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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.

CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.

[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]

CHOPTANK, a large navigable river of the province and colony of Maryland, [emptying itself into Chesapeak bay.]

CHOPTANK, Little, another (river) of the same province Maryland. It runs w. and enters the sea in the bay of Chesapeak.

CHOQUE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Acros.

CHOQUECAMATA, a settlement of the province and corregtmiento of Cochabamba in Peru.

CHOQUELIMPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Copia.

CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.

CHORAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamalies in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Jesus.

CHOROMA, a settlement of the province and corrregimiento of Chichas and Tarija, in the district of the former, and annexed to the curacy of Tupisa.

CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.

CHORONI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, between the mountain of Ocumara and the port of Chuapo.

CHOROS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the hard lot of being scantily supplied Avith Avater, even as much as is necessary lor drinking.

Same name, a point of the coast of this province and kingdom (Chile).

Same name, an island near the coast and point of its name (Choros),

CHORRERA, a settlement of the jurisdiction and akaldia mayor of Nata in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate near the coast of the S. sea.

Same name, a creek of the island of Cuba, on the 71. coast, having a fort for its protection, with a detacliment of troops from the Havana.

CHORILLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru.

Same name, another (settlement), in the province and corregimento of Cercado in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Surco.

CHORRILLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cañete in Peru; situate on the coast, close to the point of China.

CHORROS, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHORROU, Chike du, a rivulet and establishment of the French, in their possessions in Guayana.

CHORUNGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Andaray ; situate in the valley of its name.

CHOSAPACK, a large and beautiful bay on the coast of the province and colony of Virginia]]. [See Chesapeak.]

CHOSCHAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Huacaiia.

[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]

CHOTA, Todos Santos de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]

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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending a mile into the sea, and affording good anchorage. Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]

[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S. America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]

CHRISTOVAL, San, a town of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; founded by Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of •a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundance of sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar, and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a great proportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried to Maracaibo. It has a good church and a convent t)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much to decay with regard to its establishment. The population of the town consists of 400 housekeepers. It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the jurisdiction of which it is divided by the river Pamplonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregorio de Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop of Santa Marta.

Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Charcas in Peru ; in which took place the following extraordinary occurrence: The curate of this place going to confess a sick person in the settlement of Tahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexed to this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampas or llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and with the two Indians who accompanied him on horseback, never more appeared, nor were any vestiges ever found of them : this was the reason why the latter settlement has since been disunited from the curacy of San Christoval.

Same name, a capital city of the province and captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Brazil ; being also known by that name. It is founded on the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defended port. It has a magnificent parish church with the title of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fine convents, the one of the order of the Franciscans, and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel of devotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The councilhouse is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs is a hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequented as a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of the jurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain, who governs this province, and who is attended by a company of troops as a body-guard. In early times it was filled with nobility, descended from the first families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to 600 housekeepers. in its district, towards the part called Coninquiva, is a parish with four chapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris five others. It has also 25 engines, by which abundance of sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ; this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bay of Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.

Same name, an island of the N. sea ; one of the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)her Columbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It is five leagues in circumference, and is very fertile, and abounding in productions, particularly in cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by all of which it carries on a great commerce. Here arc some good salines, and in the mountains are some woods of fine timber, well adapted for the building of ships. The English and the French both established themselves here in 1625, holding a divided possession, when they were driven out by the Spaniards. After this the former again returned and re-established themselves in the greatest part of the island, leaving, however, a small share to the French, until the year 1713, when the latter, in conjunction with the Spaniards themselves, ceded it entirely to the English, who from that time have held it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher, situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was called by its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in November 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleased with its appearance, that he honoured it with his own Christian name. But it was neither planted nor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however, (notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribes the honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest of all the British territories in the \V. Indies, and in truth, the common mother both of the English and French settlements in the Charibean islands. A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, associated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year 1622, and with them took his passage on board a ship bound to Virginia. From thence he and his companions sailed from St. Christopher’s, where they arrived in January 1623, and by the month of September following had raised a good crop of tobacco, which they proposed to make their staple commodity. By the generality of historians who have treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it is asserted that a party oflhe French, under the command of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc, took possession of one part of this island, on the same day that Mr. Warner landed on the other; but the truth is, that the first landing of Warner and his associates happened two years before the arrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted by Du Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Unfortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of

1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j

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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera. On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort of shell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea in lat. 31° 40'.

Same name, a volcano of the same kingdom (Chile), celebrated for the irruptions it has made. It is 23 leagues from the coast, and to the n. of the city of San Juan de la Frontera, in lat. 31° 30' s.

CHUAZINGO, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 124 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. n. w. of that of Tlapa.

CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missions which belong to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e. one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leagues to the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates, called Fresnos and Charcas.

CHUCAPA, a settlement of the province and norregimiento of Angaraes in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Acoria.

Same name another settlement, in the province and correghniento of Xauja in the same kingdom.

CHUCANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firrae. it rises in the mountains towards the n. and enters the sea between the islands Las Palmas and Pinos.

CHUCAY, a settlement of the province of Venezuela, and government of Maracaibo ; situate on the extremity of the peninsula formed by the cape of San Roman.

CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, and lying quite in the interior of the same. It is an harbour, or second port, of a circular figure, closed in on all sides, its access being through a narrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.

CHUCHE, a small island of the S. sea, in the bay and gulph of Panama. It lies the farthest of any from the coast, and to the w. of the large island of Rey.

CHUCHULAIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Combaya, in which there is a pious sanctuary of Our Lady, much frequented.

CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the province of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13 leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria, collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers less than itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.

CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen do Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of the river of its name, having a port, which is a lading-place for the river Maranon. The above river rises in the sierra of the province of Luya and Chilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to the Cumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon, and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Its mouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.

CllUCMI. See Julumito.

CHUCO, Santiago de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huamachuco in Peru.

CHUCUITO, a province and government of Peru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name, and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by that of Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ; and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coast which looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagues long from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremely populous at the time of the conquest, and was on that account considered wealthy. Its governors had the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyed the title of vice-patron and captain-general of the immediate provinces, including some which lay upon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy temperature, particularly in the rainy months, which are December, February, and March. It produces sweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum, bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some of the glens, where the soil is moister, they grow pulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This province abounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs, and native sheep, which the natives use for trading instead of asses ; the regular load for each being four or five arrohas. Here are also bred alpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizcachas, which are similar in shape and figure to a hare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and ostriches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kinds of woven articles are made for useful and ornamental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from the wool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, and mantles of various designs and colours. This province has many silver mines, which are worked with emolument ; also streams of hot medicinal waters. It is situate on the shores of the great lake of Chucuito, from which large quantities of fish are taken, and sold for a good price to the neighbouring provinces. It is watered by several rivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest or most considerable of them is the Hilava. Its natives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 different settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars annually. The capital is of the same name. This

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but very little known, of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bordering upon the river Fusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed in the woods, having a communication with the Faeces and Fusungaes.

[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, the remnant of a nation once respectable in point of number. They formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bears their name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the w, side of the Missouri, about 15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek, where they built and fortified a village ; but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, they fled to the Black hills, about the head of the Chyenne river, where they wander in quest of the buffalo, having no fixed residence. They do not cultivate. They are well disposed towards the whites, and might easily be induced to settle on the Missouri, if they could be assured of being protected from the Sioux. Their number annually diminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]

[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]

CIBAMBE, a settlement of the district and corregimiento of Alausi in the kingdom of Quito.

CIBAYA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arica in Peru.

[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in, ana also the ancient name of, New Granada in Tierra Firroe, S. America. The country here, though not mountainous, is very cool ; and the Indians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, most sincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans. When the country was discovered, they had each but one wife, and were excessively jealous. They worshipped water, and an old woman that was a magician ; and believed she lay hid under one of tlicir

CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggy mountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, and from whence great wealth was procured at the be* ginning of the conquest.

CIBOUX, a small island near the e. coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton, between the port Delfin and the entrance of the lake of Labrador.

CICASICA, a province and corregimiento of Perú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains of the Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. by the province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Paria and coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touched by the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the province of Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz. It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom, since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12 lieutenants for the administration of justice, on account of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j. and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ; in some parts there are some very cold serrantasy in which breed every species of cattle, in proportion to the number of estates found there. That part which borders upon the Andes is very hot and moist, but at the same time fertile, and abounding in all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane, and in cacao estates, the crops of which are very great, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the use of this leaf, which was before only common to the Indians, being now general amongst the Spaniards of both sexes and all classes ; so that one basketful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars, will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also cultivated, and from these is made excellent wine. This province is watered by the river La Paz, which is the source of the Beni ; also by a river descending from the branches of the cordillera, and which, in the wet season, is tolerably large. At the river Corico begins the navigation by means of rafts to the settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the productions of this province may be counted Jesuits bark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the experiments made at Lima. This province begins at the river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs of Santa Barbara from the city of La Paz, and here is a little valley watered by the above river, and in it are a few houses or country-seats belonging to the inhabitants of the above city. This valley, which is of a delightful temperature, extends as far as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, on the skirt of the cordillera, where was found that rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks, the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the peculiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found to have six different alloys ; its degrees of perfection differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that being valued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth 11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried to the royal treasury, and upon this occasion the Marquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, received the thanks of his majesty. In the territory of Cinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes are found in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars, corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco. It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver, which are still known to exist in other mountains besides that of Santiago, but the natives have no inclination to work them. The aforementioned mountain has the peculiarity of abounding in either sort of the said metals. In the asiento of the mines of Arica, there is a gold mine which produces but little. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«

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Same name, another (settlement), of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river to the n, n. w. of the city of Nirua.

Same name, another (settlement), of the province and government of Yucatan ; situate on the coast between the settlements of Silan and Sisal.

Same name, another (settlement), of the missions belonging to the religious of St. Francis, in the kingdom of Nuevo Mexico.

Same name, another (settlement), of the island of Cuba ; situate on the n. coast.

[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, in Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about 50 families, and is composed of woodland and salt marsh.]

CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close to the port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and two leagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~ jado, since, being looked upon from any part, it bears the resemblance to a dead man. Twentyfive leagues from Cape Blanco.

[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, near the coast of the gulf of California, and in the most interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]

Same name, a small lake of New France, which is formed by the strait of Misisagues, between lake Huron and that of Erie.

Same name, a bay on the coast of the country and land of Labrador, in the strait of Belle-isle.

[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Vermont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; miles i. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. of Portsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, and contains 1435 inhabitants.]

[Claremont County, in Camden district, S. Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and 2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]

CLARENDON, a county of South Carolina, [the southernmost in Camden district, about SO miles long and SO broad, and in 1792 contained 1790 whites and 602 slaves.]

Same name, a settlement of the island of Jamaica ; situate on the s. coast.

[Clarendon, a township near the centre of Rutland county, Vermont, watered by Otter creek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e. of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It contains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of a mountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in the edge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouth of which is not more than two feet and a half in diameter ; in its descent the passage makes an angle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but continues of nearly the same diameter through its whole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distance from the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20 feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; every part of the floor, sides, and roof of this room appear to be a solid rock, but very rough and uneven. The water is continually percolating through the top, and has formed stalactites of various forms ; many of which are conical, and some have the appearance of massive columns ; from this room there is a communication by a narrow passage to others equally curious.]

CLARINES, a settlement of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; lying to the e. of the city of Barcelona, and on the shore of the river Unare.

CLARKE, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of St. Joseph, and on the e. coast.

Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 .. coast.

[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, between the head waters of Kentucky and Licking riversIts chief town is Winchester.]

[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrison county, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, a court-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. side of Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgantown.]

[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. New York, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, two miles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles, and from New York city 29 miles. By the state census of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are electors.]

[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what was till lately called Tennessee county, in the state of Tennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank of Cumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river, opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It contains about SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45, miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. of Knoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]

[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w. territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks. It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, opposite Louisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100 miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flooded when the river is high, and inhabited by people who cannot at present find a better situation.]

CLARO, a river of the district of Rexe in the

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