The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectly smooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; bounded s. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by that of Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and ChilIgos : all these three being situate at that part of t^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this province of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the province of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by that of Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by that of Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues from s. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues. To enter it through the province of Truxillo, which is the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordillera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. provinces. This province, however, abounds with eminences which are branches of the cordillera; and on account of the height and situation of these, a great variety of temperature is experienced, some parts being subject to an intense heat, and others to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of the nature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no less corresponds with it : but it is for the most part of a good temperature, particularly in the capital. The province abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits and cattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets, canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of a Very fine and excellent quality. Formerly its principal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not, though these animals still abound in some parts. It is watered by many rivers, of which those rising on the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lambay eque, and those passing through the province of Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others, amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest, incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On its shores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold; and its rivers in general abound in very good and wholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the productions of every kind found in this province, it has to boast many gold and silver mines, some of which are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. Towards the n. part, where it touches the province of Jaen, are found some bark-trees, the production of which, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, is of the colour of heated copper, and possesses all the virtues of the common bark. Here are also many medicinal herbs, and amongst them the celebrated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, and before the conquest, it was so well peopled that its natives formed upwards of 500 settlements. At present they amount to 46,000, being divided into 46 settlements. The capital bears the same title, and the repartimiento of the corregidor used to amount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavala of 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the capital,
San Joseph, Cherillo,
Trinidad de Chetu, S. Francisco do Cay an,
Santa Catalina de Chugod,
San Pablo de Chalique,
S. Luis de Tunibadin,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan, Nepos,
San Miguel de Pallaques,
San Marcos, Catacachi, Amarcucho, Ichocan,
San Juan de Huambos,
Todos Santos de Chota, Tacabamba, Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsome irregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT The houses are of clay, and the streets are wide and straight. The parish church, Avhich has three naves, is of finely worked stone, and the building expences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II. in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata, in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, called Santa Catalina ; two of Indians, which are San Pedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the order of St. Francis, one of the Observers, and another of the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent of Bethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion, an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de
place on the 12th of January 1809 ; the English in this brave contest having been commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Marques, and Captain Yeo.J Besides the capital tliere are in this island the towns of Armire, inhabited by Jews, as likewise those of Matuiri, Matahuri, Courrou, and Conanama, inhabited by French, Negroes, Mustees, and Mulattoes ; but few by Indians, these living for the most part retired in the mountains and Avoods to the s. These towns were converted to the faith by the society of the Jesuits, who had here established a mission, Avhich afterwards fell to decay.
(The province of Cayenne is bounded on the n. by the Dutch colony of Surinam; w. by tlie woods and mountains inhabited by barbarians, and s. by the country of the Portuguese on the borders of the Maranon.) The principal rivers which water it, and which empty themselves into the Atlantic ocean, are the Cabo, Apurvaca, Cayenne, Vuya, and Barca. Its chief commerce is in sugar, Avhich is manufactured in various mills by the Negroes. (In 1752 the exports of the colony were 260,541 lbs. of arnotto, 80,365 lbs. sugar, 17,919 lbs. cotton, 26,881 lbs. coffee, 91,916 lbs. cacao, beside timber and planks.)
Cayenne, the capital of the above island, is small, well built, and populous. It is at the n. point of the island, at the foot of the castle of San ljuis, and defended by two other redoubts, the one called Courrow, and the other Sinarari, with a handsome, convenient, and large port ; the greater part of the houses, which amount to about 200, are built of wood. Besides the parish called San Salvador, there is a fine one which belonged to the Jesuits, as also an excellent house for the governor. The form of the city is an irregular hexagon, well fortified ; in Lat. 5“ n. Long. 52° 16' w.
Cayenne, a river of the above province, (which rises in the mountains near the lake of Parime, runs through the country of the Galibis, a nation of Caribe Indians, and is 100 leagues long; the island which it environs being 18 leagues in circuit.)
CAYETANO, San , a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the mountain of the division of Maria ; six leagues to the n. n. e. of the swamp which takes the name of this town. It is one of those new establishments founded in the year 1776 by the Governor Don Juan Pimienia.
Indians, on the banks of a river between the settlements of San Louis, and San Francisco Xavier.
(CAYLOMA, a jurisdiction under the bishop of Arequipa, 32 leagues e. of that city, in S. America, in Peru, famous for the silver mines in the mountains of the same name, which are very rich, though they have been worked for a long time. The country round it is cold and barren. There is an office here for receiving the king’s fifths and vending quicksilver. See Cailloma.)
(CAYMANS, three small islands, 55 leagues n. n. w. of the island of Jamaica, in the West Indies the most s. of which is called the Great Caymans, which is inhabited by 160 people, who are descendants of the old Buccaniers. It has no harbour for ships of burden, only a tolerable anchoring place on the s. w. The climate and soil are singularly salubrious, and the people are vigorous, and commonly live to a great age. 'I'hey raise all kinds of produce for their own use and to spare. Their chief employment is to pilot vessels to the adjacent islands, and to fish for turtle ; with w hich last they supply Port Royal and other places in great quantities. Great Caymans lies in Lat. 19° 15' n. Long. 81° 33' w.)
(CAYUGA, a beautiful lake in Onondaga, county, Ncav York, from 35 to 40 miles long, about two miles wide, in some places three, and abounds with salmon, bass, cat-fish, eels, &c. It lies between Seneca and Owasco lake, and at the n. end empties into Scayace river, which is the 5 . e. part of Seneca river, Avhose waters run to lake Ontario. On each side of the lake is a ferry-house, where good attendance is given. The reservation lands of the Cayuga Indians lie on both sides of the lake, at its n. end.)
CAZERES, San Augustin de, or San Martin
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Luis de Cabrera, to make an cfl’ecliial discovery of this nation, but he did not succeed. In 1662 the innermost part of this country was penetrated by Fatlier Geronimo Montemayor, of the extinguished company of Jesuits. He discovered a nation of Indians, whose manners corresponded with this ; but he did not succeed in establishing missions, for want of labourers, and from other obstacles which arose.
Ceuadas, a very abundant river of the same province and kingdom, from which the above settlement borrowed its title. It rises from the lake of Coraycocha, Avhich is in the desert mountain or "pararno of Tioloma. It runs n. and passing by the former settlement, becomes united witli another river, formed by two streams flowing down fronrthe paramo of Lalangiiso, and from the waste waters of the lake Colta ; it then passes through the settlement of Pungala, its course inclining slightly to the e. and at a league’s distance from the settlement of Puni, is entered by the Riobamba near the Cubigies, another river which flows down from the mountain of Chimborazo, and following its course to the«. for some distance, turns to the c.as soon as it reaches the w. of the mountain of Tungaragua, and at last empties itself into the Maranon ; rvhen it passes through the settlement of Penipe, it flows in so large a body that it can be passed only by means of a bridge, which is built there of reeds ; and before it reaches the ba/ios or baths, it collects the Avaters of the Tacunga, Ambato, and other rivers, Avhich flowing doAvn from the one and the other cordillera, have their rise in the s. summit of Eiinisa, and in the s. part of Ruminambi and Cotopasci.
CEUALLOS, Morro de los, an island of the river Taquari, formed by this dividing itself into two arms to enter the river Paraguay, in the province and government of this name.
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runs from w. to e. being navigable by small vessels till it enters the S. sea.
CHACALTANGUIS, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, is of a moist temperature, and situate on the shore of the large river Alvarado. It contains seven families of Spaniards, 18 of Mulattoes and Negroes, and 75 of Popolucos Indians. Within its district are 19 engines or mills for making refined sugar ; and its territory produces maize and cotton in abundance ; is three leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHACALTONGO , Natividad de, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula, is of a cold temperature, and surrounded by eight wards within its district ; in all of which there are 160 families of Indians, who cultivate much maize and wheat ; is seven leagues between the e. and s. of its capital.
(CHACAPOYAS. See Chachapoyas.)
CHACARACUIAN, a settlement of the proprovince and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate in the middle of the serrania of that province. It is under the care of the Catalanian Capuchin fathers ; and, according to Cruz, on the coast of the sea of Paria.
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papas; likewise in cattle, from the fleeces of which great quantities of woven clotlis are made. Its 'population amounts to 150 house-keepers and 100 Indians. Four leagues to the s. w. of its capital, and near to the settlement of Turmeque.
==CHISCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate at the foot of the Snowy sierra^ and therefore of a cold and unpleasant temperature. Its productions correspond with those of a similar climate ; it contains about 80 Indians, with a very few whites. Thirty-two leagues n. e. of Tunja.
CHISPAS, Punta de las, a point on the s. coast and w. head of the island of St. Domingo, in the territory possessed by the French ; lying between the settlement and parish of the English, and the point of Burgados.
[CHISSEL, a fort in the state of Tennessee, two miles and a half from English ferry, on New river, 43 from Abingdon, and 107 from Long island, on Holston.]
CHITA, a province and corregimienlo of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, and vice-royalty of Santa Fe. It was formerly called Chisca. It is bounded w. by the province of Bogota, and n. by the country bt the Laches Indians, or province of Cochuy, and e. and s. by the llanuras of the Orinoco. It was discovered by George Spira, a German, and he was the first who entered it with his companions in 1535. This territory is fertile, abounds in wheat and maize, the grain of which is extremely large, as also in other seeds, and has goats and neat cattle in plenty. It is of an hot and unhealthy temperature, and has palms similar to those of Palestine and Barbary, producing excellent dates. The capital is of the same name. This is situate at the foot of the mountains of Bogota ; it is a large settlement, and was formerly entitled a city. Its inhabitants consist of upwards of 700 whites and about 200 Indians. Twentyfour leagues to the n. e. of Tunja.
Same name, another settlement, which is the head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, contains 90 families of Indians, and is three leagues and a half to the s. of its capital.
CHITANOS, a barbarous nation of Indians; bounded by that of the Chiscas, but distinct from it, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. They inhabit the woods to the n. e. of the mountains of Bogota and the shores of the rivers Ele, Cuiloto, and Arauca ; are an intractable and. cruel people, and dreaded by all their neighbours. In 1535, having joined company with the Jiraras, they took and destroyed the city of Las Palmas.
CHITARAQUE, a settlement of the corregimienlo and jurisdiction of Velez in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, it is of an hot but healtliy temperature, produces yucas, maize, plantains, cotton, and great quantities of sugar, from which are made fine and much esteemed conserves.
CHITAREROS, a barbarous and brutal nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, who inhabit the mountains in the vicinity of Pamplona ; they are mixed with some families of the Laches. This nation is extremely numerous, and pass a wandering life without any fixed abode ; they go entirely naked, and are much given to sensual gratifications ; some of them have embraced 2
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but very little known, of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bordering upon the river Fusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed in the woods, having a communication with the Faeces and Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, the remnant of a nation once respectable in point of number. They formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bears their name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the w, side of the Missouri, about 15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek, where they built and fortified a village ; but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, they fled to the Black hills, about the head of the Chyenne river, where they wander in quest of the buffalo, having no fixed residence. They do not cultivate. They are well disposed towards the whites, and might easily be induced to settle on the Missouri, if they could be assured of being protected from the Sioux. Their number annually diminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in, ana also the ancient name of, New Granada in Tierra Firroe, S. America. The country here, though not mountainous, is very cool ; and the Indians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, most sincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans. When the country was discovered, they had each but one wife, and were excessively jealous. They worshipped water, and an old woman that was a magician ; and believed she lay hid under one of tlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggy mountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, and from whence great wealth was procured at the be* ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento of Perú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains of the Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. by the province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Paria and coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touched by the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the province of Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz. It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom, since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12 lieutenants for the administration of justice, on account of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j. and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ; in some parts there are some very cold serrantasy in which breed every species of cattle, in proportion to the number of estates found there. That part which borders upon the Andes is very hot and moist, but at the same time fertile, and abounding in all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane, and in cacao estates, the crops of which are very great, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the use of this leaf, which was before only common to the Indians, being now general amongst the Spaniards of both sexes and all classes ; so that one basketful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars, will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also cultivated, and from these is made excellent wine. This province is watered by the river La Paz, which is the source of the Beni ; also by a river descending from the branches of the cordillera, and which, in the wet season, is tolerably large. At the river Corico begins the navigation by means of rafts to the settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the productions of this province may be counted Jesuits bark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the experiments made at Lima. This province begins at the river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs of Santa Barbara from the city of La Paz, and here is a little valley watered by the above river, and in it are a few houses or country-seats belonging to the inhabitants of the above city. This valley, which is of a delightful temperature, extends as far as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, on the skirt of the cordillera, where was found that rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks, the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the peculiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found to have six different alloys ; its degrees of perfection differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that being valued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth 11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried to the royal treasury, and upon this occasion the Marquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, received the thanks of his majesty. In the territory of Cinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes are found in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars, corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco. It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver, which are still known to exist in other mountains besides that of Santiago, but the natives have no inclination to work them. The aforementioned mountain has the peculiarity of abounding in either sort of the said metals. In the asiento of the mines of Arica, there is a gold mine which produces but little. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«