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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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and pleasantly situated. Before the deslrnction of til is town by the British in 1775, several brandies of mannfadures were carried on to great advantage, some of which have been since revived : particularly tlic manufacture of pot and pearl ashes, ship-building, rum, leather in all its branches, silver, tin, brass, and pewter. Three rope-walks have lately been erected in this town, and tlie increase of its houses, population, trade, and navigation, have been very great within a few' years past. This town is a port of entry in conjunction with Boston. At the head of the neck there is a bridge over Mystic river, which connects Charlestown with Malden.)

CHARLESTOWN, another city of the island of Nevis, one of the Caribes, in the Antilles ; in w Inch there are beautiful houses and shops well provided with every thing ; is defended by a fort called Charles. It has a market every Saturday, beginning at sun-rise and finishing at mid-day, whither the Negroes bring 'maize, names, garden-herbs, fruits, &c. In the parish of San Juan is a piece of sulphureous land, in the upper extremity of an opening of the land, called Solfatara, or Sulphur gut, which is so hot as to be telt through the soles of the shoes when being trodden upon. At the foot of the declivity of this same part of the city, is a small hot stream, called the Bath, which being supposed to rise from the aforesaid spot, loses itself shortly in the sand. Towards the side lying next the sea are two fountains, one of hot water, the other of cold, and of these two are formed the lake of Blackrock, the waters of which are of a moderate warmth, and which lies to the n. of the city, being nearly a quarter of a mile’s distance from the place where are caught eels and silver-fish, resembling the cod and slimgut in flavour, the latter of which lias a head disproportioned to its body. [A prodigious piece ol Nevis mountain falling down in an earthquake several years ago, left a large vacuity, which is still to be seen. The altitude of this mountain, taken by a quadrant from Charlestown bay, is said to be a mile and a half perpendicular ; and from the said bay to the top, four miles. The declivity from this mountain to the town is very steep half-way, but afterwards easy of ascent.] In Lat. 17° 8' u. and long. 62° 40' w.

Charlestown, another city of the island of Barbadoes ; the situation of which is two leagues from that of San Miguel. It has a good port defended by two castles ; the one beyoml the other, and both commanding the city and the road: in the middle of them is a platform. Tlse inhabitants carry on a great trade with the other islands.

(CHARLESTOWN, a township in Montgomery

county. New York, on the s. side of Mohawk river, about 32 miles w. of Schenectady. By the state census of 1796, 456 of the inhabitants are electors.)

(Charlestown, a township in Mason county, Kentucky ; situate on the Ohio, at the mouth of Lauren’s creek. It contains but few houses, and is six miles n. of Washington, and 60 n. e. of Lexington. Lat. 38° 28' n.)

(Charlestown, a township in Chester county, Pennsylvania.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, 30 miles s. of Dartmouth college, upwards of 70 n. of Northampton, 116 n. of w. of Boston, 120 w. by 71. of Portsmouth, and 431 n. n. e. of Philadelphia. It was incorporated in 1753, and contains 90 or 100 houses, a Congregational church, a court-house, and an academy. The road from Boston to Quebec passes through this town. Lat. 43° 16' n. Long. 72° 23' w. A small internal trade is carried on here.)

(Charlestown, a post town in Cecil county, Maryland, near the head of Chesapeak bay ; six mites e. n. e. from the mouth of Susquehannah river, 10 zo. s. w. from Elktown, and 50 s. w. by zb. from Philadelphia. Here are about 20 houses, chiefly inhabited by fishermen employed in the herring fishery. Lat. 39° 36' w.)

(Charlestown, a district in the lower country of S. Carolina, subdivided into 14 parishes. This large district, of which the city of Charleston is the chief town, lies between Santee and Combahee rivers. It pays 21,473/. 14s. 6d. sterling, taxes. It sends to the state legislature 48 representatives and 13 senators, and one member to congress. It contains 66,986 inhabitants, of whom only 16,352 are free.)

(Charlestown, a village in Berkley county, Virginia ; situate on the great road leading from Philadelphia to Winchester ; eight miles from Shepherdstown, and 20 from Winchester.)

(Charlestown, a township in Washington county, Rhode Island state, having the Atlantic ocean on the s. and separated from Richmond on the 71. by Charles river, a water of Fawcatiick. Some of its ponds empty into Fawcatiick river, otliers into the sea. It is 19 miles /L ti:;. of Newport, and contains 2022 inhabitants, including 12 slaves. A few years ago there w'ere about 500 Indians in the state ; the greater part of them resided in tin's township. They are peaceable and well disposed to government, and s|5cak the English language.)

CHARLETON, an island situate near the e. coast of the country of Labrador, in the part of N.

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raense advantage to the neighbouring states, particularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been observed, with some little exaggeration, however, that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)

(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies in the s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Connecticut river. It has the state of Massachusetts on the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsborough county e. It lias 34 townships, of which Charlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772 inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)

(Cheshire, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts ; famous for its good cheese ; 140 miles fi. w. from Boston.)

(Cheshire, a township in New-Haven county, Connecticut, 15 miles n. of New-Haven city, and 26 s.to. of Hartford. It contains an Episcopal church and academy, and three Conffreffational churches.)

(CHESNUT HILL, a township in Northampton county, Pennsylvania.)

(Chesnut Creek, a branch of the Great Kanhaway, in Virginia, where it crosses the Carolina line. Here, it is said, are iron mines.)

(Chesnut Ridge. Part of the Alleghany mountains, in Pennsylvania, are thus called, s. e. of Greensborough.)

CHESSOT, a town of the province and colony of North Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Euphasee.

(CHESTER, a township in Lunenburg county, Nova Scotia, on Mali one bay, settled originally by a few families from New England. From hence to Windsor is a road, the distance of 25 miles.)

(Chester, a small plantation in Lincoln county, Maine, nine miles from Titcomb. It has eight or nine families.)

(Chester, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, adjoining Westfield on the e. and about 20 miles n. w. of Springfield. It contains 177 houses, and 1119 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant township in Rockingham county. New Hampshire. It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is a pretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merrimack river. It was incorporated in 1722, and contains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers. It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river, 14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter, 35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry, and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compact part of this town there is a gentle descent to the sea, which, in a clear day, may be seen from thence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60

houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnake hill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it is half a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and 400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from its base, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’s Den, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, and four feet high, floored and circled by a regular rock, from the upper part of which are dependent many excrescences, nearly in the form and size of a pear, which, when approached by a torch, throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue; It is a cold, dreary place, of which many frightful stories are told by those who delight in the marvellous.)

(Chester, a township in Windsor county, Vermont, w. of Springfield, and II miles w. by s. of Charlestown, in New Hampshire, and contains 981 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a borough and post-town in Pennsylvania, and the capital of Delaware county; pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware river, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wilmington. It contains about 60 houses, built on a regular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. From Cliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and 15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed by islands of marsh, which are generally banked, and turned into rich and immensely valuable meadows. The first colonial assembly was convened here, the 4th of December 1682. The place affords genteel inns and good entertainment, and is the resort of much company from the metropolis duringthe summer season. It was incorporated in December 1795, and is governed by two burgesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assistants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peace and order of the place.)

(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Delaware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45 miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains 33 townships, of which West Chester is the shire town, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 are slaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, which employs six forges : these manufacture 'about 1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)

(Chester Court-House, in South Carolina, 22 miles s. of Pinckney court-house, and 58 n. w. of Columbia. A post-office is kept here.)

(Chester River, a navigable water of the e. side of Maryland, which rises two miles within the line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprus and Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ; runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s. nearly three miles, when it receives South-Eastern creek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It forms an island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. side of Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay. It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long, from Andover creek, a mile and a half from Bridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek, which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county, Virginia, situate on the point of land formed by the junction of Allen’s or North river and South river, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s. by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long. 78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, South Carolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, on W ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; of whom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sends two representatives, but no senator, to the state legislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Virginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river, 15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Richmond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northampton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inhabitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county. New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s. It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 inhabitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. of Charlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Portsmouth. About the year 1730, the garrison of fort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions, and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted from W est River mountain in th is township , and four miles distant from that fort. The like appearances have been observed at various times since ; particularly, one in 1752 was the most severe of any. There are two places where the rocks bear marks of having been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, is in Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. It is about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is between James and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30 miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214 inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hudson’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200 miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; full of islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capital of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38 e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel* phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church, college, court-house, and gaol. The college was incorporated in 1782, by the name of Washington. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, who are empowered to supply vacancies and hold, estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/. currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of 1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12' n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea on the side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [On the Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi, there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ; and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, and from two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water is lowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal at its mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water is deep under them they could be easily removed; and the Indians say there is nothing to impede navigation from their village to the gulf. The banks are more elevated than those of the Mississippi, and in some places are so high as never to be overflowed. The natural productions are the same as on the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordinary size and compactness of the canes, is superior. If measures were adopted and pursued with a view to improve this communication, there would soon be on its banks the most prosperous and important settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-. siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24 miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage, which is 13 miles long, and If broad, communicates with this lake at the n. end, by a strait a quarter of a mile wide. The country bordering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered with cypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the €. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya river is divided by innumerable streams, which occasion as many islands. Some of these streams are* navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short? of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where persons passing that way generally halt as a resting place. Nearly opposite this island there is an opening which leads to the sea. It is about 150 yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; to the curacy of which is annexed the extensive valley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chnchapoyas.

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figure, with four bastions, built wfili stockades. There were, some years since, about 2000 white inhabitants and 7000 slaves. They cultivate Indian corn, tobacco, and indigo; raise vast quantities of poultry, wliich they send to New Orleans. They also send to that city squared timber, staves, &c.]

COUQUECURA, a settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Itata in the kingdom of Chile; situate on the coast.

COURIPI, a river of the province of Guayana==, in the F rench possessions.

COUSSA, a settlement of the English, in S. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river of its name.

Coussa, another settlement, in the same province and colony, on the shore of a river of the same denomination. This river runs n. w. and enters the Albama.

COUSSARIE, a river of the province of Guayana, in the part possessed by the French. It enters the Aprouac,

COUSSATI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Albama.

COUUACHITOUU, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, in which the English have an establishment and fort for its defence.

COUUANCHI, a river of the province and colonj'^ of Georgia, which runs e, and enters the Ogeclii.

COUUANAIUUINI, a river of the province of Guayana, in the part which the French possess.

(COVENTRY, a township in Tolland county, Connecticut, 20 miles e. of Hartford city. ’’ It was settled in 1709, being purchased by a number of Hartford gentlemen of one Joshua, an Indian.)

(Coventry, in Rhode Island state, is the n. easternmost township in Kent county. It contains 2477 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in the n. part of New Hampshire, in Grafton county. It was incorporated in 1764, and contains 80 inhabitants.)

(Coventry, a township in Orleans county, Vermont. It lies in the n. part of the state, at the s. end of lake Memphremagog. Black river passes through this town in its course to Memphremagog.)

(Coventry, a township in Chester county, Pennsylvania.)

(COW AND Calf Pasture Rivers are head branches of Rivanna river, in Virginia.)

(COWE is the capital town of the Cherokee Indians ; situated on the foot of the hills on both sides of the river Tennessee. Here terminates the

great vale of Cowe, exhibiting one of the most charming, natural, mountainous landscapes that can be seen. The vale is closed at Cowe by a ridge of hills, called the Jore mountains. The town contains about 100 habitations. In the constitution of the state of Tennessee, Cowe is described as near the line which separates Tennessee from Virginia, and is divided from Old Chota, another Indian town, by that part of the Great Iron or Smoaky mountain, called Unicoi or Unaca mountain).

COWETAS, a city of the province and colony of Georgia in N. America. It is 500 miles distant from Frederick, belongs to the Creek Indians, and in it General Oglethorp held his conferences with the caciques or chiefs of the various tribes composing this nation, as also with the deputies from the Chactaws and the Chicasaws, who inhabit the parts lying between the English and French establishments. He here made some new treaties with the natives, and to a greater extent than those formerly executed. Lat. 32° 12' n. Long. 85° 52' w. (See Apalachichola Town.)

(COWS Island. See Vache.)

(COWTENS, a place so called, in S. Carolina, between the Pacolet river and the head branch of Broad river. This is the spot where General Morgan gained a complete victory over Lieutenant-colonel Tarleton, January 11, 1781, having only 12 men killed and 60 wounded. The British had 39 commissioned officers killed, wounded, and taken prisoners ; 100 rank and file killed, 200 wounded, and 500 prisoners. They left behind two pieces of artillery, two standards, 800 muskets, 35 baggage waggons, and 100 drago"on horses, which fell into the hands of the Americans. The field of battle was in an open wood.)

COX, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Joseph, near the e. coast.

Cox, another settlement in the same island, distinct from the former, and not far distant from it.

COXCATLAN, S. Juan Bautista de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the a/caMa mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana ; situate on the bank of a stream which runs through a glen bordered with mountains and woods. It contans 1131 families of Mexican Indians, SO of Spaniards, and various others of Mulattoes and Jlfustees, all of whom subsist by agriculture, and in raising various sorts of seeds, sugar-canes, and cotton. Fifteen leagues from the capital.

Coxcatlan, another settlement and head settlement of the alcddia mayor of Thehuacan in the

fr

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moiily called Acklin’s island), and Long Kej, (or Fortune island), are tlie principal, Castle island (a very small one) is the most s. and is situated at the s. end of Acklin’s island, which is the largest of the group, and extends about 50 miles in length ; atthew. extremity it is seven miles in breadth, but grows narrow towards the s. N. Crooked island is upwards of 20 miles long, and from two to six broad; Long Key, about two miles in length, l)ut very narrow : on this latter island is a valuable salt pond. Near Bird rock, which is the most w, extremity of the group, and at the w. point of N. Crooked island, is a reef harbour, and a good anchorage ; a settlement has been lately established there, called Pitt’s Town, and this is the place where the Jamaica packet, on her return to Europe through the Crooked island passage, leaves once every month the Bahama mail from England, and takes on board the mail for Europe ; a port of entry is now established there. There is likewise very good anchorage, and plenty of fresh water at the French w'ells, which lie at the bottom of the bay, about half-way between Bird rock and thes. end of Long Key. There is also a good harbour, (called Atwood’s harbour) at the w. end of Acklin’s island, but fit only for small vessels, and another at Major’s Keys, on the n. side of N, Crooked island, for vessels drawing eight or nine feet water. The population in ISOtf amounted to about 40 whites, and 950 Negroes, men, women, and children; and previous to May 1803, lands were granted by the crown, (o the amount oi 24,2 18 acres, for the purpose of cultivation. The middle of the island lies in lat. 22^ 30' «. ; long. 74° tii). See Bahamas.)

(Crooked Lake, in the Genessee country, communicates in an e, by n. diiection with Seneca lake.)

(Crooked Lake, one of tlie chain of small lakes which connects the lake of tiie Woods with lake Superior, on the boundary line between the United States and Upper Canada, remarkable for its rugged cliff, in the cxacks of which are a number of arrow's sticking.)

(Crooked River, in Camden county, Georgia, empties into the sea, opposite Cumberland island, 12 or 14 miles n. from the mouth of St. Mary’s. Its banks are well timbered, and its course is e. by ??.)

(CROSS-CREEK, a township in Washington county, Pennsylvania.)

(Cross-Creeks. See Fayettevilee.)

(Cross-Roads, the name of a place in N. Carolina. near Duplin court-house, 23 miles from

Sampson court-house, and 23 from S. Washington.)

(Cross-Roads, a village in Kent county, Maryland, situated two miles s. of Georgetown, on Sassafras river, and is thus named from four roads which meet and cross each other iu the village.)

(Cross-Roads, a village in Chester county, Pennsylvania, where six ditferent roads meet. It is 27 miles s. e. of Lancaster, 11 n. by w. of Elkton in Maryland, and about 18 w.n.w. of Wilmington iu Delaware.)

CROSSING, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of San Juan.

(CROSSWICKS, a village in Burlington county, New Jersey; through which the line of stages passes from New York to Philadelphia. It has a respectable Quaker meeting-house, four miles 5. ti;. of Allen town, eight s. e. of Trenton, and 14 s. w. of Burlington.)

(CROTON River, a n. e. water of Hudson river, rises in the town of New Fairfield in Connecticut, and running through Dutchess county, empties into Tappan bay. Croton bridge is thrown over this river three miles from its mouth, on the great road to Albany ; this is a solid, substantial bridge, 1400 feet long, the road narrow, piercing through a slate hill; it is supported by 16 stone pillars. Here is an admirable view of Croton falls, where the water precipitates itself between 60 and 70 feet perpendicular, and over high slate banks, in some places 100 feet, the river spreading into three streams as it enters the Hudson.)

(CROW Creek falls into the Tennessee, from the n. w. opposite the Crow town, 15 miles below Nickajack town.)

(Crow Indians, a people of N. America, divided into four bands, called by themselves Ahah'ar-ro-pir-no-pah, No6-ta, Pa-rees-car, and Eliart'-sar. They annually visit the Mandans, Menetares, and Ahwahhaways, to whom they barter liorses, mules, leather lodges, and many articles of Indian apparel, for which they receive in return guns, ammunition, axes, kettles, awls, and other European manufactures. When they return to their country, they are in turn visited by the Paunch and Snake Indians, to whom they barter most of the articles they have obtained from the nations on the Missouri, for horses and mules, of which those rrations have a greater abundance than themselves. They also obtain of the Snake Indians bridle-bits and blankets, and some other articles, which those Indians purchase from the Spaniards. Their country is fertile, and well watered, and in many parts well timbered.

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