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constitution left the lower people little more free-
dom than they would have possessed under the
government of the Aztec kings.]

The capital is the city of the same name, founded
as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexi-
can empire, when this nation was at enmity with
that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most
populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants
and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moc-
tezuma, in the attack against the republic of
Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been sub-
jected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city
which of all others most thwarted the designs of
Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered
in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when
they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and
a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were
made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ;
after which he and his whole army escaped un-
injured. This city has many monuments denoting
its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry
was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light
of the gospel has spread widely around its enliven-
ing rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature,
rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on
a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good
convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also
a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed
of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mu-
lattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a
lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the
c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which
is venerated the image of the blessed virgin,
which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rente-
dios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e.
of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98°
14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present
estimated at about 16,000 souls.]

CHONE, a settlement which in former times
was considerable, but now much impoverished, in
the ancient province of Cara, which is at present
united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the
shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an
hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.

CHONES, a large river of the province of
Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w.
and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTos-
sagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Cama-
ron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n.
stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still
remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the
bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and
the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two
miles and an half wide.

CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of
the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very
cold temperature, from its being situate in the vi-
cinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chon-
tales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabi-
tants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade
in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the coun-
try, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quan-
tities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a
little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of
Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor
of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-,
on account of this great distance, combined with
the badness of the roads, that the natives so sel-
dom can avail themselves of any instruction in the
holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the
administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is
only one day in the year, which is the 29th of
September, and on which the Indians celebrate the
festival of their titular saint Michael, when they
are visited by their curate, who then hears their
confessions and says mass. At this time this settle-
ment has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic
people ; but being all the rest of the year left to
themselves, it is not to be wondered that many re-
lapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idola-
try. Three leagues w. of its capital.

CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the
province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom
of Quito; situate near a small torrent, re-
nowned for the stones which it washes down, of a
certain crystallized matter, which being polished,
resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings,
and other trinkets.

CHONGOS, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Xauxa in Peru.

CHONTA, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

Other, another settlement in the province and
corregimiento of Guamalies of the same kingdom,
famous for its mine of quicksilver.

CHONTAI, a settlement of the province and
corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed to
the curacy of Chorrillo.

CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento
or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of
Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but
small, and its natives have this name from the Spa-
niards, who would by it express their natural un-
couthness and stupidity.

CHOPADA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in
the kingdom of Brazil and country of the Guayazas
Indians ; situate on the bank and at the source
of the river Tocantines.

CHOPARE, a river of the province and government
of Moxos in the kingdom of Quito. It flows

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