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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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C H A

CHAQUIMINAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Asangaro in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sandia in the province of Carabaya.

CHARABAYE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river in the district of the city of Caracas, and to the e. of the town of Victoria.

CHARACATO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arequipa in Peru. In its church is a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion or Candelaria, to which singular devotion is paid.

CHARAI, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Cinaloa ; situate on the shore of a river of the fort which lies between the settlements of Ziribijoa and Mochicauchi.

(CHARAIBES, See Caribe.)

CHARALA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is, at it were, a suburb to the settlement of Mongui, and it is (being very poor and reduced) annexed to the curacy of the same. Its temperature is mild, and abounds in pure good water, and in the productions of a hot climate.

CHARANDO, a settlement of the head settlement of Guimeo, and alcaldia mayor of Cirandaro, in Nueva Espafia ; annexed to the curacy of Turicato.

CHARAPA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Periban in Nueva España ; situate in the loftiest part of the sierra, from whence its temperature is so cold that it is seldom any crops can be gathered from the seeds that are sown. It contains 209 families of Indians, 80 in the wards of its district, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis : lies e. of its head settlement.

CHARAPE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito.

CHARAPOTO, a settlement of the district of Puerto Viejo, and government of Guayaquil, in the kingdom of Quito, at a small distance from the sea-coast and bay of its name ; this title being also applied to the point which forms the same bay.

CHARAZANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru.

CHARBON, Rio del, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. and enters the Conhaway. The whole of it abounds in cataracts, and its waters throw up immense quantities of coal, which was the cause of its being thus named.

CHARCA, a settlement of the province and

corregimiento of Chayanta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Sacaca.

CHARCANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru.

CHARCAS, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, composed of various others. Its jurisdiction comprehends the district of this royal audience, which begins at Vilcanota, of the corregimiento of Lampa and bishopric of Cuzco, and extends as far as Buenos Ayres to the s. It is bounded on the e. by Brazil, the meridian serving as a limit ; and reaching w. as far as the corregimiento of Atacama, which is of its district, and forms the most n. part of this province in that direction, and being closed in on its other sides by the kingdom of Chile : is 300 leagues in length, including the degrees of latitude from 20° to 28° s . : is in many parts very thinly peopled, and covered with large desert tracts, and rugged and impenetrable mountains, and again by the elevated cordilleras of the Andes, and the spacious llanuras or pampas, which serve to mark its size and the relative distances of its territories. Its temperature throughout is extremely cold, although there are not wanting parts which enjoy a moderate warmth. At the time that this province was in the possession of the Indians, and previous to the entrance of the Spaniards, many well-inhabited provinces went jointly under the name of Charcas ; and the conquest of these was first undertaken by Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor ; but he was not able to pass the territory of the Tutiras Indians and of Chaqui. Here it was that his conquests terminated : nor did the subjection of these parts extend farther than Collaysuyo until after his death, when he was succeeded by his son the Inca Roca, sixth Emperor, who carried on still farther the victories which had been already gained, conquering all the nations as far on as that of Chuquisaca, where he afterwards founded the city of this name, called also La Plata. After that the Spaniards had reduced that part of Peru, extending from Tumbez to Cuzco, and that the civil wars and dissensions which existed between these were at an end, they endeavoured to follow up their enterprise by making a conquest of the most distant nations. To this end, in 1538, Gonzalo Pizarro sallied forth with a great force, and attacking the Charcas and the Carangues, found in them such a spirited opposition, that after several battles he was brought to think this object was nearly impracticable : this idea was strengthened by the reception he had met with from the Chuquisacas, who in many conflicts had given him convincing proofs of their valour and warlike spirit ; indeed it is thought, that had he not just

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cattle of all sorts; aiul there arc some gold mines, though they produce at present very sp:n ingly; some of the silver mines, Avhlch were very fruitful, have lately filled with water, and attempts have been made in vain to empty them. Indeed the only mines which have produced any great wealth are those found in the mountains of Aullagas, and from them, for some years past, metals of the rarest qualities have been extracted. In the woods of the valleys, which produce very fine and excellent timber, are found wolves, tigers, and other wild beasts inhabiting the mountains ; also a species of bees, which form their combs in the hollows of trees, and the honey of which they call de charas. There is a river in this province composed of several streams, and which unites itself with the Cochabamba. The number of its inhabitants amounts to 36,000, who are divided into 27 settlements. Its reparlimienfo used to amount to 92,665 dollars, and its n/cflxvife to 7-11 dollars per annum. It is one of the richest provinces of Peru.

The capital is of the same name, and the other settlements are,

Chayantacas,

Amayapampa,

Laimes,

Calacala,

Amaya,

Amayavilque,

Pocoata,

Chayala,

Casimbiico,

San Pedro

Moromoro,

Maragua,

PancacUij

Sarari,

de Macha,

Charca,

Pitantora,

Ocuri,

Uruyearasi,

San Francisco dc Micani, San Marcos de Mirailores,

Surumi,

Santiago de l\Ioscari,

San Pedro de Buenavista, Acasio,

Toracari,

Iluaicoma,

Aullagas.

CHEANE, a river of the province and government of Paraguay.

CHEARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Huaiama.

(CHEAT River rises in Randolph county, Virginia, and after pursuing a n. n. w. course, joins Monongahela river, three or four miles within the Pennsylvania line. It is 200 yards wide at its moutli, and 100 yards at the Dunkards settlement, 50 miles higher, and is navigable for boats, except in dry seasons. There is a portage of 37 miles from this river to the Potowmack, at the mouth of Savage river.)

CHEBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Gra-

nada, of a cold temperature. It lies between some mountains, and abounds in the produclioris of a, cold climate, such as wheat, maize, trullles, and barley ; it consists of 100 house-keepers, and of 40 Indians, all of Avliom are subject to the disorder of the cotos, or swelling of the throat; is 21 leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.

CHEBANONKOGUE, a town of the French, in Canada ; situate in the country of the Mistasuis Indians, on the n. shore of a lake which gives it its name.

CHEBEN, a river of Nova Scotia. It rises from a small lake near the settlement and fort of Sackville, runs n. and enters the Basin des Mines, or of the Mines, of the bay of Fundy.

(CHEBUCTO, a bay and harbour on the s. s. e. coast of Nova Scotia, distinguished by the loss of a French fleet in a former war between France and Great Britain. Near the head of this bay, on the w. side, stands the city of Halifax, the capital of the province.)

CHECA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tinta in Peru.

CHECACUPI, a settlement of the same province and kingdom as the former.

CHECACUPI, another, in the province of Quispicanchi or Urcos in the same kingdom.

CHECASA, La Nueva, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru.

CHECHIRGANTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the n. side, runs n. and enters the sea in the small beech or playon, opposite the port of Calidonia.

CHECODIN, a small lake of the province and country of the Iroquees Indians in Canada, lies between the lake Oswego and the river Ohio.

CHECHAS. See Chancay.

(CHEDABUCTO, or Milford Haven, a large and deep bay on the easternmost part of Nova Scotia, at the mouth of the gut of Canso. Opposite to its mouth stands isle Madame. Salmon river falls into this bay from the w. and is remarkable for one of the greatest fisheries in the world.)

CHEDIAC, a small river of Nova Scotia, which runs e. and enters the sea in the strait formed by the coast and the island of San Juan.

(CHEESADAWD Lake, about 210 miles n. e. by e. of the Canadian house, on the c. end of Slave lake, in the Hudson bay company’s territory, is about 35 miles in length, and the same in breadth. Its w. shore is mountainous and rocky.)

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CHETU, Santissima Trinidad de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru.

CHEUELUS, or CHAVELOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the country of Marañon, who inhabit the woods bordeiing upon the river Aguarico, to the e. and in the vicinity of the lakes. They arc warlike, of a cruel and treacherous nature, and in eternal enmity with their neighbours. M. de la Martiniere will have it, that the name Chavelos is derived from the French wovd chevezLV, the men and the women both allowing and encouraging the growth of their hair till it reaches down to the waist ; supposing, forsooth, that these Indians must either have known French when they were discovered, or that their discoverers, at all events, must have been French.

CHEURA, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It runs w. ?z. e. and e. washing the country of the ancient Esmeraldas Indians: it afterwards entersthe river of its name on the e. side, in lat. 1° 23' n.

CHEWOCHEE, a settlement of North Carolina ; situate on the skirt of the mountains of Tclliquo.

CHIA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; celebrated in the time of the Indians for having been the title of the kings ox npas of Bogota; the investiture of which dignity was always transferred with the greatest possible solemnity. It is of a very cold temperature, although salutary ; and is situate on a beautiful plain, on the shore of the river Bogota, four leagues to the n. of Santa F6.

CHIAMILA, a head settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Motines in Nueva España, contains SO families of Indians.

CHIAMOTO. See Seyota.

CHIANTLA, a settlement of the province and nlcaldia mayor of Chiapa in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHIAPA, a province and alcaldia mayor of the kingdom of Guatemala ; bounded on the«. by the province of Tabasco, c. by that of Vera Paz, w. by that of Oaxaca of Nueva Espaha, and s. e. by that of Soconusco. It extends 85 leagues from e. to w. and is nearly 30 across at its widest part. It was conquered by Captain Diego Marariegos in 1531 : is divided into districts or alcaldias mayores^ which are those of Zoques, Chontales, Los Llanos, and Xiquipila ; is of a warm and moist temperature, although it has some parts in which the cold predominates. Its woods abound with large trees of pine, cypress, cedar, and walnut; and of others of a resinous kind, from which

CHI

are extracted aromatic gums, balsams, and liquid amber, tacamaca, copal, &c. It produces also, in abundance, maize, swine, honey, cotton, cochineal, which is only made use of for the purpose of dyeing the cotton ; also cacao, and much pepper and achoie, or the heart-leaved bixa'; also vfirious kinds of domestic and wild birds, especially parrots, which are very beautiful and highly esteemed ; a small bird, called tolo, less than a young pigeon, with green wings ; this is caught by the Indians, who pluck from its tail some feathers, Avhich they prize highly, and then restoring it to liberty; it being a capital offence, according to their laws, to destroy it. The sheep, goats, and pigs, which have been brought from Europe, have multipled in this province in a most extraordinary manner ; so also have horses, which are of such an esteemed breed, that the colts are taken from hence to Mexico, a distance of 500 miles. In the woods breed many lions, leopards, tigers, and wild boars, a great number of snakes, some being 20 feet in length, and others of a beautiful crimson colour, streaked with black and white. Tlie territory is, for the most part, rugged and mountainous, and watered by different rivers : none of these, however, are of any particular consideration, although that which bears the name of this province is the medium by which the aforesaid productions are carried to the other provinces ; and although this province may be accounted comparatively poor, from being without mines of gold or silver, it is nevertheless of the greatest importance, as being the outwork or barrier to New Spain, from the facility with which this kingdom might be entered by the river Tabasco. The capital is the royal city of Chiapa, situate on a delightful plain. It is the head of a bishopric, erected in 1538; and has for arms a shield, upon which arc two sierras, with a river passing between them : above the one is a golden castle, with a lion rampant upon it ; and above the other a green palm, bearing fruit, and another lion, the whole being upon a red field. These arms were granted by the Emperor Charles V. in 1535. The cathedral is very beautiful. It contains three convents of the order of St. Francis, La Merced, and St. Domingo ; a monastery of nuns, and five hermitages. Its population is scanty and poor, and the principal commerce consists in cocoa-nuts, cotton, wool, sugar, cochineal, and other articles. Its nobility, although poor, are very proud, as having descended from some ancient families of the first nobility of Spain ; such as those of Mendoza, Velasco, Cortes, &c. The women suffer great debility at the stomach on account of the excessive heat, ami they can never

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in Nueva Espana, is of a mild temperature ; situate in a pleasant and fertile plain, and one which abounds in maize, wheat, and other seeds. It contains S68 families of Indians, 13 of Spaniards, and a convent of the religious order of St. Francis; is one league n. of its capital,

Chiautla, with the addition of La Sal, another settlement, the capital of its jurisdiction, in the same kingdom, thus called from the salt mines found in it formerly, and from which the inhabitants used to derive a great commerce. At present it is in a thorough state of decay, not only as its trade has fallen off in the other provinces ; but as the Indians have applied themselves rather to the cultivation of the soil and the planting of fruits and pulse, from the traffic of which they derive their maintenance. It is inhabited by 650 families of Mexican Indians, and 40 of Spaniards, J\/us~ iees, and Mulattoes. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. The jurisdiction is so much reduced that it is not more than five leagues in length and three in width, void of commerce, and has but a small revenue. Its inhabitants, although they are somewhat given to the breeding of small cattle, yet this must hardly be considered with them a branch of commerce, since they have scarcely enough of these wherewith to support theiiiselves. It contains only two other settlements, and these are,

Xicotlan, Huehetlan.

Forty-five leagues s. e. to the s. w. of Mexico.
CHIBACOA, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of a river to the w. of the town of Nirua.

CHIBATA, a settlement of the . province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and the head settlement of the corregimiento of Indies, is of a very cold and fresh temperature, abounding in productions, and particularly in cattle, from the fleeces and hides of which are made quantities of blankets, linen cloths, and other articles for garments. It may contain about 200 Indians, and it is eight leagues to the n. e. of Tunja, lying between this latter place and the settlement of Siachoque.

CHIBAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru.

CHICA, an island of the N. sea, one of the Lucayas ; situate between the islands Siguate and St. Andrew. The English gave it the name of Little.

CHICACHAE, a settlement of the province and government of Louisiana or S. Carolina, in which the English have a fort and establishment to carry

on commerce with the Indians, is situated on the shore of the river Sonlahove.

CHICACHAS, a settlement of Indians of this nation, in the territory thus called, where the English have an establishment or factory for commerce.

CHICAGOU, a port of Canada, on the w. side of the lake Michigan.

Chicagou, a river of the same province and government, which runs s. then ?i. e. and enters the former port.

CHICAHOMINI, a river of the province and colony of Virginia, runs s.e. and turning its course to the s. enters the Thames.

CHICAHUASCO, a settlement of the head settlement of Huipuxtla, and alcaldia mayor of Tepetango, in Nueva Espana, contains 72 families of Indians.

CHICAHUASTEPEC, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Zoyaltepec, and alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan. It contains 48 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues from its head settlement.

CHICAHUAZTLA, San Andres de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, in the province and bishopric of Oaxaca, in the kingdom of Nueva Espana, is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 332 families of Indians, including those of the settlements or wards of its district, and they maintain themselves by bartering cotton garments for salt on the coast of Xicayan ; 12 leagues s. w. of its capital.

Chicahuaztla, another, a small settlement or ward of the alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of that of Tlaola.

CHICAMA, a large, fertile, and beautiful valley of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru. It was one of the most populous in the times of the gentilisra of the Indians, owing to its agreeable and benign temperature : is watered by a river of its name, which divides it from that of Chimu. In 1540, the friar Domingo de Santo Tomas founded here a convent of his order, for the instruction of the Indians, which immediately was turned into a priory and a house for noviciates. It is at present, however, fallen into decay, through the ravages of time. This valley is six leagues from the capital, to the n. in the road which leads to the provinces of Quito, Sana, and Piura.

Chicama, a river of this province and corregimiento. It rises in the province of Guamachuco, from two very lofty mountains, called Y ulcaguanca and Yanaguanca, to the n. e . ; and waters and fer-

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tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs 30 leagues, collecting the waters of many other streams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which augment it to such a degree as to render the fording of it impracticable just where it enters the sea.

CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the paramo or mounlaindesert of Albarracin, between that city and the city of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passes through Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it has the name of the river of Gallinazos, which it afterwards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for that of Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement. It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passes through various provinces, until it becomes incorporated with the Magdalena, into which it enters in one large mouth. A little before this it forms a good port, called De la Tora, where there was formerly a settlement, but which is at present in a state of utter ruin.

CHICANAM, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It is one of those which enter into the Cuyuni.

CHICANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Larecaja in Peru j annexed to the curacy of Combaya.

(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river in Massachusetts, which rises from several ponds in Worcester county, and running s.zo. unites with Ware river, and six miles further empties into the Connecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of that river.)

CHICAQUARO, a small settlement or ward, of the district and jurisdiction of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mcchoacan.

CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation, who have here many other settlements ; in all of which the English have forts, and an establishment for their commerce and defence.

Chicasaws, a river of this province, which runs w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles from its mouth, or entrance into the sea.

(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runs n.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six miles above the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from the mouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indian towns lie on this creek, and on the bank of the Tennessee. See Ciiickamages.)

CHICHAS y Tarija, a province and correg/miertto of Peru ; bounded on the n. by that of Ginti, s. by that of Tucuman, the river called

Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by that of Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district of Tarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40 leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, is bounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiriguanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to the first settlements of which from the last habitations of Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountainous route of 14 leagues in length. It is also bounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya, and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. The district of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference, and that of Tarija 80, being either of them intersected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boundaries of the former there are many farms and estates for breeding cattle, where are also produced potatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain, likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold and silver, which were formerly very rich ; it having been usual for the principal ones to yield some thousand marks in each caxon ; this being especially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya, which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Many of the metals found in these mines are worked up for useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have, on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches. The rivers, which are of some note, are that of Supacha, which flows down from the cordillera of Lipes, and running e. passes through the middle of the province until it enters the valley of Cinti, of the province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another, called Toropalca, which enters the province of Porco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti. The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200. In the settlement of Tatasi both men and women are subject to a distressing lunacy, which causes them to run wildly and heedlessly over the mountains, without any regard to the precipices which lie in their way ; since it has generally been observed that they dash themselves headlong down : if, however, it should happen that they are not killed, the fall, they say, frequently restores them to a sane mind. The observation, that the animals of this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the native sheep, are subject to this malady, is without foundation ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiar eflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and which have a great tendency to cause convulsions. The women of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about to bring forth children, like to be delivered of them in the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens. The settlements of this province are,

Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Rio gaiia, Blanco,

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