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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
CHIMALAPA, Santa Maria de a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tehuantepec in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold temperature, and the whole of its district is covered with very large trees, especially firs fit for ship-building. Twenty-five leagues n.w. of its capital,
CHIAMLHUACAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Coatepec in Nueva Espana. It contains a good convent of the religious order of St. Domingo, 300 families of Spaniards, il/wsfees, and Mulattoes, who employ themselves in labour, and in the commerce of seeds and large and small cattle, which are bred in the estates contiguous ; but the latter in no great degree, owing to the scarcity of water and pasture which prevails here.
Same name, another settlement and head settlement of the district in the alcaldia mayor of Chaleo, of the same kingdom. It contains 166 families of Indians, and a convent of the religious order of St. Domingo. Five leagues n. of its capital.
CHIMAN, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near the coast of the S. sea, and on the shore of the river of its name, having a small port, which is garrisoned by a detachment from Panama, for the purpose of restraining the invasions which are continually made by the Indians.
CHIMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. It has the celebrated talc gold-mine which was discovered 36 years ago by a fisherman, who pulling up a plant of large and prickly leaves, called cordon, or fuller’s thistle, for the purpose of fuel for his fire, observed that particles of gold dropped from its roots; and having more narrowly inspected it, found pieces amidst the mould of considerable size and of very fine quality. Thus
a mine became established here, and when it was first dug it yielded from 300 to 500 dollars each caxon.
CHIMBACALLE a settlement of the kingdom of Quito, in the corregimienio of the district of Las Cinco Leguasde la Capital, (ofthe Five Leagues from the Capital), of which this is looked upon as a suburb from its proximity.
CHIMBARONGO, a river of the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the mountains of its cordillera^ and unites itself with that of Tinguiragua to enter the Napel. This river waters and fertilizes some very pleasant and delightful valleys, abounding in pastures, whereon breed and fatten an infinite number of cattle. On its shores are two convents, one ofthe religious order of Nuestra Senora de la Merced, for the instruction of the Indians in the Christian faith ; and another a house for novices, which belonged to the regulars of the society of Jesuits ; and also within a league’s distance from the latter, is a convent of the order of St. Domingo.
Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimienio of Colchagua in the same kingdom ; situate in the Former valley, between the rivers Tinguiririca and Teno. There is also another small settlement annexed, with a chapel of ease. In its district is a convent of the religious order of La Merced.
[CHIMBO, a jurisdiction in the province of Zinto in South America, in the torrid zone. The capital is also called by the same name.]
CHIMBO Y ALAUSI, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Quito ; bounded n. oy the serrania of the asiento of Ambato ; s, by the government and jurisdiction of Guayaquil ; e. by the district of the point of Santa Elena of this government; and ro. by the province of Riobamba. Its district is barren and poor, and the country being mountainous, the inhabitants have no resource for getting their livelihood other than by acting as carriers between the provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga on the one hand, and the warehouses of Babahoyo on the other, where also are the royal magazines ; and thus they bring back goods from the provinces of Peru, having for this traffic a number of requas, or droves of mules, amounting in the whole to 1500 head. This commerce can only be carried on in the summer, the roads being impassable in the winter through the mountains, when they say that these are shut up : at the same season the rivers become swollen to such a degree
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as to render it impracticable to cross them. In the road they usually take lies the steep declivity of San Antonio, extremely difficult to be passed. The mules however are so well versed in the manner of letting themselves slide down it, that there has never been an instance of these animals falling. The 'vegetable productions of this province are confined to bark, and from this no emolument is derived, although it was discovered, after much search and solicitude, by the Lieutenant-colonel Don Miguel de Santistevan. It accordinglj'- provides itself with all that it may require in this way from the adjoining provinces of Riobamba and Tacunga. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being so near to the mountainous desert of Chimborazo. Its natives amount to 2000 souls, the greater part of them being Mustees, and the ■whole are divided into seven settlements, of which the capital bears the same name ; and although this was formerly the residence of the corregidor, yet has it of late been deserted for the settlement of Guaranda. The seven settlements are,
San Lorenzo, Guaranda,
CHIMBORAZO, a very lofty mountain or desert of the cordillera of the province and corregimiento of Riobamba, in the kingdom of Quito; which, in the language of the country, signifies mountain of the other side. It is covered with everlasting snow, and is the loftiest mountain in the known world, since its height, taken by the academicians of the sciences of Paris, is 3220 toises from the level of the sea to its top, which terminates in a cone or truncated pyramid. Its sides are covered with a kind of white sand or calcined earth with loose stones, and a certain herb called pajon, which affords pasture for the cattle of the neighbouring estates. The warm streams flowing from its n. side should seem toAvarrantthe idea that within it is a volcano. From its top flow down many rivers, which take different winding courses; thus the Guaranda runs 5. the Guano s. e. and the Machala e. On its skirt lies the road which" leads from Quito to Guayaquil ; and in order to pass it in safety, it is requisite to be more cautious in choosing the proper season than were the Spanish conquerors of this province, who were here frozen to death. North of the town of Riobamba, in lat. 1° 21' 18" s. according to the observations of M. La Condamine. fThis mountain was visited, on the 23d of June 1797, by Humboldt; who with his party reached its €. slope on that day, and planted their instru-
ments on a narrow ledge of porphyritie rock Avhich projected from the vast field of unfathomcd snow. A chasm, 500 feet wide, prevented their further ascent. The air was reduced to half its usual density, and felt intensely cold and piercing. Respiration was laborious and blood oozed from their eyes, their lips and their gums. They stood on the highest spot ever trod by man. Its height, ascertained from barometrical observation, was 3485 feet greater than the elevation attained in 1745 by Condamine, and 19,300 feet above the level of the sea. From that extreme station, the top of Chimborazo was found, by trigonometrical measurement, to be 2140 feet still higher.
CHIMBUZA, a large lake of the province and government of Barbacoas, of the kingdom of Quito, to the s. w. of the river Patia, formed by a narrow canal, through ■which the Avater of this river enters, and so forms the same lake into a sheet of water of an oblong figure, two leagues in length, and half a league in breadth. This lake has another narrow canal, through which the water issues, and re-unites itself with the same river.
CHIMICA, a small province of the government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is almost as it were desert and abandoned, notwithstanding that it produces a good quantity of maize. The climate is hot and unhealthy ; and although it was formerly peopled by the Chimicas Indians, none of these are now found to reside here.
CHIMILAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, in the province of Santa Marta. They inhabit the Avoods to the e. of the large river Magdalena, go naked, and have no fixed abodes. They are cruel and treacherous, and are bounded by the nation of the Guaxiros.
CHIMIRAL, a river of the province and corregimiento of Copiapo in the kingdom of Chile. It rises in the SnoAvy sierra, runs w. and enters the sea in the point of its name. It in many parts runs in so inconsiderable a stream as frequently to be in all appearance lost before it enters the sea.
a settlement founded seven leag'ues from the place called the Puerto, but in 16GS they tied, all of them, to the mountains, although in the same year they returned back again to the settlement.
CHIRIGUANA, a large settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, and the territory is level, fertile, and beautiful. It has besides the parish church a convent or house of entertainment of the religious order of St. Francis.
CHIRIGUANOS, a country and nation of the infidel Indians of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru, from whence it lies 20 leagues to thes. It is bounded on the e. by the province of Tomina, and s. e. by that of Chuquisaca ; is composed of different settlements, each governed by its captain or cazique, subject, in a certain degree, to the above government. These people, though they refuse to adopt the Catholic religion, are in perfect amity with the Spaniards, trading with them in wax, cotton, and maize. This nation, by the incursions which tliey made, used at first to give frequent alarm to the province, and once had the address to capture the city of Chiquisaca. The Inca Yupanqui endeavoured in vain to subdue them, and neither he nor the Spaniards could avail aught with them ■until they were reduced by the missionaries, the regulars of the extinguished company of the Jesuits ; since that time they have been stedfast in supporting the Spaniards against the other infidels, serving them as a barrier, and having for their own line of defence the river Guapay. They are very valorous, but inconstant and faithless ; they are descended from the nations which are found to the e. of Paraguay ; and fled from thence, to the number of 4000, ^hen avoiding the threatened chastisement of the Portuguese, who were about to inflict condign punishment on them for having treacherously murdered the Captain Alexo Garcia in the time of the King Don Juan 111. of Portugal. They were foi'merly cannibals, and used to fatten their prisoners that these might become better fare ; but their intercourse and trade with the Spaniards has caused them by degrees to forget this barbarous practice, and even to give them a disgust at their savage neighbours, who still continue in the same practices. They are at the present day so greatly increased in numbers, that they are one of the most numerous nations of America ; are besides very neat and clean ; and it is not uncommon for them to rush out of their dwellings in the middle of the night to plunge and wash themselves in a river in the most severe seasons ; their wives too.
immediately after parturition, invariably do the same, and on their return lay themselves on a heap of sand, which they have for this purpose in the house; but the husband immediately takes to his bed, and being covered all over with very large leaves, refuses to take any other nourishment than a little broth made of maize ; it being an incorrigible error of belief amongst them that these ceremonies will be the cause of making their children bold and warlike. They have shewn great power and address in their combats with our troops when these first endeavoured to enter their territories, and they threw themselves in such an agile and undaunted manner upon our fire-arms that it was found necessary, on our part, to insert in the rants a lance-man between every two fusileers : the v are, moreover, so extremely nimble that it is impossible to take them prisoners but by surprise.
CHIRIQUI, a district of the province and government of Santiago de Veragua in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, the last district of this province ; dividing the government from that of Guatemala, and touching upon the province of Costarica. It is of limited extent ; the country is mountainous, and its climate hot and unhealthy, surrounded on all sides by infidel Indians. Here are bred numbers of mules, which are carried to be sold at Panama and Guatemala ; upon the coast of the S. sea are found crabs which distil a purple colour used for dyeing cotton, which, although it may fade a little, can never be entirely eradicated. They have plenty of swine, and some vegetable productions ; with which they carry on a trade, now fallen much to decay, with the city of Panama. The capital is Santiago de Alanje.
Same name, a river of the above province (Santiago de Veragua), which rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the sea, serving as limits to that province, and dividing it from that of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala.
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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements, though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature, and contains 39 families of Indians, who live by sowing maize, the only vegetable production of their territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capital.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla, and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to Tomependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines, but which are not worked ; its temperature is hot and moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lies on lake Champlain, between Franklin county on the w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passes through its n. w. corner, and Onion river divides it nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burlington. This county contained, by the census of 1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Since that time the n. counties have been taken from it, so that neither its size or number of inhabitants can now be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county, Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The road over the mountain passes through this township. It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek, in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Bennington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a considerable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida, in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in the mountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w. enters another river which is without a name, and where several others unite to enter the Cuyuni on the s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises from some plains in this territory, runs s. collecting the waters of several other rivers, particularly that of the Suata, and then enters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Canchas. In its district there is a mineral hot-water spring, much renowned for the curing of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the province and government of Venezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Maracapana. They are very few, and live retired in the mountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, contains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 103 families of Indians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of the capital.
CHOCO, a large province and government of the jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory of which it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by the Pacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations of Indians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. by that of Barbacoas. The whole of this province abounds in woods and mountains, and is crossed by a chain of the Andes, which run as far as the isthmus of Panama. It is watered by several rivers and streams, all of which run w. and enter the S. sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form a part of this province ; very few of their ancient inhabitants remain at the present day ; the greater part of them having perished in the war of the
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Spaniards, and the rest having fled, and thus penetrating n. have confounded themselves with other nations. It abounds in maize, plantains, and cacao of an excellent quality ; its gold mines render it rich and well peopled ; it also carries on, through this branch of revenue, a great commerce with the province of Popayan, the nativ'es of that place coming here to purchase gold, and leaving in exchange whatever is necessary for the comfort and convenience of life. There is no inconsiderable number of Negro slaves employed in working the mines, and in 1750 they amounted to 20,000, without mentioning the men of colour, such as the Mustees and Mulattoes, and even Whites who are engaged in this lucrative concern. The climate is warm, but moist from the continual rains, and consequently unhealthy. This country abounds in tigers, wild boars, alligators, parrots, monkeys of various sorts, and a multitude of reptiles and insects, especially in vipers and venomous snakes ; such as corales, exis, and rattlesnakes. Here are also an infinite variety of beautiful sorts of wood, curious balsams, herbs, fruits, and flowers. It was subject to the government of Popayan, until it became divided in the time of Don Fernando Guerrero. All the gold which is taken out of the mines here, and which is the current money, was formerly carried to be coined at the mint of Santa Fe, until that the house of Valencia established another, at its own cost, in the city of Popayan ; this privilege having been first granted that house by the mayoralty, though it was afterwards taken away and added by the king to the crown, upon the payment of a compensation of 100,000 reals per annum to the original proprietors. This province extends 48 leagues from s. to n. and is 39 in width from e. to w. The capital is the city of Nevita.
[Choco, Canal of. In the interior of the province of Choco, the small ravine (quebrada) De la Raspadura unites the neighbouring sources of the Rio de Noanama, called also Rio San Juan, and the small river Quito : the latter, the Rio Andageda, and the Rio Zitasa, form the Rio d’Atrata, which discharges itself into the Atlantic ocean, while the Rio San Juan flows into the S. sea. A monk of great activity, cure of the village of Novita, employed his parishioners to dig a small canal in the ravine De la Raspadura, by means of which, when the rains are abundant, canoes loaded with cacao pass from sea to sea. Th is interior communication has existed since 1788, unknown in Europe. The small canal of Raspadura unites, on the coasts of the two oceans,
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two points 75 leagues distant from one another.]
[CHOCOLATE Creek, a head-water of Tioga river in New York, whose mouth lies 10 miles s. w. of the Painted post.]
[CHOCOLOCO-CA, which the Spaniards call Castro Vireyna, a town of Peru, 60 leagues s. e. of Lima, is very famous for its silver mines, which are at the top of a great mountain always covered with snow, and but two leagues from the town. The stones of the mine are, of a dark blue colour ; these being calcined and powdered, then steeped in water and quicksilver, the filth is separated, and the silver melted and formed into bars. These veins are not very rich, but the metal is very fine. They make plenty of wine here, where it attains a greater degree of perfection, owing to the pureness of the air, than it is observed to have elsewhere.]
CHOCONTA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Guatavita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold but healthy temperature, being situate upon a llanura. It produces abundance of wheat, maize, papas, barley, and garlic, of the whole of which an abundant crop is gathered ; these indeed form the principal branches of its commerce, as they supply all the neighbouring provinces. It was , in the time of the Indians a large, rich, and populous city, and the barrier of the province of Tunja; also the place where the zipas held a garrison of their best troops. This city was entered by Gonzalo Ximinez de Quesada in 1537, when he gave it the name of Espiritu Santo, from this festival having been celebrated here. After the conquest of the Spaniards it became a became a curacy of the relio-ion of St. Domingo, and was one of those which was considered the first step to the advantages to be derived from these missions. It was close to this settlement that the sanguinary conflict took place which was fought between Michua, king of Tunja, and Saguanmachica, zipa or king of Bogota, in which both princes fell dead upon the field ; at present it is a small village of Indians, who amount to the number of 200, besides 400 other inhabitants, who consist of whites. Ten leagues n. of Santa Fe, and as many from Tunja, just midway betweeen these two jurisdictions.
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CHOCOPE, San Pedro y San Pablo de, a small settlement of the province and corregimiento of Truxillo in Peru ; situate in the valley of Chicama, watered and fertilized by the river of this name. It produces in abundance grapes, sugar-canes, olives, and every kind of European fruit of the most excellent flavour. It was formerly a large population, since that the few inhabitants who had been lel't at Concepcion, and those of Licapa in the same valley, have incorporated themselves here. It has a very large and handsome church, although this underwent some damage from an earthquake experienced in this province in 1759; the settlement suffered much also in 17S6, as did all the other towns of the coast, as, very contrary to the custom of the climate here, it rained without cessation for a period of 40 days, from five o’clock in the evening to the same hour in the following morning, so that the houses were almost all entirely destroyed. Itis 10 leagues from the capital, in the royal road which leads to Lima, and which is called De Valles. Lat. 7° 52' s.
[CHOCORUA, a mountain in Grafton county, New Hampshire, on the n. line of Strafford county, n. of Tamworth.]
[CHOCUITO. See Chucuito.]
CHOGUY. See Laches.
[CHOISEUL Bay, on the n. w. coast of the islands of the Arsacides, w. of port Praslin. The inhabitants of this bay, like those at port Praslin, have a custom of powdering their hair with lime, which burns it and gives it a red appearance.]
CHOLCO-COCHA, a great lake of the province and corregimiento of Castro Vireyna in Peru, upon the heights of the mountains of the Andes. It is navigated by rafts made by the Indians; fish it has none, from the excesisve cold of its waters ; from it springs the river Caica-mayu. Mr. De la Martiniere confounds this lake, which is called Chocolo-cocha, with the city of Castro Vireyna, maintaining that the Indians call it by the latter name, but which is erroneous.
CHOLOSCOPO, San Mateo de, a settlement of the district, and alcaldia mayor of Mexilcaltzingo, in Nueva Espana, somewhat more than half a league’s distance to the m. of ^his place. It contains 102 families of Indians, and has a handsome convent of the strict observers of St. Francis, which is also a college for studies.
CHOLULA, a district and jurisdiction of an alcaldia mayor in Nueva España. Its extent is very limited, being only three leagues in length at the widest part ; but it is nevertheless well filled with inhabitants ; its territory is level, and very fertile in wheat, maize, and pepper, which is here called chile^ as also in other seeds, of which abundant crops are gathered ; it formerly acquired agreat emolument from the sale of cochineal, but this is laid aside and entirely abandoned. The Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulattoes, busy themselves in making cloths and woven stuffs of cotton, and they have many workshops, by which they supply with these articles the other provinces. Its population consists of 43 settlements of Indians, which are,
San Juan Quantlazingo, Sta. Maria Quescomate, Santiago de Momospan, San Bernardino,
Santa Barbara, Sta. Clara Ocovica,
Todos Santos, Sta. Maria Malacatepe»
San Luis, que,
San Gregorio de Saca- Sta. Maria Coronango, pecpan, S. Miguel Coztla,
S. Francisco de Quapan, San Francisco Ocotlan
S. Diego Cuaucotla, San Antonio, ^
S. Sebastian, San Francisco,
S. Juan Cuautla, San Mateo,
Tonanchin, San Gabriel,
Santa MariaZacatepeque, San Lucas,
San Geronimo, San Martin,
San Pablo Zochimehua, San Lorenzo,
San Andres de Oiolula, TIantenango,
San Francisco Acate- Santa Isabel, peque, Los Santos Reyes,
San Bernardo Tlaxcal- S. Pablo Ahuatempa, zingo, S. Mateo, distinct from
S.AntonioCacalotepeque, the other,
Santa Ana, S. Miguel Papalotla,
San Martin TIanapa, S. Andres de Cholula.
[The district of Cholula contained in 1793 a population of 22,423 souls. The villages amounted to 42, and the farms to 45. Cholula, Tlaxclala, and Huetxocingo, are the three republics which resisted the Mexican yoke for so many centuries, although the pernicious aristocracy of theiff
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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.
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down from the mountains to the jy. of the Rachcs Indians, and runs 52 leagues from s. to «. e. until it enters the Marmore together with the Guapaix, opposite the settlement and reduccion of Loreto, which lies to the s.
CHOPO, a settlement of the government and jurisdiction of Pamplona in the JNuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very mild climate, and abounds in sugar-canes, plantains, maize, and many sorts of vegetables ; these being the principal branch of its trafiic with the Indians, Avho carry them for sale to the capital, which lies at a small distance from hence, in the road leading to M6rida and Gibraltar. It contains 50 Indians, and almost as many indigent settlers.
[CHOPS, The, in Kennebeck river, are three miles from Swan Island; Avhich see.]
CHOQUES, a barbarous nation of Caribes Indians, of the Nuevo Reino de Granada, dwelling immediately upon the mountains and forests of Fosca. They are ferocious and cruel, and pitch their huts near the river Bermejo. But little is known of their customs and of their country.
CHOROMOROS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, who formerly occupied the plains or llanuras of Calchaqui towards the ??. ; touching toAvards the e. upon the source of the river Mogoles, and extending n. as far as the mountains of the Lules, and w. as far as the Andes. They are at present reduced to the Catholic religion, and are mixed with those of other nations ; but some few of them still persist in their idolatry, and live dispersed upon the mountains.
[CHOSCUMUS, a fort of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, near a small lake about 20 leagues s. e. of Buenos Ayres, in Lat. 35° 33' 40^. Long. 38° 2' 15" 20 .]
[Chota, a valley of the Andes, which, though only two miles Avide, is nearly a mile in depth. It Avas passed by Humboldt and his companions, in 1801, on tlreir way to Quito, Avhen they found its temperature to be intensely sultry.]
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[Chowan County, in Edenton district, N. Carolina, on the n. side of Albemarle sound. It contains 5011 inhabitants, of whom 2588 are slaves. Chief town, Edenton.]
[Chowan River, in N. Carolina, falls into the n. w. corner of Albemarle sound. It is three miles wide at the mouth, but narrows fast as you ascend it. It is formed, five miles from the Virginia line, by the confluence of Meherrin, Nottaway, and Black rivers, which all rise in Virginia.]
[CHRIST CnuacH, a parish in Charleston district, S. Carolina, containing 2954 inhabitants, of whom 566 are whites, 2377 slaves.]
[CHRISTENOES, a wandering nation of N. America, who do not cultivate, nor claim any particular tract of country. They are well disposed towards the whites, and treat their traders Avith respect. The country in which these Indians rove is generally open plains, but in some parts, particularly about the head of the Assinniboin river, it is marshy and tolerably Avell furnished with timber, as are also the Fort Dauphin mountains, to which they sometimes resort. From the quantity of beaver in their country, they ought to furnish mofe of that article than they do at present. They are not esteemed good beaver-hunters. They might probably be induced to visit an establishment on the Missouri, at the Yellow Stone river. Their number has been reduced by the small-pox since they Avere first known to the Canadians.]
[CHRISTIANA, a post-town in Newcastle county, Delaware, is situated on a navigable creek of its name, 12 miles from Elkton, nine s. w. of Wilmington, and 37 s. w. of Philadelphia. The town, consisting of about 50 houses, and a Presbyterian church, stands on a declivity which commands a pleasant prospect of the country towards the Delaware. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadelphia in flour. It is the greatest carrying place between the navigable Avaters of the Delaware and Chesapeak, which are 13 miles asunder at this place. It was built by the Swedes in 1640, and thus called after their queen.]
[Christiana Creek, on which the above town is situated, falls into Delaware river from the w. a little below Wilmington. It is proposed to cut a canal of about nine miles in length, in a s. to. direction from this creek, at the toAvn of Christiana (six miles w. s. w. of Newcastle) to Elk river in Maryland, about a mile below Elkton. See Delaware and Wilmington.]
[Christiana, St. one of the Marquesa isles, called by the natives Waitahu, lies under the same parallel with St. Pedro, three or four leagues more to the w. Resolution bay, near the middle of the w. side of the island, is in lat. 9° 58' s. long. 139'^ 840' w. from Greenwich ; and the w. end of Dominica 15 71. Captain f^ook gave this bay the name of his ship. It Avas called Port Madre de Dios by the Spaniards. This island produces cotton of a superior kind. A specimen of it is deposited in the museum of the Massachusetts Historical Society.]
[CHRISTIANSBURG, the chief town of Montgomery county, Virginia. It contains A’ery few houses ; has a court-house and goal, situated near a branch of Little river, a water of the Kanhaway. Lat. 37° 5' ».]
[CHRISTIANSTED, the principal town in the island of Santa Cruz, situated on the n. side of the island, on a fine harbour. It is the residence of the Danish governor, and is defended by a stone fortress.]
[CHRISTMAS Island, in the Pacific ocean, lies entirely solitary, nearly equally distant from the Sandwich islands on the n. and the Marquesas on the s. It Avas so named by Captain Cook, on account of his first landing there, on Christmas day. Not a drop of fresh Avater was found by digging. A ship touching at this desolate isle must expect nothing but turtle, fish, and a few birds. It is about 15 or 20 leagues in circumference, and bounded by a reef of coral rocks, on the xc. side of
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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending a mile into the sea, and affording good anchorage. Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]
[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S. America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]
CHRISTOVAL, San, a town of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; founded by Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of •a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundance of sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar, and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a great proportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried to Maracaibo. It has a good church and a convent t)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much to decay with regard to its establishment. The population of the town consists of 400 housekeepers. It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the jurisdiction of which it is divided by the river Pamplonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregorio de Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop of Santa Marta.
Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Charcas in Peru ; in which took place the following extraordinary occurrence: The curate of this place going to confess a sick person in the settlement of Tahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexed to this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampas or llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and with the two Indians who accompanied him on horseback, never more appeared, nor were any vestiges ever found of them : this was the reason why the latter settlement has since been disunited from the curacy of San Christoval.
Same name, a capital city of the province and captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Brazil ; being also known by that name. It is founded on the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defended port. It has a magnificent parish church with the title of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fine convents, the one of the order of the Franciscans, and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel of devotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The councilhouse is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs is a hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequented as a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of the jurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain, who governs this province, and who is attended by a company of troops as a body-guard. In early times it was filled with nobility, descended from the first families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to 600 housekeepers. in its district, towards the part called Coninquiva, is a parish with four chapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris five others. It has also 25 engines, by which abundance of sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ; this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bay of Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.
Same name, an island of the N. sea ; one of the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)her Columbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It is five leagues in circumference, and is very fertile, and abounding in productions, particularly in cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by all of which it carries on a great commerce. Here arc some good salines, and in the mountains are some woods of fine timber, well adapted for the building of ships. The English and the French both established themselves here in 1625, holding a divided possession, when they were driven out by the Spaniards. After this the former again returned and re-established themselves in the greatest part of the island, leaving, however, a small share to the French, until the year 1713, when the latter, in conjunction with the Spaniards themselves, ceded it entirely to the English, who from that time have held it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher, situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was called by its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in November 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleased with its appearance, that he honoured it with his own Christian name. But it was neither planted nor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however, (notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribes the honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest of all the British territories in the \V. Indies, and in truth, the common mother both of the English and French settlements in the Charibean islands. A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, associated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year 1622, and with them took his passage on board a ship bound to Virginia. From thence he and his companions sailed from St. Christopher’s, where they arrived in January 1623, and by the month of September following had raised a good crop of tobacco, which they proposed to make their staple commodity. By the generality of historians who have treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it is asserted that a party oflhe French, under the command of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc, took possession of one part of this island, on the same day that Mr. Warner landed on the other; but the truth is, that the first landing of Warner and his associates happened two years before the arrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted by Du Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Unfortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of
1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j
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