Georgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, having the Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. It contains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves. The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital of the state.)
(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hudson bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97* 32' w. from Greenwich.)
CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province