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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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ABACU, a point of land on the S coast of the island of St. Domingo.

ABADES, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the district and jurisdiction of San Juan de Pasto.

ABANCAY, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded on the E by the large city of Cuzco, (its jurisdiction beginning at the parish of Santa Ana of that city), and on the W by the province of Andahuailas; N by that of Calcaylares, forming, in this part, an extended chain of snowcovered mountains ; S by the provinces of Cotabamba and Aimaraez; S W by Chilques and Masques. It extends 26 leagues from E to W and is 14 broad. Its most considerable river is the Apurimac, which is separated from it at the N W and bends its course, united with other streams, towards the mountains of the Andes. This river is crossed by a wooden bridge of 80 yards long and 3 broad, which is in the high road from Lima to Cuzco, and other provinces of the sierra. The toll collected here is four rials of silver for every load of goods of the produce of the country, and twelve for those of the produce of Europe. The temperature of this province is mild, and for the most part salubrious, with the exception of a few vallies, where, on account of the excessive heat and humidity, tertian agues are not uncommon. It produces wheat, maize, and other grain in great abundance, and its breed of horned cattle is by no means inconsiderable; but its principal production is sugar, which they refine so well, that it may challenge the finest European sugars for whiteness : this is carried for sale to Cuzco and other provinces, and is held in great estimation. It also produces hemp, cloth manufactures of the country ; and in its territories mines of silver are not wanting, especially in the mountain which they call Jalcanta, although the natives avail themselves not of the advantages so liberally held out to them. Its jurisdiction comprehends 17 settlements. The repartimento, quota of tribute, amounted to 108,750 dollars, and it rendered yearly 870 for the alcabala. The following are the 17 settlements : The capital, Limatambo, Huanicapa, Mollepata, Curahuasi, Pantipata, Cachora, Pibil, Antilla, Chonta, Anta, Pocquiura, Ibin, Surite, Chachaypucquio, Huaracondo. Sumata,

Abancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a spacious valley, which gives it its title: it is also so called from a river, over which has been thrown one of the largest bridges in the kingdom, being the first that was built there, and looked upon as a monument of skill. In the above valley the jurisdiction of this province, and that of Andahuailas, becomes divided. It is also memorable for the victories gained in its vicinity by the king's troops against Gonzalo Pizarro, in the years 1542 and 1548. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Dominic ; this order being the first of those which established themselves in Peru. 20 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco. Lat. 13° 31' 30" S Long. 72° 26' W.7

Abancay, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca, in the kingdom of Quito, situate on the shore of the river Paute.

ABANES, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the plains of San Juan, to the N of the Orinoco. They inhabit the woods on the shores of this river, as well as other small woods ; and are bounded, E by the Salivas, and W by the Caberres and Andaquies. They are docile, of good dispositions, and are easily converted to the Catholic faith.

ABANGOUI, a large settlement of the province and government of Paraguay. It is composed of Indians of the Guarani nation, and situate on the shore of the river Taquani. It was discovered by Alvar Nuñez Cabezade Vaca, in 1541.

ABARANQUEN, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalusia. It rises in the country of the Quiriquipas Indians, runs from S to N and enters the Aruy.

ABARY, a small river of Guayana, between the Berbice and the Demerary. See Mahaica.

ABBEVILLE County, in Ninetysix district, S. Carolina, bounded on the N E by the Saluda, and on the SW by the Savannah, is 35 miles in length and 21 in breadth ; contains 9197 inhabitants, including 1665 slaves.

ABBOTS, a small river of N. Carolina, which runs S W and enters the Pedi, at a little distance from the source of this river, in the territory of the Granville limits.

ABECOCHI, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Cousa. The English have a settlement here, with a fort for its defence.

ABEICAS, a nation of Indians of New France, bounded on the N by the Alibamis, and E by the Cheraquis. They live at a distance from the large rivers, and the only produce of their territory is some canes, which are not thicker than a finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

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ACHA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Guayana; they run from N to S on the shore of the river Caroni.

ACHACACHE, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Omasuyos, the capital of this province, in Peru. It contains, besides the parish chapel, another, in which is an image of Christ, with the dedicatory title of La Misericordia. [Lat. 16° 33' 30" S. Long. 79° 23' 20" W.]

ACHAGUA, a nation of Indians of the nuevo Reyno de Granada, who dwell among the plains of Gazanare and Meta, and in the woods which skirt the river Ele. They are bold in their engagements with wild beasts, but with human beings they have recourse rather to poison and stratagem; they are dexterous in the use of the dart and spear, and never miss their aim; are particularly fond of horses, of which they take the utmost care, anointing and rubbing them with oil ; and it is a great thing among them to have one of these animals of peculiar size and beauty. They go naked, but, for the sake of decency, wear a small apron made of the thread of aloes, the rest of their bodies being painted of different colours. They are accustomed, at the birth of their children, to smear them with a bituminous ointment, which hinders the hair from growing, even upon the eyebrows. The women's brows are also entirely deprived of hair, and the juice of jagua being immediately rubbed into the little holes formed by the depilatory operation, they remain bald for ever after. They are of a gentle disposisition, but much given to intoxication. The Jesuits reduced many to the catholic faith, forming them into settlements, in 1661 .

ACHALA, Mountains of, in the province and government of Tucuman, bounded by the mountains of Cuyo or Mendoza, of the kingdom of Chile; they run from N N W to S S E at the sources of the river Quarto.

Achamqui. See CHANQUI.

ACHAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guamanga in Peru, situate on the confines which divide the above province from Huanta.

ACHEPE, Bay of, a small port of the N. sea, on the E, coast of the Isla Real, or Cape Breton. It is close to N. cape.

[ACHIACHICA, a town in Mexico. See Angelos.]

ACHIANTLAS, Miguel de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepozcolula. It contains a convent of monks of Santo Domingo, and 260 families of Indians, who occupy themselves in cultivating and improving the land. It is eight leagues to the W with an inclination to the S of its capital.

ACHIBAMBA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito; it rises in the mountains, and enters the Marañon.

ACHINUTLAN, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia. It is on the shore of the river Orinoco, and to the E of the Ciudad Real, (royal city), the river Tacuragua running between them.

ACHIRA. See Cata-Magu.

ACHITE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana. It runs from S to N and enters the Cuyuni.

ACHOCALLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pacages in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Viacha.

ACHOGOA, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa, founded by the missionaries of the Jesuits, between the rivers Tuerte, Mayo, and Ribas.

ACHOMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Collahuas in Peru. In its vicinity is a volcano, called Amboto and Sahuarcuca, which vomits smoke and flames; the latter of which are seen clearly at night.

ACHONGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Lircay.

ACHOUPEKAHIGAN, a river of Canada. It runs E afterwards turns to the S and enters the lake of St. Thomas.

[ACKLIN'S Island. See Crooked Island.]

ACLA, a small city of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province of Darien, founded by Gabriel de Roxas, in 1514, on the coast of the S. sea, at the mouth of the gulph of Uraba, in front of the island of Pinos, with a good fort, then much frequented and very convenient, from having a good bottom, but somewhat incommoded by currents. Pedro Arias Davila built here a fort for its defence in 1516; but the settlement, nevertheless, did not keep long together, the Spaniards having abandoned it, on account of its unhealthiness, in 1532. [Lat. 8° 56' N. Long. 77° 40' W.]

ACOBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru. It was the capital, but at present the town of Guancavelica bears that title, on account of its being the residence of the governor and other people of consequence. It is of a good temperature, and so abundant in grain, that its crops of wheat amount to 25,000 bushels yearly. In an estate near it, are some pyramidical stones, and in other parts

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vince of Orinoco, and part of the Saliva nation, forming a separate district, and situate in the plains of San Juan, of the new kingdom of Granada, near the river Sinaruco. It was destroyed by the Caribee indians in 1684.

ADORATORIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru, situate w. of Larin.

ADSON’S Town lies near the n. e. line of New Jersey, and s. e. of the Drowned Lands; 27 miles n. of Morristown, and 24 n. w. of Patterson . ]

ADUANA, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate on the shore of the lake of this name, on the e. side.

ADVANCE. See Forward.

AEIQUAIA, the head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tonala in Nueva Espana.

AERIUCTUQUEN, a mountain of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions. It is the beginning of the great sierra of Binocote, between the rivers Cutini and Caroni.

AFFREUX, a lake of the province and colony of Virginia, near the coast.

AFUERA, one of the islands of Juan Fernandes, on the S. sea coast, in the kingdom of Chile. About 400 leagues to the n. of Cape Horn. This coast swarms with sea lions and wolves. Lat. 33° 47' s. Long. 80° 41' w.

[Aga|AGA]], a mountain of the province and captainship oi Rio Janeiro in Brazil. It is between the rivers Irutiba and Tapoana, on the sea-coast.

AGACES, a nation of Indians, of the province of Paraguay, on the shore of the river of this name, towards the e. The people are numerous, valiant, and of a lofty stature. In ancient times they were masters of that river, cruising about in it, and being the enemies of the Guaranies ; but after several conflicts, they were at last subjected by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, governor of the province, in 1642.

AGALTECA, a river of the province and government of Honduras, in the kingdom of Guatemala.

AGAMENTIGUS, a river of the province and colony of New England, of York county, district of Maine. It is indebted to the ocean for its waters, through Pascataqua bay ; having no considerable aid from streams of fresh water. Its mouth is about four miles s. from Cape Neddie river. Small vessels can enter here.]

AGAMENTIGUS, a mountain of considerable elevation in the district of Maine, distant about six miles from Bald Head, and eight from York harbour. Lat. 43° 12' n, and Long. 70°

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43' w. from Greenwich. It is a nofed land-mark for seamen, and is a good directory for the entry of Pascataqua harbour, as it lies very nearly in the same meridian with it and with Pigeon hill, on Cape Ann. The mountain is covered witli wood and shrubs, and affords pasture up to its summit, where there is an enchanting prospect. The cultivated parts of the country, especially on the s. and s. w. appear as a beautiful garden, intersected by the majestic river Pascataqua, its bays and branches. The immense ranges of mountains on the «. and n. w. afford a sublime spectacle ; and on the sea side the various indentings of the coast, from Cape Ann to Cape Elizabeth, are plainly in view in a clear day ; and the Atlantic stretches to the e. as far as the power of vision extends. At this spot the bearing of the following objects were taken, with a good surveying instrument, October 11, 1780.

Summit of the White mountains, n. 15° w.

Cape Porpoise, n. 63° e.

Rochester hill, n. 64° w,

Tuckaway South peak, s. 80° w.

Frost’s hill, Kittery, s. 57° w.

Saddle of Bonabeag, w. 14° w.

Isle of Shoals Meeting-house, s. 6° r.

Varney’s hill, in Dover, distant 10| miles by mensuration, «. 89° zo. Variation of the needle, 6° te).]

AGAMUNTIC, or Amaguntic Pond, in the district of Maine, sends its waters northward to the Chaudiere, through the west branch of that river.]

AGCHILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pilaya and Paspaya in Peru. It has in its district seven public chapels, within four leagues distance.]

AGENAGATENINGA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the Portuguese territory. It rises in the country of the Anamaris Indians, runs n. and enters the abundant stream of the Madera.

AGIQUA, a river of N. Carolina, which runs n. w. and afterwards turning to the w. enters the Cherokees.

AGNALOS, a nation of infidel Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, inhabiting the mountains w. of the river Apure.

AGNAPURAS, a chain of mountains, or a cordillera of the kingdom of Peru, whicli run for leagues from n. to s. without termination, and separate the Taucas from the Chizuitos Indians.

AGOMISO, an island of Hudson’s bay, near its w. coast; n. n. e. from Albany fort.] >

AGONICHE, a river of Nova Scotia, running

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captainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near the coast, and runs s. s. e. entering the sea close to the cape of San Roque.

Aguada, a sharp point or small island of the S. sea, near the coast, in the province and corregimiento of Atacama.

Aguada (point in Cartagena), a point on the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cartagena. It is one of those which form the mouth of the gulph of Uraba or Darien.

AGUADILLA, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. Here ships take in water, on account of the convenience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same castle, which was built under the directions of Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.

AGUADORES, River of the, in the island of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is seven leagues distant.

AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in the year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Queretaro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra Gorda.

Aguaio, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the new kingdom of Leon, inhabited by Spaniards ; 10 leagues distant from La Punta.

AGUAIUS, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Marcas in the kingdom of Quito.

AGUAGE, a settlement and real of mines of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España. Lat. 29°w. Long. 111° 5'

AGUAJES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguna, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.

AGUALEI, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, which rises in the sierras of Usupama, and enters the Caroni on the e. side.

AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the jurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of Indians, including the wards of its district; 17 leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n. Long. 103° 33' w.

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AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits as the other settlements of this province.

AGUAMIRO, a settlement of the province and cer re gimiento of Huamalies in Peru, celebrated for some medicinal and very salutary baths.

AGUAN, a river of the province and government of Honduras, which runs into the sea at the gulph of this name.

AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, ^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.

AGUANO, a lake of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. ' It is formed by an arm or channel of the river Guallaga, and is very near the shore of that river.

AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father Lorenzo Lucero.

Aguanos, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco, in this province, and of these missions.

AGUAPAI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises between the Parana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of San Carlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c. enters the last of the above rivers not far from the settlement of La Cruz.

Aguapai, another river of the same province and government, which runs w. and enters the Parana close to the Juan Gazu.

AGUAPEI, a river of the same province and government as the two former. It is very small, and rises in the mountains of Nuestra Senora de Fe ; runs from n. to s. and enters the Parana.

AGUARAU, a river of the province and government of Paraguay, which runs w. and enters the Parana between the Inau and Piray .

AGUARICO, San Pedro de, a settlement of Indians, converted by the missions of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas; situate on the shore of the river Napo.

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Villas. It contains 34 families of Indians, who cultivate and trade in grain, pulse, coal, and the bark of trees. A little more than two leagues to the w. with a slight inclination to the s. of its head settlement.

Agustin, San, another setttlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru ; situate on the shore of the river Tercero (third river.)

Agustin, San, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Vera Paz in the kingdom of Guatemala.

Agustin, San, another of the province and government of Popayan in the kingdom of Quito.

Agustin, San, another of the province and government of Buenos Ayres in Peru, on the shore of the river Ibiquay.

Agustin, San, another of the province and alcaldia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva España, situate near the town of Rosario.

Agustin, San, a point or cape of the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the port Antonio Vaz and the river Tapado. One hundred leagues from the bay of Los Miiertos ; [300 miles n. e. from the bay of All Souls. Lat. 8° 38' s. Long. 35° 11' tc.]

Agustin, San, another point or cape of the coast of the province and government of Rio de Hacha, and kingdom of Tierra Firme, close to the lake of San Juan, on the e. side.

Agustin, San, a river of the province and government of Antioquia, in the new kingdom of Granada. It runs from s. to n. and afterwards, with a slight inclination to the w. enters the river S. Juan, of the province of Choco.

Agustin, San, a small island of the gulph of California, or Red Sea of Cortes ; situate in the most interior part of it, and near upon the coast of Nueva España, opposite the bay of San Juan Baptista.

[ AGWORTH, a township in Cheshire county. New Hampshire, incorporated in 1766, and contains 704 inhabitants ; eight miles e. by n. from Charlestown, and 73n. w. by a), from Portsmouth.]

AHOME, a nation of Indians, who inhabit the shores of the river Zuaque, in the province of Cinaloa, and who are distant four leagues from the sea of California : they were converted to the Catholic faith by father Andres de Rivas, a Jesuit. Their country consists of some extensive and fertile plains, and they are by nature superior to the other Indians of Nueva España. Moreover, their Heathenish customs do not partake so much of the spirit of barbarism. They abhorred polygamy, and held virginity in the highest estimation : and thus, by way of distinction, unmarried girls wore

a small shell suspended to their neck, until the day of their nuptials, when it was taken off by the bridegroom. Their clothes were decent, composed of wove cotton, and'they had a custom of bewailing their dead for a whole year, night and morning, with an apparently excessive grief. They are gentle and faithful towards the Spaniards, with whom they have continued in peace and unity from the time of their first subjection. The principal settlement is of the same name, and lies at the mouth of the river Fuerte, on the coast of the gulph of California,* having a good, convenient, and well sheltered port.

AHORCADOS, Point of the, on the shore of the large lake of Los Patos, of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil.

Ahorcados, some small islands or points on the coast of the S. sea, in the district of Santa Elena, of the province and government of Guayaquil, close to the mouth of the river Colonche.

AHUACATEPEC, San Nicolas de, another settlement of the above head settlement and alcaldia mayor.

AHUACATES, Santa Maria de, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva España.

AHUACATLAN, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Francisco del Talle, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, inhabited by 51 families of Indians, and distant three leagues s. of its head settlement.

Ahuacatlan (Zochicoatlan), another settlement of’the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zochicoatlan in Nueva España. It is of a cold temperature, situate on a small level plain, surrounded by hills and mountains. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its capital.

Ahuacatlan, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Zacatlan in Nueva España. Its inhabitants are composed of 450 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, including the settlements of the district. Five leagues from its capital, and separated by a mountainous and rugged road, as also by a very broad river, whose waters, in the winter time, increase to such a degree as to render all communication between the above places impracticable.

Ahuacatlan, another, of the head settlement of the district of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in the above kingdom. It contains 160 families of Indians, who trade in chia^ (a white medicinal earth), and grain, with which its territory abounds. It lies n, w. of its head settlement.

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