The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
C H A
C H A
(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)
CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction ofthe town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-nada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement ofMongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced)annexed to the curacy of the same. Its tempera-ture is mild, and abounds in pure good water, andin the productions of a hot climate.
CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlementand alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ;situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, fromwhence its temperature is so cold that it is seldomany crops can be gathered from the seeds that aresown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 inthe wards of its district, and a convent of the reli-gious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settle-ment.
CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district ofPuerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in thekingdom of Quito, at a small distance from thesea-coast and bay of its name ; this title beingalso applied to the point which forms the samebay.
CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina,which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. Thewhole of it abounds in cataracts, and its watersthrow up immense quantities of coal, which wasthe cause of its being thus named.
CHARCA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed tothe curacy of Sacaca.
CHARCAS, an extensive province of the king-dom of Peru, composed of various others. Its ju-risdiction comprehends the district of this royalaudience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the cor-regimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, andextends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It isbounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian servingas a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregi-miento of Atacama, which is of its district, andforms the most n. part of this province in that di-rection, and being closed in on its other sides bythe kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, in-cluding the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . :is in many parts very thinly peopled, and coveredwith large desert tracts, and rugged and impene-trable mountains, and again by the elevated cordil-leras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras orpampas, which serve to mark its size and the relativedistances of its territories. Its temperature through-out is extremely cold, although there are not want-ing parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At thetime that this province was in the possession of theIndians, and previous to the entrance of the Spa-niards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointlyunder the name of Charcas ; and the conquest ofthese was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui,fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the ter-ritory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Hereit was that his conquests terminated : nor did thesubjection of these parts extend farther than Col-laysuyo until after his death, when he was suc-ceeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor,who carried on still farther the victories which hadbeen already gained, conquering all the nations asfar on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwardsfounded the city of this name, called also La Plata.After that the Spaniards had reduced that part ofPeru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and thatthe civil wars and dissensions which existed be-tween these were at an end, they endeavoured tofollow up their enterprise by making a conquest ofthe most distant nations. To this end, in 1538,Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force,and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues,found in them such a spirited opposition, that afterseveral battles he was brought to think this objectwas nearly impracticable : this idea was strength-ened by the reception he had met with from theChuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given himconvincing proofs of their valour and warlikespirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just
cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines,though they produce at present very sp:n ingly;some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful,have lately filled with water, and attempts havebeen made in vain to empty them. Indeed theonly mines which have produced any great wealthare those found in the mountains of Aullagas, andfrom them, for some years past, metals of therarest qualities have been extracted. In the woodsof the valleys, which produce very fine and excel-lent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and otherwild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also aspecies of bees, which form their combs in the hol-lows of trees, and the honey of which they callde charas. There is a river in this province com-posed of several streams, and which unites itselfwith the Cochabamba. The number of its inha-bitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amountto 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollarsper annum. It is one of the richest provinces ofPeru.
The capital is of the same name, and the othersettlements are,
San Francisco dc Micani,San Marcos de Mirailo-res,
Santiago de l\Ioscari,
San Pedro de Buenavista,Acasio,
(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county,Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joinsMonongahela river, three or four miles within thePennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at itsmoutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement,50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, exceptin dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 milesfrom this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth ofSavage river.)
nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between somemountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a,cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, andbarley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorderof the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It risesfrom a small lake near the settlement and fort ofSackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines,or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.
(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e.coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss ofa French fleet in a former war between Franceand Great Britain. Near the head of this bay,on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the ca-pital of the province.)
CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the provinceand government of Darien in the kingdom ofTierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n.side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beechor playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.
CHECHAS. See Chancay.
(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, alarge and deep bay on the easternmost part ofNova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso.Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Sal-mon river falls into this bay from the w. and isremarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in theworld.)
(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e.by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end ofSlave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s terri-tory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same inbreadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)
CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nationof Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabitthe woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, tothe e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. Theyarc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, andin eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de laMartiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos isderived from the French wovd chevezLV, the menand the women both allowing and encouraging thegrowth of their hair till it reaches down to thewaist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indiansmust either have known French when they werediscovered, or that their discoverers, at all events,must have been French.
CHEURA, a river of the province and govern-ment of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito.It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of theancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards enterstheriver of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.
CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zi-paquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; cele-brated in the time of the Indians for having beenthe title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the in-vestiture of which dignity was always transferredwith the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a verycold temperature, although salutary ; and issituate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of theriver Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.
CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.
CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of thekingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by theprovince of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w.by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. bythat of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e.to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part.It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegosin 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldiasmayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales,Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm andmoist temperature, although it has some parts inwhich the cold predominates. Its woods aboundwith large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and wal-nut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which
are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquidamber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, inabundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochi-neal, which is only made use of for the purposeof dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepperand achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfiriouskinds of domestic and wild birds, especially par-rots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ;a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon,with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians,who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich theyprize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; itbeing a capital offence, according to their laws, todestroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, whichhave been brought from Europe, have multipledin this province in a most extraordinary manner ;so also have horses, which are of such an esteemedbreed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mex-ico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breedmany lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars,a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet inlength, and others of a beautiful crimson colour,streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is,for the most part, rugged and mountainous, andwatered by different rivers : none of these, how-ever, are of any particular consideration, althoughthat which bears the name of this province is themedium by which the aforesaid productions arecarried to the other provinces ; and although thisprovince may be accounted comparatively poor,from being without mines of gold or silver, it isnevertheless of the greatest importance, as beingthe outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the fa-cility with which this kingdom might be enteredby the river Tabasco. The capital is the royalcity of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. Itis the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; andhas for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras,with a river passing between them : above theone is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ;and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit,and another lion, the whole being upon a red field.These arms were granted by the Emperor CharlesV. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. Itcontains three convents of the order of St. Francis,La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery ofnuns, and five hermitages. Its population isscanty and poor, and the principal commerce con-sists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal,and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, arevery proud, as having descended from some an-cient families of the first nobility of Spain ; suchas those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. Thewomen suffer great debility at the stomach on ac-count of the excessive heat, ami they can never
C H I
in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; si-tuate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one whichabounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It con-tains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, anda convent of the religious order of St. Francis;is one league n. of its capital,
Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, an-other settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, inthe same kingdom, thus called from the salt minesfound in it formerly, and from which the inhabi-tants used to derive a great commerce. At pre-sent it is in a thorough state of decay, not only asits trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; butas the Indians have applied themselves rather tothe cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruitsand pulse, from the traffic of which they derivetheir maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 familiesof Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of thereligious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdictionis so much reduced that it is not more than fiveleagues in length and three in width, void of com-merce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabi-tants, although they are somewhat given to thebreeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly beconsidered with them a branch of commerce,since they have scarcely enough of these where-with to support theiiiselves. It contains only twoother settlements, and these are,
|Forty-five leagues s. e.||to the s. w. of Mexico.|
CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada, and the head settlement of the corregi-miento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh tem-perature, abounding in productions, and particu-larly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of whichare made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, andother articles for garments. It may contain about200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e.of Tunja, lying between this latter place and thesettlement of Siachoque.
on commerce with the Indians, is situated on theshore of the river Sonlahove.
CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of thisnation, in the territory thus called, where the Eng-lish have an establishment or factory for com-merce.
Chicagou, a river of the same province andgovernment, which runs s. then ?i. e. and entersthe former port.
CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settle-ment and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor ofTepozcolula, in the province and bishopric ofOaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is ofa cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families ofIndians, including those of the settlements or wardsof its district, and they maintain themselves bybartering cotton garments for salt on the coast ofXicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.
CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valleyof the province and corregimiento of Truxillo inPeru. It was one of the most populous in thetimes of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to itsagreeable and benign temperature : is watered bya river of its name, which divides it from that ofChimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de SantoTomas founded here a convent of his order, forthe instruction of the Indians, which immediatelywas turned into a priory and a house for noviciates.It is at present, however, fallen into decay, throughthe ravages of time. This valley is six leaguesfrom the capital, to the n. in the road which leadsto the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs30 leagues, collecting the waters of many otherstreams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which aug-ment it to such a degree as to render the fording ofit impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province andcorregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno deGranada. It rises in the paramo or mounlain-desert of Albarracin, between that city and thecity of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passesthrough Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it hasthe name of the river of Gallinazos, which it after-wards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for thatof Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement.It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passesthrough various provinces, until it becomes incor-porated with the Magdalena, into which it entersin one large mouth. A little before this it formsa good port, called De la Tora, where there wasformerly a settlement, but which is at present ina state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river inMassachusetts, which rises from several ponds inWorcester county, and running s.zo. unites withWare river, and six miles further empties into theConnecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of thatriver.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S.Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation,who have here many other settlements ; in all ofwhich the English have forts, and an establish-ment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, whichruns w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles fromits mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runsn.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six milesabove the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from themouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indiantowns lie on this creek, and on the bank of theTennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by thatof Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district ofTarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, isbounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiri-guanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to thefirst settlements of which from the last habitationsof Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountain-ous route of 14 leagues in length. It is alsobounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya,and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. Thedistrict of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference,and that of Tarija 80, being either of them inter-sected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boun-daries of the former there are many farms andestates for breeding cattle, where are also producedpotatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain,likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold andsilver, which were formerly very rich ; it havingbeen usual for the principal ones to yield somethousand marks in each caxon ; this being espe-cially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya,which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Manyof the metals found in these mines are worked upfor useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have,on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches.The rivers, which are of some note, are that ofSupacha, which flows down from the cordillera ofLipes, and running e. passes through the middle ofthe province until it enters the valley of Cinti, ofthe province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another,called Toropalca, which enters the province ofPorco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti.The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200.In the settlement of Tatasi both men and womenare subject to a distressing lunacy, which causesthem to run wildly and heedlessly over the moun-tains, without any regard to the precipices whichlie in their way ; since it has generally been ob-served that they dash themselves headlong down :if, however, it should happen that they are notkilled, the fall, they say, frequently restores themto a sane mind. The observation, that the animalsof this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the nativesheep, are subject to this malady, is without founda-tion ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiareflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and whichhave a great tendency to cause convulsions. Thewomen of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about tobring forth children, like to be delivered of themin the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens.The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Riogaiia, Blanco,