Pages That Mention Tunja
The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
CAPANA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part belonging to the Portuguese. It rises in the territory of the Yaveis Indians, between the rivers Cuchivara and the Madera ; runs to the s. and turning to the s. s. e. enters into one of the lakes which forms the latter river.
CAPANATOIAQUE, a small settlement of the head settlement of Acantepec, and alcaldía mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva España. Its temperature is warm, and it contains 90 families of Mexican Indians, who employ themselves in the cultivating and dressing of cotton.
Capanema, a river of the same province, which rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea in the bay.
CAPARRAPI, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of the city of Palma, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the new kingdom of Granada. Its temperature is warm ; the number of its inhabitants is much reduced ; they may, however, still amount to 40 housekeepers : its only productions are some maize, cotton, yucas, and plantains.
Capatarida, the river which rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
(CAPATI. Within a very few years has been discovered in the gold mine of this place, on the mountains of Copiapo, a new immalleable sort of metal, of a kind unknown to the miners ; but Molina imagined it to be no other than platina.)
(Cape St. Antonio, or Anthonio, is the point of land on the s. side of La Plata river in S. America, which, with cape St. Mary on the n. forms the mouth of that river. Lat. 36° 32' s. Long, 56° 45' w.)
(Cape Blow-me-down, which is the s. side of the entrance from the bay of Fundy into the basin of Minas, is the easternmost termination of a range of mountains, extending about 80 or 90 miles to the gut of Annapolis; bounded n. by the shores of the bay of Fundy, and s. by the shores of Annapolis river.)
(Cape Cod, anciently called Mallebarre by the French, is the s. e. point of the bay of Massachusetts, opposite cape Ann. Lat. 42° 4' n. Long. 70° 14' w. from Greenwich. See Barnstaple County and Province Town.)
(Cape Elizabeth, a head-land and township in Cumberland county, district of Maine. The cape lies in n. lat. 43° 33' e. by s. from the centre of the town nine miles, about 20 s. w. of Cape Small point, and 12 n e. from the mouth of Saco river. The town has Portland on the n. e. and Scarborough s. w. and contains 1355 inhabitants. It was incorporated in 1765, and lies 126 miles n. e. of Boston.)
(Cape Fear is the s. point of Smith’s island, which forms the mouth of Cape Fear river into two channels, on the coast of N. Carolina, s. w. of cape Look-out, and remarkable for a dangerous shoal called the Frying-pan, from its form. Near this cape is Johnson’s fort, in Brunswick county, and district of Wilmington. Lat. 33° 57' n. Long. 77° 56' w.)
(Cape Fear River, more properly Clarendon, affords the best navigation in N. Carolina. It opens to the Atlantic ocean by two channels. 'I'he s. w. and largest channel, between the s. w. end of Smith’s island, at Bald head, where the light-house stands, and the e. end of Oakes island s. w. from fort Johnston. The new inlet is between the sea-coast and the n. e. end of Smith’s island. It will admit vessels drawing 10 or 11 feet, and is about three miles wide at its entrance, having 18 feet water at full tides over the bar. It continues its breadth to the flats, and is navigable for large vessels 21 miles from its mouth, and 14 from Wilmington ; to which town vessels drawling 10 or 12 feet can reach without any risk. As you ascend this river you leave Brunswick on the left and Wilmilgton on the right. A little above Wilmington the river divides into n. e. and n. w. branches. The former is broader than the latter, but is neither so deep nor so long. The n. w. branch rises within a few miles of the Virginia line, and is formed by the junction of Haw and Deep rivers. Its general course is s. e. Sea ves-
sels can go 25 miles above Wilmington, and large boats 90 miles, to Fayetteville. The n. e. branch joins the n. w. branch a little above Wilmington, and is navigable by sea vessels 20 miles above that town, and by large boats to S. Washington, 40 miles further, and by rafts to Sarecto, which is nearly 70 miles. The whole length of Cape Fear river is about 200 miles.)
(Cape May is the s. westernmost point of the state of New Jersey, and of the county to which it gives name. Lat. 38° 59' n. Long. 74° 55' w. It lies 20 miles n. e. from cape Henlopen, which forms the s. w. point of the mouth of Delaware bay, as cape May does the n. e.)
(Cape May County spreads n. around the cape of its name, is a healthy sandy tract of country, of sufficient fertility to give support to 2571 industrious and peaceable inhabitants. The county is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower precincts.)
CAPETI, a river of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains in the interior of this province, runs from e. to w. and enters the large river of Tuira.
Capi, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the territory of the Portuguese. It runs from e. to w. and enters the Marañon opposite the city of Pará. Don Juan de la Cruz, in his map of S. America, calls it Cupiu.
CAPIATA, a small settlement of the province and government of Paraguay ; situate on the shore of the river of its name, three leagues e. of the city of Asuncion. [Lat. 25° 21' 45". Long. 57° 31' 48" w.]
Santiago del Estero, on the bank of the river Choromoros.
Capillucas, a lake of the same province and government; formed from an overflow or channel of the river Napo, and at no great distance from the banks of this river.
CAPINOTA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cochambaba in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas ; in which there is, independent of the parish-church, a convent of the order of San Agustin.
CAPITANEJO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the new kingdom of Granada; situate on the bank of the river Sogamoso, in the territory called Cabuya de Chicamocha, which is the direct road from Tunja to Santa Fe. It is of a very hot temperature, abounding in sugar-cane, and other productions of a warm climate. The natives are very subject to an epidemic disorder of lumps or swellings under the chin. Its population consists of 100 housekeepers.
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ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settlement and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of a cold temperature, and abounds in cattle and the productions peculiar to the climate. It contains 300 families, and lies in a valley, from which it takes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the side of the town of San Felipe, towards the e. between this town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, on the shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadron of 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor of this district, for the'purpose of restraining the bordering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. is the large river of this name ; and from this begins a tract of extensive country, inhabited by barbarous nations, who impede the communication and commerce Avith regard to this part and the provinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35 leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an island which is also thus called ; the one and theother having been named out of compliment to the Marquis of Cerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie aforesaid island is large, and lies between the former bay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of Santa Ana. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de Cerro Gordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Tepeguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Its situation is similar to the road which leads to it, namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed, it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is a pool of water, and by Avhich passengers usually pass. This garrison is the residence of a captain, a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed to suppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In its vicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautiful orchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas, which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour. The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capital Guadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement of the head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians, and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settlement, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called by the Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom, “ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of several small rivers, which flow down from the snowy sierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the extensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lake Zapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into four arms, which afterwards unite, and so, following a course of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magdalena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settlement called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of them are told many fabulous accounts, although they are, in fact, but little known. Some believe them to be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being those Avho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and belonged to the armada which, at the beginning of the conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop of Placencia to discover the Malucas. Others pretend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyed the city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with them the Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the production of these Avomen and the Indiatis that this nation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that they are of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect, and of good dispositions. They have some light of Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; and some have affirmed that they have heard the sound of bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in 1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
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(country of the Iroquees Indians. It is handsome and well built, on the margin of the river of the same name, about 12 or 15 miles s. w. from Montreal, and n. of St. John’s fort. It was taken by the Americans, Oct. 20, 1775, and retaken by the British, Jan. 18, 1776. Lat. 45° 26' w.)
Chambo, a very large river, which rises near the former settlement, and runs with such rapidity that it cannot be forded ; is consequently passed over by means of various bridges made of osiers.
CHAME, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Natá in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near a river, and two leagues from the coast of the S. sea. It produces maize, plantains, and other fruits ; swine, fowl, turkeys, and other birds, with which it supplies, by means of canoes, the markets of the city of Panama, from whence it is nine leagues distant.
CHAMETLAN, a province and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España, also called Del Rosario ; bounded n. by the province of Culiacan, s. by that of Xalisco or Sentipac, e. and n. e. by that of Zacatecas and Nueva Galicia, and w. by the S. sea ; is 30 leagues long from e. to w. and 25 wide n. s. ; is of, a very hot temperature, and the greater part of it is a mountainous and rugged country, abounding in. noxious animals and insects, and on this account uninhabitable in the summer and in the rainy season. It was conquered by Don Juan de Ibarra in 1554, has many mines of silver and gold, which were formerly worked, but which at present are all abandoned, as well from their having filled with water, as from the scantiness of the means of the inhabitants to work them. The royal mines, however, are productive of some emolument, and are in fafct the support of the place. It produces some maize, and much tobacco , and cotton, to which article the soil is exactly suited, though not so to wheat, which yields here but sparingly. On the banks of the lakes formed by the sea, is left a thick incrustation of salt in the month of April ; and although the inhabitants spare no pains to collect this valuable commodity, yet abundance of it is lost from the Avant of hands to collect it ere the heats come on, when it very quickly disappears.
Some large cattle are bred here. It is very badly peopled, or, to speak more truly, it is as it were desert, having only three settlements and some estates. It is irrigated by a river which flows down from the sierra Madre, and passes through the capital, the waters of which are made useful for the working of the mines. The same river enters the sea two leagues from the settlement of Chametlan, and has abundance of fish, which are caught with ease, as well upon its shores as in marshes which it forms. Tlie capital, which is the residence of the alcalde mayor, is the real del Rosario.
Chametlan, a settlement of the former alcaldía mayor ; from thence taking its name. It contains only five or six Indians, and some Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, who, the greater part of the year, live in the estates which they have for the breeding of large cattle, and on the farms for the cultivation of maize and cotton.
CHAMESA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Nopsa. It is of a cold temperature, and produces the fruits corresponding to such a climate, particularly wheat, which is of the best quality. It contains 100 Avhite inhabitants, and as many Indians, and is a little more than eight leagues from its capital.
CHAMI, San Juan de, a settlement of the province and government of Chocó ; situate in the district of Thatama, near the ruins of the city of San Juan de Rodas, to the w. of the city of Santiago de Arma.
CHAMICUROS, S. Francisco Xavier de, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in 1670 by the Father Lorenzo Lucero. '