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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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C R A

Oaxaca. It contains only 20 families of Indians, wbo live by the cultivation of the cochineal plant and seeds.

COZCATLAN, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tasco in Nueva Espana. It contains 200 families of Indians, and is five leagues c. of its capital.

COZEL, a settlement of the jurisdiction and aknld'ia mayor of Culiacan in Nueva Espaila.

COZINAS, a bay of the coast of the province and government of Yucatán.

COZINERA, a shoal of rocks on the coast of the S. sea, of the province and government of Tierra Firme, very near the point of Paytilla, in the bay of Panama.

COZOCOZONQUE, a settlement of the head settlement of Puxmecatan, and alcaldia mayor of ViUalta, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot temperature, contains 85 families of Indians, and is 29 leagues to the e. of its capital.

COZTLA, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Coronango, and alcaldia mayor of Cholula, in Nueva Espana. It contains 48 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. of the capital.

COZUMEL, an island of the N. sea, opposite the e. coast of Yucatan, to the province and government of which it belongs. It is 10 leagues long n. w.f s. w. and from four to five wide. It is fertile, and abounds in fruit and cattle, and is covered with shady trees. The Indians call it Cuzamel, which in their language signifies the island of swallows. Here was the most renowned sanctuary of any belonging to the Indians in this province, and a noted pilgrimage, and the remains of some causeways over which the pilgrims used to pass. It was discovered by the Captain Juan de Grijalba in 1518, and the Spaniards gave it the name of Santa Cruz, from a cross that was deposited in it by Hernan Cortes, when he demolished the idols, and when at the same time the first mass ever said in this kingdom of Nueva Espana, was celebrated by the Fray Bartolome de Olrnedo, of the order of La Merced, At present it is inhabited by Indians only. It is three leagues distant from the coast of Tierra Firme.

(CRAB-ORCHARD, a post-town on Dick’s river, in Kentucky, eight miles from Cumberland river, and 25 miles s. e. of Danville. The road to Virginia passes through this place.)

CRABS, or Boriquen, an island of the N. sea ; situate on the s. side of the island of St. Domingo, first called so by the Bucaniers, from the abundance of crabs found upon its coast. It is large and beautiful, and its mountains and plains arc covered

with trees. The English established themselves here in 1718, but they were attacked and driven out by the Spaniards of St. Domingo in 17^0, who could not suffer a colony of strangers to settle so near them. The women and children were, however, taken prisoners, and carried to the capital and Portobelo. See Boriquen.

CRAMBERRI, a small river of the province and colony of N. Carolina. It runs s. and enters the source of the Conhaway.

CRAMBROOK, a river of the province and colony of Pennsylvania in N. America.

(CRANBERRY, a thriving town in Middlesex county. New Jersey, nine miles e. of Princeton, and 16 s. s. w. of Brunswick. It contains a handsome Presbyterian church, and a variety of manufactures are carried on by its industrious inhabitants. The stage from New York to Philadelphia passes through Amboy, this town, and thence to Bordentown.)

(Cranberry Islands, on the coast of the district of Maine. See Mount Desert Island.)

(CRANEY, a small island on the s. side of James river, in Virginia, at the mouth of Elizabeth river, and five miles 5. w. of fort George, on point Comfort. It commands the entrance of both rivers.)

(CRANSTON is the s. easternmost township of Providence county, Rhode Island, situated on the w. bank of Providence river, five miles s. of the town of Providence. The corajiact part of the town contains 50 or 60 houses, a Baptist meeting house, handsome school-house, a distillery, and a number of saw and grist mills^and is called Pawtuxet, from the river, on both sides of whose mouth it stands, and over which is a bridge connecting the two parts of the town. It makes a pretty appearance as you pass it on the river. The whole township contains 1877 inhabitants.)

CRAVEN, a county of the province and colony of Carolina in N. America, situate on the shore of the river Congaree, which divides the province into South and North. It is filled with English and F'rench protestants. The latter of these disembarked here to establish themselves in 1706, but were routed, and the greater part put to death by the hands of the former. The river Sewee waters this county, and its first establishment was owing to some families wlio had come hither from New England. It has no large city nor any considerable town, but has two forts upon the river Saute, the one called Sheuinirigh fort, which is 45 miles from tlie entrance or mouth of the river, and the other called Congaree, 65 miles from the other. [It contains 10,469 inhabitants, of whom S658are slaves.}

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(Crow’s Meadows, a river in the n.w. territory, which runs n. w. into Illinois river, opposite to which are fine meadows. Its mouth is 20 yards wide, and 240 miles from the Mississippi. It is navigable between 15 and 18 miles.)

(CROWN Point is the most s. township in Clinton county, New York, so called from the celebrated fortress which is in it, and which was garrisoned by the British troops, from the time of its reduction by General Amherst, in 1759, till the late revolution. Itwastakenby the Americans the I4th of May 1775, and retaken by the British the year after. The point upon which it was erected by the French in 1731, extends n. into lake Champlain. It was called Kruyn Punt, or Scalp Point, by the Dutch, and by the French, Pointe-a-laChevelure ; the fortress they named Fort St. Frederick. After it was repaired by the British, it was the most regular and expensive of any constructed by them in America ; the walls are of wood and earth, about 16 feet high and about 20 feet thick, nearly 150 yards square, and surrounded by a deep and broad ditch dug out of the solid rock ; the only gate opened on the n. tow'ards the lake, where was a draw-bridge and a covert way, to secure a communication with the waters of the lake, in case of a siege. On the right and left, as you enter the fort, is a row of stone barracks, not elegantly built, which are capable of containing 2000 troops. There were formerly several outworks, which are now in ruins, as is indeed the case with the principal fort, except the walls of the barracks. The famous fortification called Ticonderoga is 15 miles s. of this, but that fortress is also so much demolished, that a stranger would scarcely form an idea of its original construction. The town of Crown Point has no rivers ; a few streams, however, issue from the mountains, which answer for mills and common uses. In the mountains, which extend the whole length of lake George, and part of the length of lake Champlain, are plenty of moose, deer, and almost all the other inhabitants of the forest. In 1790 the town contained 203 inhabitants. By the state census of 1796, it appears there are 126 electors. The fortress lies in lat. 43° 56' n. ; long. 73° 2P w.)

(CROYDEN, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, adjoining Cornish, and about 18 miles n. e. of Ciiarlestown. It was incorporated in 1763 ; in 1775 it contained 143, and in 1790, 537 inhabitants.)

CRUAIRE, a settlement of the province of Venezuela, and government of Maracaibo; situate

C R U

on the coast, between cape San Roman and the Punta Colorada.

CRUCERO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to the curacj" of Coaza. It has a sanctuary where an image of Nuestra Seilora del Rosario is held in high veneration.

CRUCES, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate on the shore of the river Chagre, and in a small valley surrounded by mountains. It is of a good temperature and healthy climate, and is the plain from whence the greatest commerce was carried on, particularly at the time that the galleons used to go to Tierra Firme, the goods being brought up the river as far as this settlement, where the royal store-houses are established, and so forwarded to Panama, Avhich is seven leagues distant over a level road. The alcaldia mayor and the lordship of this settlement is entailed upon the eldest son of the illustrious house of the Urriolas; which family is established in the capital, and has at sundry times rendered signal services to the king. The English pirate, John Morgan, sacked and burnt it in J670.

Cruces, another settlement, of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate on the same island as is the city, and on the shore of the great river Magdalena.

Cruces, another, of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Toledo.

Cruces, another, of the missions belonging to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Twenty-nine leagues to the n. w. of the town and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.

Cruces, another, of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya.

Cruces, another, of the province and eorregfmiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of Chile ; situate e. of the city of San J uan de la Frontera, and upon the shore of one of the lakes of lluanacache.

Cruces, another, in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of the river Biobio.

Cruces, a river in the district of Guadalabquen of the same kingdom. It is an arm of tlie Callacalla, which enters the Valdivia, and forms the island of Las Animas.

CRUILLAS, a town of the province and government of La Sierra Gorda in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva Espana, founded in 1764, by order of the Marquis of this title and viceroy' of these provinces.

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It is of a mild temperulurcj but rather inclined to cold than heat. It contains 264 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, and in its district are various estates, in which, and in the 10 settlements of which its district consists, are collected scarlet dje, seeds, fruits, coal, woods, and timber. It is two leagues s. e. of the capital.

CUILOTO, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, It rises in the mountains of Bogota, runs e. through the llanos or plains of Casanare and Meta, and afterwards enters the river Meta. Some barbarian Indians, the liraras and Chinalos, live about its borders, dispersed amongst the woods.

CUIQUE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of the lake Tacarigua, towards the s.

CUIQUILA, Santa Maria de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tepozcolula in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, contains 76 families of Indians, whose only employment is that of making stone flags ; and these in sufficient quantity to supply the whole province. Is nine leagues s.w. of its capital.

CUISILLO, San Francisco de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of the town of Leon, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan, contains S3 families of Indians, who employ themselves in the cultivation of maize and many fruits. It is very close to its capital.

CUITES, a settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province and govetument of Cinaloa of Nueva Espaila.

CUITI, a river of the province and government of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towards the n. and enters the sea between the islands Palmas and Pinos.

CUITINA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate in the llanura of Sogamoso, between the settlement of this name and that of Tota. It is of a cold temperature, produces wheat, maize, papas, and the other fruits of a cold climate. It contains 60 housekeepers, and as many Indians ; lies eight leagues to the n. of Tunja.

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de,, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Yanguitlan in Nueva Espaila. It contains 604 families of Indians, with those of the wards of its district. It is of a hot temperature, and lies 16 leagues s. w. of its capital. It produces some scarlet dye and seeds,

CUIXTLAHUACA, San Juan de, another settlement, of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in the same kingdom. It contains 15 families of Indian’s,

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CUJENA, Cano de, an arm of the river Negro, in the country of Las Amazonas. It runs nearly due s. and joins the Parime.

CUJILLOS, a settlement of province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito ; situate on the shore of the river Marailon.

[CUJO. See Cuva.]

CUL DE Sac, a settlement and parish of the French, in the part possessed by them in the island of St. Domingo. It is in the head of the w. and upon the w. coast, on the shore of a river between port Principe and the river of Naranjos or Oranges.

Cul de Sac, another settlement and parish in the island of Guadalupe. It lies on the shore of the bay of its name, between the rivers Vondipiques and Testu. There is also another settlement in the same bay, between the rivers Lezard and Sarcelles.

CUL DE SAC, a large bay and convenient port of the same island (Guadalupe), which is the principal of the whole island, and in which are many smaller islands. There is also another close to it, distinguished by the title of Cul de Sac Petit ; and these are divided by an isthmus of land, which allows a communication to the same lakes by a narrow channel.

CULATAS, a small settlement of the district and jurisdiction of the town of San Gil, in the corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; annexed to the curacy of Oiba, It lies between the settlements of Socorro and Charala,

CULAUI, a river of the island of La Laxa, in the kingdom of Chile. It runs w. forming a bend between those of Huaque and Duqueco, and enters the Biobio.

CULCHE, a settlement of Indians, of the district of Guadalabquen, and kingdom of Chile; situate at the source of the river Valdivia.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a river on (he coast of the province and government of Costarica, of tlie kingdom of Guatemala. It runs into tlie N. sea, between the river Bocaes and the bay of Almirante.

CuLEBRAs, Rio de, another river in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains of the n. coast, and point of San Bias, and runs into the sea to the w.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, another, of the island of Santo Domingo, in the e. head ; runs into the sea in the great bay of Samana, between the rivers Magua and Yaina.

CULEBRAS, Rio de, a lake of the province and government of Venezuela, between the river of Sa4 B

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CUM

CUM

found in the environs of Cumana what the Spaniards call til spa, a species of the Jesuits’ bark ; the calaguala, a plant, the root of which is dissolvent, aperitive, and sudorific ; the pissiphii, a species of emetic ; the caranapire, a species of sage ; and the tualua, a more powerful purgative than jalap. There arc also a great number of spices, which are suffered to rot on the spot where ' first they grew. In lat. 10° 27'. Long. 64° IS'.] The settlements of the province of Cumana are,

San Baltasar de los Cum pa,

Arias, Rio Caribes,

San Felipe de Austria, A raja.

Those of the missions,

Cocuisas, San Francisco,

San Feliz, Santa Maria de los An-

San Lorenzo, geles,

Chacaracuan, San Antonio.

Of the doctrines {dodrinas),

Cacuar,

Unare,

Punccres,

Guanaguana,

Soro,

Caicara,

Irapa,

Yaguara,

Caripe,

Teresen,

Guayuta,

Tipirin,

Amacuro,

Paro.

Cumana, a river of the above province (Cumaná) and government, which rises in the spot called Cocoyan, in the serrama. It runs n. following this course continually through the sierra until it flows down to the plain near the city, from whence it enters the gulf, first having divided itself into four arms. In the winter time it generally overflows ; but as the distance from the sierra to its mouth, or where it enters the sea, is so short, it quickly subsides within its proper bed, when it leaves water enough for the navigation of a barge ; and there w ould be sufficient for large vessels, were it not for the bar which is at its mouth and impedes its entrance. In the summer time, however, it becomes so dry, tliat it is scarcely navigable for canoes.

CUMANACOA, a city lying s. e. of Cumana 14 leagues ; in the middle of the valley of the same name. The population amounts to 4200 people ; the air is wholesome, the w aters have a diureticquality not commonly to be met with. This city wants nothing but hands to avail itself of the productions which the richness of the land would yield, if it were cultivated. The fruits have here an uneommonly fine savour, taste, and substance. The government gives this city the name of San Baltasar de los Arias, but that of Cumanacoa has so much prevailed, that it is the only one by which it is now known. See Cumana.

2

CUMANAGOTA, a city of the former province and government ((Cumaná), in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, called also San Baltasar de los Arias. It has a good, convenient, and secure port ; is situate on the skirts of the most elevated part of the serrama, in a fertile valley, which abounds in streams, which irrigate 26 estates of yucales, some small plantations of cacao, and some cattle. The productions of all these estates are consumed in the country ; since, through the unevenness of the roads, it is impossible to carry^them out of it, with the exception, however, of tobacco, with which Cumana is supplied. The soil is the most fertile of any in the province, especially to the n. of the sietTa, where there might be established some very good cacao estates ; but this is not to be accomplished, considering the scarcity of its inhabitants, and their great poverty. This city, just after the conquest of these countries, was noted for its famous pearl-fisheries, which were afterwards abandoned. Its vicinity was inhabited by many gentile Indians, who were at continual enmity with the Spaniards and the other inhabitants ; but these troublesome people were reduced to obedience by Don Juan de Urpin, who had held consultations for that purpose with the council of the Indies. The population amounts to 800 souls, including the Negro slaves and the people of colour.

CUMAPI, a large lake of the country of Las Amazonas. It is a waste water of the large river Caqueta, in the territory of the Guayonas Indians.

CUMARA, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the territory possessed by the Portuguese, is an arm of the Cuchivara or Purus, which enters the Maranon before the other streams which are tributary to this river.

CUMAREBO, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the seacoast, and at the point of its name, with a good, though small port, and one that is much frequented by vessels.

CUMARU, Los Santos Angeles de, a settlement of the province and country of Las Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese; situate on the shore of a large river.

CUMATEN, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the mountain of Areyuctuquen, and runs, collecting the waters of many others, to enter the Cuyuni on the s. side.

CUMATl, a small river of the province and government of Paraguay. It runs s. and enters the large river of the Portuguese.

CUMAYARIS, a barbarous nation of Indians,

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CUR

CURAHUARI an ancient province of Peru, to the n. of Cuzco. The Inca Capac Yupanqui, fifth Emperor, conquered and united it to the empire.

CURAHUASI, a settlement of tlie province and con eginiietito of Abancay in Peru, S3 leagues distant from the city of Cuzco.

CURAI, a settlement of the province and cor~ regimiento of Caxatarabo in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Churin.

CURAL, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rio Janeyro in Brazil ; situate on the coast, opposite the Isla Grande.

CURAMA, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It enters the Meta, and loses its name.

CURAMPA, an ancient settlement of the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru. The Prince Yahuar Huacar, eldest, son of the first Emperor, the Inca Roca, took it by force of arms, and subjected it to the crown. It was then one of the strong places of the province.

CURANARIS, a barbarous and numerous nation of Indians, divided into bodies of militia, who inhabit the woods near the river Bayari to the s. of the Maranon.

CURANTA, an islet or rocky shoal of the coast of the kingdom of Chile, close to the point of XosH umos.

CURAPO, a settlement of the missions which are held by the religious Capuchins, in the province and government of Guayana.

CURAUAUA, a river of the kingdom of Chile, in the district and jurisdiction which belonged to the city Imperial. It runs w. and forms Avith the Eyou the great lake of Puren, out of which it runs on the 5. w. side, uniting itself with the Cauten, or the Imperial.

CURASAY a large and navigable river of the province and government of Maynas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the paramos of 'i'acunga, and after running e. for more than 90 leagues, enters the Napo ; first collecting the waters of the Soetuno, Noesino, and Turibuno, on then, and on the s. the Villano. The woods on the s. are inhabited by some barbarous nations of Iquitos, Ayacores, and Scimugaes Indians, and the «. parts by the Yates and Zaparas.

CURARICARU, a river of the province and government of Guayana. It rises in the country of the Maraucotos Indians, runs e. and turning its course enters the Parime or Puruma.

CURASANA, a river of the province of Barcelona, and government of Cumana. It rises near tlie settlement of Cari, towards the c. runs s. and

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enters the Orinoco, near the Angostura, or narrow part.

CURASCO, a settlement of the province and corregimieyito of Cochabamba in Peru ; annexed to the coracy of Ayruhanca.

CURASENI, a small river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It runs e. and enters the Orinoco between the settlements of the missions Avhich were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, called Santa Teresa, and San Ignacio.

CURASIRI, a small river of the province and government of Cumana. It rises in the serrania of Ymataca, runs s. and enters the Cuyuni on the n. side.

CURATAQUICHE, a settlement of the province of Barcelona and government of Cumana ; situate on the shore of the river Nevery, to the s. of the city of Barcelona.

CURAZAICILLO, a small river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the country of the Abijiras Indians, runs e. and turning afterwards to the n. enters the Napo, close to the settlement of Oravia.

CURAZILLO, or Curaza Chico, or Little, a small island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, and close upon the e. side of Cura^oa.

CURBA, a settlement of the province and corregimknio of Larecaxa in Peruj annexed to the curacy of Charazani.

CURBATI, a small settlement of Indians of the province and government of Maracaibo; annexed to the curacy of the city of Pedraza. Its natives, although few, are docile and well inclined.

CURE River of, in the island of Guadalupe, one of the Antilles or Windward isles. It rises in the mountains to the e. and enters the sea between the bay of La Barque and the port of Las Gpayabas.

CURECA, a river of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil. It runs nearly due n. and enters that of Las Amazonas.

[CURIACO, a bay in Tierra Firme, S. America, on the N. sea.]

CURIANCHE, an habitation or palace, built by the first Emperor of the Incas, Manco Capac, of very large stones, and covered with straAv; from Avhence the city of Cuzco has its origin. This palace was afterwards dedicated to the sun, and became converted into a temple, being the most beautiful and rich structure of any in Peru, in the time of the Indians; the inside of it being cased Avitb gold, and the outside with silver, these metals

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