The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.
shore of the river Maranon, near the port of Curupa.
CAUIANA, an island of the N. sea; situate in the middle of the mouth of the large river Marañon.
CAUINAS, an ancient and barbarous nation of the province of Charcas in Peru, which was bounded by the nation of the Canches ; here was a superb palace belonging to the Incas, built upon the top of an high mountain, the remains of which are yet to be seen near the settlement of Urcos, and those of Querquesana and Quiquijana, these being about nine miles distant from the aforesaid palace.
CAUIUSARI, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the mountains of the country of the Guames Indians, runs e. for many leagues, and enters the Apure,
CAUMARES, a barbarous nation inhabitingthe woods which lie upon the banks of the river Maranon towards the n. Some of them were reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the extinguished company of Jesuits of the province of Mainas, and formed part of the population of the settlement of San Ignacio de Pevas.
CAUO, or Couvo, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs towards the e. and enters the sea, at the distance of leagues from the mouth of the river Aprovaca : its banks on the e. side are inhabited by some barbarous Indians of the Yaus nation.
CAUQUIS, a nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, and one of the most warlike and valorous, who resisted and put a check to the conquests of Yupanqui, eleventh Emperor of Peru, obliging liim to retreat with his army to Coqnimbo.
CAURA, a large and copious river of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana. It rises in some very lofty sierras, and its shores are inhabited by many Indiatis, wlio retreat hither when pursued by the Caribes, who are accustonicd to kill the adults, and to ko('p as prisoners tlie women and children, iit order to sell them to the Dutch. This river is the largest of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ever discovered since that of the Orinoco. It runs 60 leagues before it enters into this latter river, through chains of rocks, which so impede its navigation as to render it unsafe for any but very small craft. On its shores are two forts, one at tlie mouth, where it enters the Orinoco ; and the other at its mid-course. The Maranon and the Orinoco also communicate with it by an arm which is very considerable, and is called the Rio Negro.
CAUTEN, a large river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and province of Repocura. It rises in the district of Maquegua, runs continually from e. to vs. collecting the waiters of many other rivers, in such a gentle and mild course, that it has also acquired the name of Las Damns. It passes before the Ciudad Imperial, and enters the S. sea. It is 500 toises broad at its mouth, and of sufficient depth to admit of a ship of the line ; at
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discovery of this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662 the innermost part of this country was penetrated by Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extinguished company of Jesuits. He discovered a nation of Indians, whose manners corresponded with this ; but he did not succeed in establishing missions, for want of labourers, and from other obstacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the same province and kingdom, from which the above settlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake of Coraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or "pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing by the former settlement, becomes united witli another river, formed by two streams flowing down fronrthe paramo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste waters of the lake Colta ; it then passes through the settlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly to the e. and at a league’s distance from the settlement of Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cubigies, another river which flows down from the mountain of Chimborazo, and following its course to the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon as it reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua, and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhen it passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flows in so large a body that it can be passed only by means of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ; and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it collects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and other rivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and the other cordillera, have their rise in the s. summit of Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi and Cotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island of the river Taquari, formed by this dividing itself into two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in the province and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vessels till it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moist temperature, and situate on the shore of the large river Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spaniards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 of Popolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 engines or mills for making refined sugar ; and its territory produces maize and cotton in abundance ; is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature, and surrounded by eight wards within its district ; in all of which there are 160 families of Indians, who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is seven leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the proprovince and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the middle of the serrania of that province. It is under the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast of the sea of Paria.
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lar way by a river of its name. It abounds in large alligators and mosquitoes, which render its navigation very troublesome. Its shores are covered with beautiful trees, which are inhabited by a variety of birds and apes of several species, which make an incredible chattering and noise. It was by this river that the pirate John Morgan came when he took and sacked Panama in 1670. It was discovered by Hernando de la Serma in 1527, when he called it the river of Lagartos, but its mouth was before discovered by Lope de Olano in 1510. Here are found, at certain seasons, a very small fish of the size of a pin, called titles, and these are so abundant, that putting into the water a large basket, it is certain to be drawn out full ; they are fried, and make very savoury fritters.
CHAGRE, with the dedicatory title of San Lorenzo, a settlement of the same province and kingdom ; situate upon the top of a mountain at the entrance or mouth of the former river. It has for its defence a strong castle, which was built by the order of Philip 11. by the famous engineer J uan Bautista Antoneli. This was taken by the pirate John Morgan, after having made a glorious defence, in 1668, when the settlement was burnt and sacked ; and in 1740 it was taken by the English, commanded by Admiral Vernon, who entirely destroyed it ; its loss in that war being supplied by two strong batteries, which hindered the English from making a breach, for the third time, when they came with three frigates of war : but they were driven back by Captain Don Juan de Hermida, who was formerly captain of the regiment of Granada. In 1752 this castle was rebuilt, in the most perfect manner, by the lieutenant-general and engineer Don Ignatio de Sala, governor of Cartagena, who came hither for this purpose by order of the king. In this fortress several personages of distinction' have been held prisoners, ami amongst others the Marquis of La Mina, ])resiilent, governor, and captain-general of the kingiUmi in 1694. Is 13 leagues from Portobelo.
the channels of the Orinoco as far as the gulf Triste.
CHAIPI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the corregimiento of Pullo ; in which was venerated, ever since the time of the conquest, a beautiful image of the Virgen del Rosario, which, with the temple, was burnt a few years since, and the parishioners being much afflicted at their loss, the Marquis of Selva Alegre, president of Quito, sent them another equal to the first : at the celebration of the festival people assemble from all the neighbouring districts.
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It was conquered and united to the empire by Inca Roca, the sixth Emperor.
CHALLAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarquilla or Pataz in Peru, in the district of which is an estate called Huasillas, where there is a house of entertainment belonging to the religion of St. Francis, in which reside the missionaries who assist in the conversion of the infidel Indians of the mountains.
CHAMA, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo. It rises at the foot of the snowy sierra, runs, making the form of two SS, to the e. and rt;. and passing by to the s. of the city of Merida, returns n. and enters the great lake of Maracaibo at the side opposite its mouth.
CHAMACON, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises in the mountains of the e. coast, and runs from s. e. to n. w. until it enters the large river Atrato near its mouth.
CHAMACUERO, San Francisco de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zelaya in the province and bishopric of Meohoacan. It contains 690 families of Indians, and more than 30 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulaltoes, with a convent of the order of St. Francis ; is five leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHAMAL, a settlement of Indians of the Chichimeca nation, in the head settlement of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles, in Nueva Espana ; situate in a valley of the same name. Its inhabitants having been reduced at the beginning of the 18th century, and having requested a priest, one was sent them of the religion of St. Francis ; but no sooner did he arrive amongst them than they put him to death, eating his body, and at the same time destroying the settlement. They were, however, afterwards reduced to the faith, rather through the hostilities practised against
them by their neighbours than a desire of embracing it. It is five leagues from Nuestra Senora de la Soledad.
CHAMANGUE, a river of the province and government of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs through the territory of the city of Avila from n. w. to s. e. and enters the river Coca, on the w. side, in lat. 46° s.
CHAMARIAPA, a settlement of the province of Barcelona, and government of Curaana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; one of those which are under the care of the religious observers of St. Francis, the missionaries of Piritu. It is to the w. of the mesa (table land) of Guanipa.
(CHAMBERSBURG, a post town in Pennsylvania, and the chief of Franklin county. It is situated on the e. branch of Conogocheague creek, a water of Potow.mac river, in a rich and highly cultivated country and healthy situation-. Here are about 200 houses, two Presbyterian churches, a stone gaol, a handsome court-house buUt of brick, a paper and merchant mill. It is 58 miles e. by s. of Bedford, 11 w. zo. of Shippensburg, and 157 w. of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 57' n. Long. 77° 40' a-'.)
CHAMBIRA, a settlement of the province and government of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito ; situale at the source of the river of its name. It rises to the e. of the settlement of Pinches, between the rivers Tigre and Pastaza, and runs nearly parallel to the former, where it enters, with a much increased body, into the Maranon.
(CHAMBLEE River, or Sorell, a water of the St. Lawrence, issuing from lake Champlain, 300 yards wide when lowest. It is shoal in dry seasons, but of sufficient breadth for rafting lumber, &c. spring and fall. It was called both Sorcll and Richlieu when the French held Canada.)
CHAMBLI, a French fort in the province and