The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.
AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.
AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.
[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.
AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.
AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]
43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.
Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.
Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.
Rochester hill, n. 64° w,
Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.
Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.
Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.
Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.
Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]
AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.
river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ; and that of the magistracy, which consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort with four bastions, the rest of the fortification consisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alliances have been made with the Indians. It was taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «. of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inhabitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, which custom the first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabitants are collected from various parts of tlie world, and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the English predominates ; and the use of efery other is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil, abounding in every article for the W. India market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapidity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low Dutch church, of ancient and very curious construction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presbyterians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson, whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands. The improvements in this city have, of late years, been very great in almost all respects. Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and handsome style of building introduced. One mile n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very ingeniously constructed extensive and useful works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds, chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, splitpease, and hulled barley. These valuable works are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who unfortunately lost a complete set of similar works by fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at
37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of remark, and is evincive of the industry and enterprise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre« sent buildings and machinery were begun and completed in the short space of eleven mouths. These works are decidedly superior to any of the kind in America. All the articles above enumerated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manufactured by the aid of water machinery. For the invention of this machinery, the proprietor has obtained a patent. These Avorks give employment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a number of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42° 40' n.
Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22 Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head settlement.
ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the country and the city of Merida, running n. of this city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.
ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It produces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the winter is very temperate. This colony was established in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it, who equipped, at their own expence, three ships, and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provisions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchandize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ; to which they sent resources yearly, in the proportion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast near cape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have one town called Catabaw, situate on the river of that name, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line between N. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inhabitants, of which about 150 are fighting men. They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ; 144,000 acres of land . were granted them by the proprietary government. These are the remains of a forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generous enemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenerated sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province and corregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is a stream of water Avhich distils from some crevices, and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone or crystalline substance, which they call catachi^ and which being dissolved in water, is accounted a specific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. of the city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing its stream by many others which flow into it, until it unites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake of Maracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itself and forms a large pool of water called La Laguneta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the settlement of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 families of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor of Tampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot temperature, and contains 80 families of Indians, who apply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10 leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head settlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Nejapa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 families of Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore of the river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. of its capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, with the addition of Sera, of the province and government of Maracaibo, in the district of the city of Pedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ; is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bj the religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro
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CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just