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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]




miles and a half e. ofirondequat or Rundagut bay, and SO e. from Niagara falls. The setlleincnts on Chenessee river from its month upwards, are Hartford, Ontario, Wadsworth, and Williamsburgh. The last mentioned place, it is probable, wili soon be the seat of extensive comineice. There will not be a carrying place between New York city and Williamsburgh Avhen tiie w. canals and locks shall be completed. The carrying places at present areas follows, viz. Albany to Schenectady, 16 miles ; from the head of tiie Mohawk to Wood creek, one ; Oswego lalls, two ; Chenessee falls, two ; so that there are but 2 1 miles land carriage necessary, in order to convey commodities from a tract of country capable of maintaining several millions of people. The famous Chenessee flats lie on the borders of this river. They arc about 20 miles long, and about four wide; the soil is remarkably rich, quite clear of trees, producing grass near 10 feet high. Tliese flats are estimated to be worth 200,000/. as they now lie. They arc mostly the property of the Indians.)

CHENGUE, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the sea-coast. It was sacked by William Gauson in 1655, who also destroyed and plundered circumjacent estates.

(CHEPAWAS, or Chipeways, an Indian nation inhabiting the coast of lake Superior and the islands in the lake. They could, according to Mr. Hutchins, furnish 1000 warriors 20 years ago. Otlier tribes of this nation inhabit the country round Saguinam or Sagana bay, and lake Huron, bay Puan, and a part of lake Michigan. They were lately hostile to the United States, but, by the treaty of Greenville, August 3. 1795, they yielded to them the island De Bois Blanc. See Six Nations.)

(CHEPAWYAN Fort is situated on a peninsula at the s. w. end of Athapescow lake, lat. 58° 40' n. long. 110° 25' Ji>. in the territory of the Hudson bay company.)

CHEPEN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Saña in Peru.

CHEPETLAN, a settlement of the head settlement, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. It contains 203 families of Indians, who live by tiie making and selling of chocolate cups. Two leagues to the n. n. 70. of Tenango.

(CHEPEWAS, of Leach Lake, Indians of N. America, claiming the country on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Crow-wing river to its source, and extending w. of the Missis-

sippi to the lands claimed by the Sioux, with whom they still cop.tend for dominion. They claim also, c. of the Mississippi, the country extending as far as lake Superior, including the waters of the St. lamis. Tliis country is thickly covered with timber generally, lies level, and generally fertile, though a considerable proportion of it is intersected and broken up by small lakes, morasses, and small swamps, particularly about the heads of the Mississipi and river St. Louis. They do not cultivate, but live principally on the wild rice, which they procure in great abundance on the borders of Leach lake and the banks of the Mississipi. Their number has been considerably reduced by W'ars and tlie small-pox. Their trade is at its greatest extent.)

(Chepewas, of Red Lake, Indians of N. America, who claim the country about Red Lake and Red Lake river, as far as the Red river of lake Winnipie, beyond which last river they contend with the Sioux for territory. This is a low level country, and generally thickly covered with timber, interrupted with many swamps and morasses. This, as well as the other bands of Chepewas, are esteemed the best hunters in the ti. to. country ; but from the long residence of this band in the country they now inhabit, game is become scarce ; therefore their trade is supposed to be at its greatest extent. The Chepewas are a well-disposed people, but excessively fond of spirituous liquors.)

(Chepewas, of River Pembena, Indians of N. America, who formerly resided on the e. side of the Mississippi, at Sand lake, but were induced by the N. W. company to remove, a few years since, to the river Pembena. They do not claim the lands on which they hunt. Tiie country is level, and the soil good. The w. side of the river is pi incipally prumVs, or open plains ; on the e. side there is a greater proportion of timber. Their trade at present is a very valuable one, and will probably increase for some years. They do not cultivate, but live by hunting. They are welldisposed towards the whites.)

CHEPICA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile ; situate on the coast, between the port of Huasco and the point of Pajaros.

CHEPILLO, a small island of the S. sea, in the gulf of Panamá, and at the mouth or entrance ofthe river Bayano, is somewhat more than two leagues distant Irom the continent; three miles in circumference, and enjoys a pleasant climate, although subject to intense heat. It was formerly inhabited by the Indians, of whom there

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manufactures peculiar to the country, such as coarse trowsers, baizes, and blankets. Although it is some years since this province has received any mischief from the infidels who inhabit the mountains of the Andes, yet it has regular advanced detachments or guards stationed for the defence of the frontiers, prepared against a recurrence of the evils experienced in former times. As we have before said, it is the largest province, so also it is the best peopled, since it contains upAvards of 50,000 souls and 33 settlements, the capital of Avhich has the same name. Its repartimiento, or tribute, used to amount to 226,730 dollars, and it used to pay an alcavala of 1814 dollars per annum. The settlements are,

Cicasica, Mecapaca,

Coroico, Pasca,

Yanacache, Ynquisive,

Chulumani, Quimi,

Caza, Collana,

Suri, Huayrapaya,

Cabari, Coripaya,

Mohosa, Chupe,

Capinata, Milluhuay,

Ychoca, Taxma,

Coani, Choxlla,

Yaco, Chirca,

Luribay, Yrupana,

Haichayo, Colqui,

Calamarca, Plaraca,

Zapanqui, Ocavaya.


CICAYARI, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the Portuguese possessions. It rises in the territory of the Chappoanas Indians, runs n. n. w. and enters the Rio Negro.

[CICERO, a military township in New York, on the s. tv. side of Oneida lake, and between it, the Salt lake, and the Salt springs.]

CICLADAS Grandes, islands of the South sea, discovered by Mr. De Bouganville in 1763.

CICOBASA, a river of the province and government of Quixos y Macas in the kingdom of Quito, and of the district of the latter. It rises in the cordillera of the province of Cuenca, runs s. and enters the river Santiago.

CIENEGA, a settlement and real of the silver mines of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate near the settlement of Parral.

Same name, another settlement, of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is situate on the sea-coast, and on the bank of the cknega or marsh which


lies close to it, and which gives it its name. It wag a reduccton of the monks of St. Domingo.

CIENEGA of Oro, another (settlement), with the surname of Oro, in the province and government of Cartagena, of the same kingdom, it is of the district of Tolu, and formed by the re- union of other settlements in the year 1776, effected by the Governor Don Juan Pimienta.

Same name, another (settlement), of the island of Cuba; situate on the n. coast.

CIMA, a valley of the province and govornraent of Antioquia ; bounded by that of Paucura, from which it is divided by the river Cauca just at its source.

CINACANTLAN, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

==CINAGUA Y GUACANA, the alcaldia mayor and jurisdiction of the province and bishopric of Mechoacán in Nueva Espana. It is 80 leagues long from e. to w. and 60 wide from n. to s. Its territory is for the most part mountainous and uneven, and its temperature bad. Its productions are large cattle, wax, maize, and fruits. Tire capital is the settlement of the same name, of a hot temperature, and inhabited by 25 families of Indians, who cultivate maize and melons, upon which this scanty population consists, though it was formerly of some consideration. It has suffered, no doubt, from the iinkindness of the temperature, and from the wantof water. The jurisdiction is 80 leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of Mexico. The other settlements are, Guacana, Paraquaro,

Ario, Nocupetajo,

Etuquarillo, Acuiyo,

Santa Ana Turicato. Punguco.

CINALOA, a province and government of Nueva España. It is between the w. and «. of Mexico, from whence it is distant 300 leagues. It extends in length as far as proselytes have been made to the gospel, viz. to 140° ; and it extends to 40° in width. On the e. of it are the loftiest sierras of Topia, running towards the n. and on the w. it is embraced by the arm of the sea of California. On the s. it has the town of Culiacan, and to the n. the innumerable nations of Indians, the boundaries of which are unknown. This province lies between lat. 27° and 32° n . ; this being the extent to Avhich the inissonaries have penetrated. The temperature is extremely hot, although the cold is intense during the months of December and January. It rains here very little, especially upon the coast ; and seldom more than 3 p

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47 r

Same name, another (settlement), of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river to the n, n. w. of the city of Nirua.

Same name, another (settlement), of the province and government of Yucatan ; situate on the coast between the settlements of Silan and Sisal.

Same name, another (settlement), of the missions belonging to the religious of St. Francis, in the kingdom of Nuevo Mexico.

Same name, another (settlement), of the island of Cuba ; situate on the n. coast.

[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, in Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about 50 families, and is composed of woodland and salt marsh.]

CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close to the port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and two leagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~ jado, since, being looked upon from any part, it bears the resemblance to a dead man. Twentyfive leagues from Cape Blanco.

[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, near the coast of the gulf of California, and in the most interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]

Same name, a small lake of New France, which is formed by the strait of Misisagues, between lake Huron and that of Erie.

Same name, a bay on the coast of the country and land of Labrador, in the strait of Belle-isle.

[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Vermont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; miles i. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. of Portsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, and contains 1435 inhabitants.]

[Claremont County, in Camden district, S. Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and 2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]

CLARENDON, a county of South Carolina, [the southernmost in Camden district, about SO miles long and SO broad, and in 1792 contained 1790 whites and 602 slaves.]

Same name, a settlement of the island of Jamaica ; situate on the s. coast.

[Clarendon, a township near the centre of Rutland county, Vermont, watered by Otter creek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e. of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It contains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of a mountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in the edge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouth of which is not more than two feet and a half in diameter ; in its descent the passage makes an angle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but continues of nearly the same diameter through its whole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distance from the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20 feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; every part of the floor, sides, and roof of this room appear to be a solid rock, but very rough and uneven. The water is continually percolating through the top, and has formed stalactites of various forms ; many of which are conical, and some have the appearance of massive columns ; from this room there is a communication by a narrow passage to others equally curious.]

CLARINES, a settlement of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; lying to the e. of the city of Barcelona, and on the shore of the river Unare.

CLARKE, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of St. Joseph, and on the e. coast.

Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 .. coast.

[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, between the head waters of Kentucky and Licking riversIts chief town is Winchester.]

[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrison county, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, a court-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. side of Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgantown.]

[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. New York, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, two miles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles, and from New York city 29 miles. By the state census of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are electors.]

[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what was till lately called Tennessee county, in the state of Tennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank of Cumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river, opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It contains about SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45, miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. of Knoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]

[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w. territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks. It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, opposite Louisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100 miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flooded when the river is high, and inhabited by people who cannot at present find a better situation.]

CLARO, a river of the district of Rexe in the

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kingdom of Chile. It rises from one of the lakes of Avendafio, runs w. and then turning s. enters the river Laxa. On its shore the Spaniards have a fort, called Yumbel, or Don Carlos de Austria, to restrain the Araucanos Indians.

Same name, another river in the province and corregimiento of Maule of the same kingdom. It runs w. and enters the Maule.

Same name, another river of the province and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the valley of Corpus Christi, and running through it, enters the great river Magdalena.

Same name, another, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs w. and enters the Mbotetei.

Same name, another small river of the kingdom of Brazil, which also runs w. and enters the Preto or Palma, opposite the Benito.

Same name, another (river) of the same kingdom of Brazil, distinct from the former. It rises in the country of the Araes Indians, runs n. n. e. and enters the Parcuipasa, to the w. of the toM'n Boa.

Same name, a port of the coast of the South sea, in the province and government of Choco in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It lies between the port Quemado and the bay of San Francisco Solano.

CLAUCAC, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana.

CLAUDIO, San, a small island of the North sea, near the e. coast of Nova Scotia in N. America, in the strait which this coast forms with the island of San Juan.

[CLAVERACK, a post-town in Columbia county. New York, pleasantly situated on a large plain, about two miles and a half e. of Hudson city, near a creek of its own name. It contains about 60 houses, a Dutch church, a court-house, and a goal. The township, by the census of 1791, contained 3262 inhabitants, including 340 slaves. By the state census of 1796 tkere appears to be 412 electors. It is 231 miles from Philadelphia. 1

CLAYCAYAC, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Zultepec in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the curacy of Teraascaltepec. It contains 84 families of Indians, and is four leagues s. of its capital.

CLEAUER, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

CLERC, Ensenada de, a bay of the n. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the French possessions, between the bay of Los Cairaitos and the Agujero or Trou of Jeremias.

[CLERK’S Isles lie s, w. from, and at the entrance of Behring’s straits, which separate Asia from America. They rather belong to Asia, being very near, and s. s. w. from the head-land which lies between the straits and the gulf of Anadir in Asia. They have their name in honour of that able navigator, Captain Clerk, the companion of Captain Cook. In other maps they are called St. Andrea isles.]

[CLERMONT, a post-town in Columbia county, New York, six miles from Red hook, 15 from Hudson, 117 miles n. of New York, and 212 from Philadelphia. The township contains 867 inhabitants, inclusive of 113 slaves.]

[Clermont, a village 13 miles from Camden, S. Carolina. In the late war, here was a block-house encompassed by an abbatis; it was taken from Colonel Rugely of the British militia, in December 1781, by an ingenious stratagem of Lieutenant-colonel W ashington.]

CLEYALI, a settlement of Indians of South Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Alabama.

[CLIE, Lake Le, in Upper Canada, about 38 miles long and 30 broad; its waters communicate with those of lake Huron,]

[CLINCH Mountain divides the waters of Holston and Clinch rivers, in the state of Tennessee. In this mountain Burk’s Garden and Morrises Nob might be described as curiosities.]

[Clinch, or Peleson, a navigable branch of Tennessee river, which is equal in length to Holston river, its chief branch, but less in width. It rises in Virginia, and after it enters into the state of Tennessee, it receives Powel’s and Poplar’s creek, and Emery’s river, besides other streams. The course of the Clinch is s. w. and s. w. by w . ; its mouth, 150 yards wide, lies 35 miles below Knoxville, and 60 above the mouth of the Hiwasse. It is beatable for upwards of 200 miles, and Powel’s river, nearly as large as the main river, is navigable for boats 100 miles.]

[CLINTON, the most n. county of the state of New York, is bounded n. by Canada, e. by the deepest waters of lake Champlain, which line separates it from Vermont, and s. by the county of Washington. By the census of 1791, it contained 16 14 inhabitants, including 17 slaves. It is divided into five townships, viz. Plattsburgh, the capital. Crown Point, Willsborough, Champlain, and Peru. The length from n. to s. is about 96 miles, and the breadth from e. to w. including the line upon the lake, is 36 miles. The number of souls was, in 1796, estimated to be 6000. By the state census, in Jan. 1796, there were 624 persons entitled to be electors. A great proportion of the lands are of an excellent quality, and produce

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c o c


COCO, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of the n. and enters the sea opposite the island of Las Palmas, and gives its name to the territory of a Cacique, thus called.

Same name, a point of the coast of the South sea, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the bay of Panama.

COCOLI, a river of the province and government of Honduras. It runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of this name.

COCOLI, a point of the coast, in the same province and kingdom (Honduras).

COCOLOT, a city, which some liave supposed to be in the province of Chaco in Peru, but of the existence of which no proofs are at present to be found.

COCOMERACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 40 leagues to the w. s.zo. of the town 'And real of the mines of Chiguaga.

COCOMICO, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada,

COCONUCO, See Cucunuco.

COCORALE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela in the kingdom of Tierra Firme; situate at the w. of the town of San Felipe.

COCORIN, a settlement of the province of Ostimuri in Nueva Espana; situate on the shore of the river Hiagui, between the settlements of Bacun and Comoriopa.

COCOROTE, some copper mines in the province and government of Venezuela, much celebrated.

COCOS, some small islands of the Pacific or S. sea, lying close together, and divided by some narrow channels. They abound in cocoa-trees, and from thence take their name. They are also called Santa Cruz, from having been discovered on the day of the invention of the cross. The climate here is pleasant, but the isles are uncultivated and desert. Lat. 5° n.

Same name, a point of the island of Trinidad, on the e. coast.

COCOSPERA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate at the source of a river,

COCOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja, in the jurisdiction of the city of Pamplona, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

COCOTZINGO, S. Geronimo de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana.

COCUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the NueVo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the sierra Nevada. It is of a cold temperature, but abounds in all kinds of productions, and particularly in wheat, maize, barley, &c. It contains 700 white inhabitants, and 150 Indians. Thirty-two leagues from Tunja, and eight from the settlement of Chita.

COCUISAS, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, It lies to the s. of the city of Cariaco.

Same name, a river of the province and government of Venezuela, being one of those which enter the Gamaiotal, before this runs into that of La Portuguesa.

COCULA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tlajomulco in Nueva Espana. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and is six leagues to the w. of its capital.

COCUPAC, a city and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Valladolid in Nueva Espana, and of the bishopric of Mechoaean. Its situation is in a nook to the n. of the great lake. On the e. and ze. are two lofty mountains, which form so many other entrances, the one to the 5. and the other to the n. Its temperature is rather cold than w'arm ; and although it does not want for fruits, it is but ill supplied with water, the only stream it has not running more than the distance of a stone’s throw before it enters a lake. The inhabitants are thus under the necessity of supplying themselves by wells. The population of this city consists in 45 families of Spaniards, 52 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 150 of Indians. They occupy themselves in the making of tiles or flags ; and the inferior order are muleteers. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis.

COCUS, Punta de, a point on the e. coast of the island of Newfoundland, between cape Spear and the bay of Tor.

COD, a cape of the coast of New England and province of Massachusetts. It runs for many leagues towards the sea, forming a large semicircle, and afterwards returning, forms the bay of Barnstable. [See Cape Cod, Barnstable, &c.]

CODDINGTON, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

CODEBORE, a small river of New Britain,

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