The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of the straits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended from the Huyellanes. They are numerous and ferocious ; the men and women go entirely naked ; their arms are bows and arrows, the latter being pointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, of great strength, and fine appearance. Some travellers pretend that these are the fabulous giants of whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flows down from the mountains of the Andes. It rises from the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ; washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, from whence it takes its name, and finishes its course by emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®, side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of the city of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting the waters of several other rivers in its protracted course, enters the river Maranon in a very broad stream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru, near to the city. It is celebrated for the battle which was fought here by the Licentiate Baca de Castro, of the royal council of Castille, governor of Peru, on the 16th September 1542, against the army of the rebels commanded by Diego de Almagro the younger, and son of the conqueror of the same name, when the latter was routed and taken prisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in the same province, and enters the river Santa, changing its own name to this, immediately that it touche* the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide* from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that of Nasca, and nearly upon the shore of the river Amancay, where there is a narrow pass, through which two men cannot without great difficulty go abreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearly perpendicular, and on the other is a precipice which runs into the river ; this is the spot where a signal victory was obtained by the rebel Francisco Hernandez Giron, in 1554, against the Brigadier Alonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of factions, maintaining the separate interests enkindled in the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a small river which enters the Catamayu, on which account some maintain that it is the origin of the latter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile
21. Don Fray Pedro de Espineira ; elected in 1762 ; he governed until his death, in 1778.
22. Don Francisco Joseph de Maran ; elected in 1779.
Concepcion de la Vega, another city, in the island of St. Domingo, founded by the Admiral Christopher Columbus, on a beautiful and spacious plain, or Uanura^ celebrated for a conquest gained on it by a numerous army of Indians. It has a good parish church, erected into a bishopric, and wliich was afterwards done away with in 1605, it being then embodied with the archbishopric of S. Domingo. it has also a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, in which is deposited and venerated the first cross that the discoverer and conqueror of this country planted here ; which, although the Indians have endeavoured with all their might to break and destroy, has resisted all their eftbrts. Twenty-five leagues from the capital of S. Domingo.
(Concepcion del Pao, a city of the province and government of Caracas ; composed of the inhabitants of Trinity, of Margareta, and of Caracas, who owned the folds in the plains near the Orinoco, to the s. of Barcelona ; they here successively fixed their dwellings, for the purpose of being in the centre of their property, and of superintending it themselves. In 1744 the number of these houses were found considerable enough to acquire the name of village. There are only 2300 people of all classes here, subsisting will] facility by Ihe fertility of the soil. The air and water are good, and the only inconveniences the inhabitants experience are an excessive lieat, and inundations arising from the long and heavy rains. The produce of the land is merely the provisions common to the CQuntry. The wealth of the inhabitants consists entirely in cattle, which they export to Trinity, liia Guarapiche or Orinoco, This village, now a city, is distinguished from St.John the Baptist del Pao, situate in the province of Venezuela, by the title of Concepcion del Pao. Lat. 8° 42' n. Long. 65° 10' ra.)
Concepcion, another, of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Leon in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopric of Mechoacan ; annexed to the curacy of Rincon. It contains 208 families of Indians, 100 of Spaniards, and ^0 oi Mustees. It produces wheat, maize, and other seeds, and is a quarter of a league from its curacy, and four leagues from the capital.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which are held by the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Texas and kingdom of Nueva Espana. It is 112 leagues to the e. n. e. of the presidency of San Antonio de Bejar.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the great river Maranon, on a point of land formed by the same, and where this river is entered by the Apena and the Guallaga,
Concepcion, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya; situate on the bank of the river Florido, near the settlement and real of the mines of Parral.
Concepcion, another, of the missions which belong to the religion of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying 17 leagues distant between the s. and s. w. of the real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Concepcion, another, with the surname of Achaguas, being composed of Indians of this nation, in the kingdom of Granada ; of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in Orinoco; situate on the shore of the river Meta.
Concepcion, another settlement, the capital of the province and captainship of Itamaraca in Brazil ; situate on the top of a mountain by the seaside. It has a magnificeut parish church, and is garrisoned by two companies of troops, it contains 300 housekeepers, and has three large sugar.
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches, dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop of Puertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605; died at the advanced age of upwards of 100 years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the religious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native of Velez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor of Seville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruz in 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religious Dominican, native of Lima, was prior and provincial in his religion, first professor of theology and writing in that university, qualificator of the inquisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruz in 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native of Lima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted from Paraguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order of St. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first professor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the order of preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native of Lima, collegian of the royal college of San Martin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order of St. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of his religion in the province of San Juan Bautista del Peru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, of the order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, elected in 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, dean of the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, elected in 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tucuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native of Arequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in 1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, native of Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Rigucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promoted to the archbishopric of the holy metropolitan church of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province, which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno de Chaves in 1557, after that he had passed along the shores of the river Paraguay to discover a communication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants, however, not being able to stay in it through the incessant sallies of the Indians who surrounded them, were under the necessity of changing their settlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place, some of them united together, and founded the city of Santiago del Puerto, and others that of San Lorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capital, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement and alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Espana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country, containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cutting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues to the cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of St. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 families of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation of the land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leagues from its head settlement.
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inin, and containing 72 families of Indians, dedicated to the commerce of saltpetre and cochineal. Three leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the alcaldia mayor of the same kingdom. It contains 36 families of Indians, and is in the boundaries of the jurisdiction of Xalapa.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Chapala, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 28 families of Indians, who cultivate many seeds and fruits from the fertility and pleasantness of the country; occupying tliemselves also in traffic and in fishing upon the lakes. It is tsvo leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas of the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Napo.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Cacula, cmA alcaldia mayoral Zayula, in the same kingdom. It contains 50 families of Indians, who employ themselves in agriculture, and in cutting wood upon the mountains of its district. Four leagues between the w. and s. of its head settlement.
Cruz, Santa, another, of tlic missions which W,ere held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits in the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the nrissions of the
religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, of the same kingdom as the former. Eighteen leagues to the s, e. of the real of the mines and town of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
Cruz, Santa, another, called Real de la Cruz, in the province and government of Cartagena, on the shore of the large river Magdalena, and upon an island formed by this river and the w aters of the Dique.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Antioquía in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; founded on the shore of the river Sinu, with a good port, which serves as an entrepot for goods to be carried to Choco, from whence it lies a three-days journey.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate at the mouth of the river Mayo, where this enters the California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes. Distinct from another, which is upon a shore of the same river.
(Cruz, a parish of tlie province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on a small river running into the Plata, about five leagues n. of the town of imxan, in lat. 31° 16' 22". Long. 59* 23' SO" a'.)
(Cruz, La, a settlement of Indians of the pro3 z
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, founded in ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.] t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of the Antilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its territory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain seasons, from the low situation. It has many rivers, streams, and fountains, with three very good and convenient ports. It was for a long while desert, until some English settled themselves in it, and began to cultivate it; afterwards the French possessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it the following year to the knights of Malta, from whom it was bought, in 1664, by the West India company. In 1674, it was incorporated with the possessions of the crown by the king of France. Its inhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St. Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to a company of Danes, of Copenhagen, who now possess it. It was the first of the Antilles which was occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight from Puertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and five from that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugars cane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which render it very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000 or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W. India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is in a high state of cultivation, and has about 3000 white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A great proportion of the Negroes of this island have embraced Christianity, under the Moravian missionaries, whose influence has been greatly promotive of its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exports of Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w. See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits ©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Admiral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for the crown of Spain, that making the tenth time of its being captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n. coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sandbank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the province and government of Honduras, called Triunfo de la Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between the port of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues from the gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or Large Bay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines. Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the province and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Dulce, opposite the shoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea between the point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx