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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Guayana; they run from N to S on the shore of the river Caroni.

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .

ACHALA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Tucuman, bounded by the mountains of Cuyo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of Chile; they run from N N W to S S E at the sources of the river Quarto.

Achamqui. See CHANQUI.

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the confines which divide the above province from Huanta.

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, on the E, coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. It is close to N. cape.

[ACHIACHICA, a town in Mexico. See Angelos.]

ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.

ACHIBAMBA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; it rises in the mountains, and enters the Marañon.

ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.

ACHIRA. See Cata-Magu.

ACHITE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs from S to N and enters the Cuyuni.

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Viacha.

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa, founded by the missionaries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, Mayo, and Ribas.

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Lircay.

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. It runs E afterwards turns to the S and enters the lake of St. Thomas.

[ACKLIN'S Island. See Crooked Island.]

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts

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captainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. Itrises near the coast, and runs s. s. e. entering thesea close to the cape of San Roque.

Aguada, a sharp point or small island of theS. sea, near the coast, in the province and corre-gimiento of Atacama.

Aguada (point in Cartagena), a point on the coast of Tierra Firme,in the province and government of Cartagena. Itis one of those which form the mouth of the gulphof Uraba or Darien.

AGUADILLA, a river of the province andkingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the moun-tains on the s. and enters the large river Chagrevery near its mouth, and the castle of this name.Here ships take in water, on account of the conve-nience of a bay, for the defence of which there is,upon the shore, a battery belonging to the samecastle, which was built under the directions ofDon Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.

AGUADORES, River of the, in the islandof Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast ofthis island, having at its mouth a watch-tower andguard to give notice of vessels which may enter theport of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it isseven leagues distant.

AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico,and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in theyear 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Quere-taro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of SierraGorda.

Aguaio, another settlement, with the dedicatorytitle of San Miguel, in the new kingdom of Leon,inhabited by Spaniards ; 10 leagues distant fromLa Punta.

AGUAIUS, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Quixos and Marcas in the kingdomof Quito.

AGUAGE, a settlement and real of mines of theprovince and government of Sonora in NuevaEspaña. Lat. 29°w. Long. 111° 5'

AGUAJES, a settlement of the province ofTepeguna, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situ-ate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.

AGUALEI, a small river of the province andgovernment of Guayana, which rises in the sierrasof Usupama, and enters the Caroni on the e. side.

AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of thejurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It hasa convent of the religious order of St. Francis, andin 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families ofIndians, including the wards of its district; 17leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n.Long. 103° 33' w.

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AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdictionof Santiago de las Atalayas, and government ofSan Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It isof a hot temperature, and produces the same fruitsas the other settlements of this province.

AGUAMIRO, a settlement of the province andcer re gimiento of Huamalies in Peru, celebrated forsome medicinal and very salutary baths.

AGUAN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Honduras, which runs into the sea at thegulph of this name.

AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlementof the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro,^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the provinceand bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold tem-perature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo,and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain theirlivelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteenleagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.

AGUANO, a lake of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. ' It isformed by an arm or channel of the river Gualla-ga, and is very near the shore of that river.

AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlementof the province and government of Mainas in thekingdom of Quito ; one of those which belongedto the missions held there by the Jesuits, andthus called from the nation of Indians of whom it iscomposed. It was founded in 1670 by the fatherLorenzo Lucero.

Aguanos, another settlement, with the dedica-tory title of San Francisco, in this province, andof these missions.

AGUAPAI, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay. It rises between the Pa-rana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of SanCarlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c.enters the last of the above rivers not far from thesettlement of La Cruz.

Aguapai, another river of the same provinceand government, which runs w. and enters theParana close to the Juan Gazu.

AGUAPEI, a river of the same province andgovernment as the two former. It is very small,and rises in the mountains of Nuestra Senora deFe ; runs from n. to s. and enters the Parana.

AGUARAU, a river of the province and go-vernment of Paraguay, which runs w. and entersthe Parana between the Inau and Piray .

AGUARICO, San Pedro de, a settlement ofIndians, converted by the missions of the Jesuits,in the province and government of Mainas; situ-ate on the shore of the river Napo.

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Aguarico, another settlement of the same pro-yince, and belonging to the same missions, andbearing the dedicatory title of San Estanislao.

Aguarico, a river of the same province andf overnment, being one of those which enter theNapo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance,begins the large province of the Encabellados ;and here it was that the Portuguese attempted toestablish themselves in 1732, invading it with acertain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), whichcame from Para. They were, however, throughthe well-timed precautions of the president of Qui-to, forced to retire without attaining their object.This river contains much gold in its sands, andits body is much increased by other streams, suchas those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Du-ino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of theAndes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra,washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, andenters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.

AGUARINGUA, an ancient and large settle-ment of the nation of the Taironas Indians, in theprovince and government of Santa Marta.

AGUARO, a river of the province and go-vernment of Honduras. It enters the S. sea to thee. of Aguan.

Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province andgovernment of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico,and is famous for abounding in fish, particularlya kind called pabon, which has a circular spot ofsky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye,and which is much esteemed for its excellent fla-vour.

AGUAS, a small river of the province andgovernment of Paraguay. It runs n. n. w. andenters the Uruguay close to the J uipa.

Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.

Aguas-bellas, a small river of the pro-vince and government of Paraguay. It runs c.and enters the Parana.

Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of thethe kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric ofGuadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdictionincludes four head settlements of the district, andtwo large estates called the Pavellon, as also theestate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain andseed are cultivated. The principal settlement isthe town of the same name, of a moderate tempera-ture, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish fa-milies, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes;and although some Mexican Indians arc to befound here, they merely come to traffic with theproductions of the other jurisdictions. It con-tains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Fran-ciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one ofthe Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios,with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mentionseveral other chapels and altars in the vicinity.It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 ofGuadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.

Aguas-calientes, another settlement in theprovince and government of Venezuela, of thekingdom of Tierra Firme, situate upon the coast.

AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district of SanAndres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa,in Nueva España. It is but lately established,and is one league s. of its head settlement.

AGUATEPEC, Santa Maria de, a settle-ment of the head settlement of the district andalcaldia mayor of Tecali in Nueva España. Itcontains 48 families of Indians.

AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the dis-trict of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Es-pana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction;but on account of its smallness, and the ill-fa-voured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorpo-rated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indianfamilies, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.

AGUATUBI, a settlement of the province ofMoqui in Nuevo Mexico.

AGUATULCO, a river of the province andalcaldia mayor of Tegoantepec in Nueva España.It runs e. and enters the S. sea near the Capolita.

AGUEDA, Mono de Santa, a mountain ofthe w. coast of the straits of Magellan, in the SierraNevada (snowy sierra).

Agueda, a point or cape near the above moun-tain.

[AGUGA Cape, on the coast of Peru, S. Ame-rica, lies s. of Puira, in the 61° of s. lat. and in the81° of w, long.]

AGUIJO, San Miguel de, a settlement ofthe new kingdom of Leon.

AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a townof the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España.It was formerly very considerable, and had a nu-merous population of Spaniards, when it wasmade a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Tarau-maras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but itsjurisdiction is consolidated with another, on ac-count of its being a place of little consideration,and its population being very scanty, and livingin some small wards and estates in its district. Itlies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith,and is the boundary of the kingdom of NuevaGalicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.

Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province

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ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head set-tlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast andalcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. Itcontains 125 Indian families, and is one leaguefrom the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.

ALACRANES, some islands, or rather somehidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico,opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navi-gate these parts are accustomed to pass round be-yond them for fear of venturing amongst them, al-though there are some good cliannels among them,and withgood soundings. They are for the most partbarren, producing nothing beyond a herb calledmoron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do theyproduce any animal except the mole, which isfound here in prodigious numbers. There are,however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts,each forming a community of itself, and entirelyseparated from the other two ; and it has beenobserved, that if one party may have fixed uponany place for building their nests, the others neverthink of disturbing them, or driving them from it ;but the noise these birds make is so great, that onecannot pass near them without suffering consider-ably from their united clamours.

[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leaguess. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58°SO' e».]

ALAHUIZTLAN, San Juan de, a branchof the head settlement of the district of Escateopan,and alcaldia mayor of Zaqualpa, in Nueva España.It contains 270 Indian families.

ALAIN, a river of the province and govern-ment of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It risesin the country of the Locamas Indians, runs fromj. to n. and turning to the n. n. e. enters the Pucaré.

ALAMEDA, a settlement of the missions be-longing to the religious of St. Francis in NuevoMexico.

ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province ofTaraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; oneof the missions which belonged to the religious ofSt Francis. It is close to the town and real ofthe mines of Santa Eulalia.

ALAMO, a settlement of the province andgovernment of the new kingdom of Leon, situ-ate 15 leagues to the s. e. of the Point.

ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement andreal of the mines of the province of Sinaloa inNueva España. It is situate s. e. of the SierraMadre, and surrounded by rich silver mines,which would produce abundantly but for want oflabourers. There are in its district five estatesthat are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugar-cane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts

are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdic-tion extends as far as the river Mayo, which flowsdown from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distantfrom the town of Tuerte, and between these liesthe valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]

Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge,a town of the province and captainship of Para inBrazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gaveit his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has amagnificent parish church, with the title of NuestraSenora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort,and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the dis-tance of a league and an half from the settlement,is a house of charity belonging to the religiousorder of the Capuchins of La Piedad.

Alamos, another town of the province and go-vernment of Sonora, in the line that divides theconfines of this jurisdiction and the province ofOstimuri, between the rivers Hiaqui and LaSonora.

Alamos (Sonora near Coro de Guachi), another settlement of the same pro-vince and government as the former, situate tothe s. of the garrison of Coro de Guachi.

Alamos, another of the missions belonging tothe abolished society of Jesuits, in the provinceof Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s.of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe deChiguaga.

Alamos, another settlement and real of thesilver mines of the province and government ofCinaloa.

ALANGASI, a settlement of the kingdom ofQuito, in the district of the corregimiento of theCinco Leguas de la Capital. In its territory is afountain of hot medicinal waters.

Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento,and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ;over it there is a large bridge, composed of a singlearch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a partof the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated onehalf of it into the stream, the other half still re-mained firm and immoveable. This bridge isbuilt of mud and stone.

ALANIS, a settlement of the province and go-vernment of Maracaibo, in the district of the cityof Merida, situate in the way whicE leads fromthis city to the new kingdom of Grenada.

ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and headsettlement of the district of the province of Chi-riqui and government of Santiago de Veragua,in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, butabounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regulartrade is carried on for supplying the city of Pa-nama. This trade consists principally in pigs.

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