The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
C H A
C H A
and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction of til is town by the British in 1775, several brandies of mannfadures were carried on to great advantage, some of which have been since revived : particularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes, ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches, silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walks have lately been erected in this town, and tlie increase of its houses, population, trade, and navigation, have been very great within a few' years past. This town is a port of entry in conjunction with Boston. At the head of the neck there is a bridge over Mystic river, which connects Charlestown with Malden.)
CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island of Nevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inch there are beautiful houses and shops well provided with every thing ; is defended by a fort called Charles. It has a market every Saturday, beginning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whither the Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs, fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a piece of sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of an opening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphur gut, which is so hot as to be telt through the soles of the shoes when being trodden upon. At the foot of the declivity of this same part of the city, is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which being supposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itself shortly in the sand. Towards the side lying next the sea are two fountains, one of hot water, the other of cold, and of these two are formed the lake of Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderate warmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, being nearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the place where are caught eels and silver-fish, resembling the cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of which lias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodigious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in an earthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity, which is still to be seen. The altitude of this mountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestown bay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ; and from the said bay to the top, four miles. The declivity from this mountain to the town is very steep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] In Lat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.
Charlestown, another city of the island of Barbadoes ; the situation of which is two leagues from that of San Miguel. It has a good port defended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other, and both commanding the city and the road: in the middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitants carry on a great trade with the other islands.
county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river, about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the state census of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are electors.)
(Charlestown, a township in Mason county, Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth of Lauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, and is six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lexington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of 70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120 w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Philadelphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and contains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church, a court-house, and an academy. The road from Boston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat. 43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internal trade is carried on here.)
(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county, Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; six mites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannah river, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb. from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses, chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in the herring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)
(Charlestown, a district in the lower country of S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. This large district, of which the city of Charleston is the chief town, lies between Santee and Combahee rivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. It sends to the state legislature 48 representatives and 13 senators, and one member to congress. It contains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 are free.)
(Charlestown, a township in Washington county, Rhode Island state, having the Atlantic ocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the 71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some of its ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers into the sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, and contains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. A few years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in the state ; the greater part of them resided in tin's township. They are peaceable and well disposed to government, and s|5cak the English language.)
raense advantage to the neighbouring states, particularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been observed, with some little exaggeration, however, that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)
(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies in the s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Connecticut river. It has the state of Massachusetts on the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsborough county e. It lias 34 townships, of which Charlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772 inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)
(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant township in Rockingham county. New Hampshire. It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is a pretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merrimack river. It was incorporated in 1722, and contains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers. It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river, 14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter, 35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry, and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compact part of this town there is a gentle descent to the sea, which, in a clear day, may be seen from thence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60
houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnake hill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it is half a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and 400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from its base, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’s Den, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, and four feet high, floored and circled by a regular rock, from the upper part of which are dependent many excrescences, nearly in the form and size of a pear, which, when approached by a torch, throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue; It is a cold, dreary place, of which many frightful stories are told by those who delight in the marvellous.)
(Chester, a borough and post-town in Pennsylvania, and the capital of Delaware county; pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware river, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wilmington. It contains about 60 houses, built on a regular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. From Cliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and 15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed by islands of marsh, which are generally banked, and turned into rich and immensely valuable meadows. The first colonial assembly was convened here, the 4th of December 1682. The place affords genteel inns and good entertainment, and is the resort of much company from the metropolis duringthe summer season. It was incorporated in December 1795, and is governed by two burgesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assistants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peace and order of the place.)
(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Delaware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45 miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains 33 townships, of which West Chester is the shire town, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 are slaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, which employs six forges : these manufacture 'about 1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)
(Chester River, a navigable water of the e. side of Maryland, which rises two miles within the line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprus and Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ; runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s. nearly three miles, when it receives South-Eastern creek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it
empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It forms an island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. side of Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay. It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long, from Andover creek, a mile and a half from Bridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek, which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)
(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county, Virginia, situate on the point of land formed by the junction of Allen’s or North river and South river, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s. by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long. 78° 25' w.)
(Chester County, in Pinckney district, South Carolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, on W ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; of whom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sends two representatives, but no senator, to the state legislature.)
(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county. New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s. It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 inhabitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. of Charlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Portsmouth. About the year 1730, the garrison of fort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions, and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted from W est River mountain in th is township , and four miles distant from that fort. The like appearances have been observed at various times since ; particularly, one in 1752 was the most severe of any. There are two places where the rocks bear marks of having been heated and calcined.)
Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38 e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel* phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church, college, court-house, and gaol. The college was incorporated in 1782, by the name of Washington. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, who are empowered to supply vacancies and hold, estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/. currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of 1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12' n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)
CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea on the side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [On the Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi, there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ; and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, and from two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water is lowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal at its mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water is deep under them they could be easily removed; and the Indians say there is nothing to impede navigation from their village to the gulf. The banks are more elevated than those of the Mississippi, and in some places are so high as never to be overflowed. The natural productions are the same as on the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordinary size and compactness of the canes, is superior. If measures were adopted and pursued with a view to improve this communication, there would soon be on its banks the most prosperous and important settlements in that colony.)
(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-. siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24 miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage, which is 13 miles long, and If broad, communicates with this lake at the n. end, by a strait a quarter of a mile wide. The country bordering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered with cypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the €. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya river is divided by innumerable streams, which occasion as many islands. Some of these streams are* navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short? of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where persons passing that way generally halt as a resting place. Nearly opposite this island there is an opening which leads to the sea. It is about 150 yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)
CORIXAS, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, It rises in the sierra Bermeja, runs n. forming a curve, and eaters the Tocantines near that of Los Monges, according to tl>e account given by the Portuguese.
CORIXAS, some sierras of the same kingdom, which run s. s. e. and are a continuation of the sierra Bermeja ; they then run e. forming a curve, as far as the river Tocantines, and extend their course on as far as the shore of the Araguaya.
(CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, between Claremont and Plainfield, about 15 miles n. of Charlestown, and 16 s. of Dartmouth college. It was incorporated in 1763. In 1775 it contained 309, and in 1790, 982 inhabitants.
CORO, Santa Ana de, a city of the province and government of Venezuela, thus named in the time of the Indians, after the district called Coriana. It was founded by Juan de Ampues in 1529. The Weltzers, under the orders of Nicholas Federman, were the first Avho peopled it, giving it the name of Cordoba, to distinguish it from the other city of the same name which had been founded by Gonzalo de Ocampo in the province of Cumana, This name it afterwards lost, and took that of Coro, which it preserves to this day, from a small settlement of Indians thus named. It is of a dry and hot temperature, but so healthy that physicians are said here to be of no use. The territory, although sandy and lack of water, produces every kind of vegetable production ; so that it may be said to abound in every thing that luxury or con^ venience may require. Here are large breeds of cow-cattle and goats, and a considerable number of good mules. Its articles of merchandize, such as cheese, tanned hides, and cacao, meet with a ready sale in Cartagena, Caracas, and the island of St. Domingo. It has a reduced convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and an hermitage dedicated to St. Nicholas. The town is very rich. It was plundered, by the English in 1567. Its church was a cathedral, and the head of the bishopric, from the time that it was erected in 1532 until 1636, when this title was transferred to Santiago of Caracas. It is two leagues distant from the sea, where there is a port insecure, but much frequented by trading vessels.
(From the time that the governor began to reside at Caracas, in 1576, there remained no conspicuous authority at Coro but the bishop and chapter, and they did all they could to follow th« governor; and indeed, not being able to leave Coro by legal measures, they put tlieir wishes into effect by flight, in 1636. At three leagues from the city are lands where they cultivate with success, if not with abundance, all the usual produce of the country. The inhabitants, who are much addicted to indolence, glory that they are descended from the first conquerors of the country ; and there is here, generally speaking, more rank than wealth, and more idleness than industry. The little trade that is carried on here consists in mules, goats, hides, sheep-skins, cheeses, &c. which come in a great measure from the interior, and the larger part fromCarora; shipments of these articles are made for the islands. The most common intercourse is with Cura 9 oa, from whence they 2
C R U
(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. territory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, opposite to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20 yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi. It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)
(CROWN Point is the most s. township in Clinton county, New York, so called from the celebrated fortress which is in it, and which was garrisoned by the British troops, from the time of its reduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the late revolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4th of May 1775, and retaken by the British the year after. The point upon which it was erected by the French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champlain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point, by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-laChevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Frederick. After it was repaired by the British, it was the most regular and expensive of any constructed by them in America ; the walls are of wood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20 feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surrounded by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solid rock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards the lake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way, to secure a communication with the waters of the lake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, as you enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, not elegantly built, which are capable of containing 2000 troops. There were formerly several outworks, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the case with the principal fort, except the walls of the barracks. The famous fortification called Ticonderoga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress is also so much demolished, that a stranger would scarcely form an idea of its original construction. The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a few streams, however, issue from the mountains, which answer for mills and common uses. In the mountains, which extend the whole length of lake George, and part of the length of lake Champlain, are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the other inhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town contained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of 1796, it appears there are 126 electors. The fortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2P w.)
(CROYDEN, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, adjoining Cornish, and about 18 miles n. e. of Ciiarlestown. It was incorporated in 1763 ; in 1775 it contained 143, and in 1790, 537 inhabitants.)
C R U
on the coast, between cape San Roman and the Punta Colorada.
CRUCERO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacj" of Coaza. It has a sanctuary where an image of Nuestra Seilora del Rosario is held in high veneration.
CRUCES, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the river Chagre, and in a small valley surrounded by mountains. It is of a good temperature and healthy climate, and is the plain from whence the greatest commerce was carried on, particularly at the time that the galleons used to go to Tierra Firme, the goods being brought up the river as far as this settlement, where the royal store-houses are established, and so forwarded to Panama, Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road. The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this settlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illustrious house of the Urriolas; which family is established in the capital, and has at sundry times rendered signal services to the king. The English pirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it in J670.
Cruces, another, of the missions belonging to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
CRUILLAS, a town of the province and government of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764, by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy' of these provinces.