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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privy council, 1788, at a medium of four years, and by a return to house of commons in 1805, at a medium of two years from 1803, was as follows :
Four years to 1787
Tw o years to 1803
By report of privy council, 1788, and by subsequent estimate, the population amounted to
See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for the later political inquiries, see West Indies.]
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan, in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its head settlement.
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and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^ 10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province of Guadalaxara.
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 fajmilies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
Same name another settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the district of Sinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, in the division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu. It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, by the Governor Don Juan Piraienta.
[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.] CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.
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Tvliich rises in the mountains of the cordillera. On its shores is caught a much esteemed sort of shell-fish, called iascas. It runs into the sea in lat. 31° 40'.
CHUBISCA, a settlement of the missions which belong to the religious order of St. Francis, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, lying four leagues to the s. e. one-fourth to the s. of the settlement and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguaga. Fivfe leagues to the s. €. of this settlement are two large estates, called Fresnos and Charcas.
CHUCHA, a bay in the port of Portobelo, and lying quite in the interior of the same. It is an harbour, or second port, of a circular figure, closed in on all sides, its access being through a narrow channel. Several rivers flow into it.
CHUCUNAQUI, a large river of the province of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountainous parts, and runs 13 leagues as far as the fort Royal of Santa Maria, collecting in its course the waters of 20 rivers less than itself ; it then enters the grand river Tuira.
CHUCHUNGA, a settlement of the province and government of Jaen do Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito; situate on the shore of the river of its name, having a port, which is a lading-place for the river Maranon. The above river rises in the sierra of the province of Luya and Chilians, enters the Ymasa, being united to the Cumbassa ; these together run into the Maranon, and at their conflux is the aforesaid port. Its mouth is in lat. 5° 12' SO* s.
CllUCMI. See Julumito.
CHUCUITO, a province and government of Peru ; bounded e. by the great lake of its name, and part of the province of Omasuyos ; n. by that of Paucarcolla orPuno ; s. e. by that of Pacages ; and s. w. and w. by the cordillera of the coast which looks towards Moquehua. It is 23 leagues long from «. to s. and 36 wide. It was extremely populous at the time of the conquest, and was on that account considered wealthy. Its governors had the controul of political afiairs, and enjoyed the title of vice-patron and captain-general of the immediate provinces, including some which lay upon the coast. It is of a cold but healthy temperature, particularly in the rainy months, which are December, February, and March. It produces sweet and bitter papas, of which are made chum, bark, canagua, hagua, and barley. In some of the glens, where the soil is moister, they grow pulse, flowers, and fruit-trees. This province abounds in cattle, such as cows, sheep and pigs, and native sheep, which the natives use for trading instead of asses ; the regular load for each being four or five arrohas. Here are also bred alpacas, huanacos, vicunas, deer, cuyes, and vizcachas, which are similar in shape and figure to a hare ; also pigeons, partridges, ducks, and ostriches. From (he fleeces of the cattle many kinds of woven articles are made for useful and ornamental apparel, beautifully dyed ; and from the wool of the alpaca handsome carpets, quilts, and mantles of various designs and colours. This province has many silver mines, which are worked with emolument ; also streams of hot medicinal waters. It is situate on the shores of the great lake of Chucuito, from which large quantities of fish are taken, and sold for a good price to the neighbouring provinces. It is watered by several rivers, all of which enter the lake : the largest or most considerable of them is the Hilava. Its natives amount to 30,000, separated in 10 different settlements. Its repartimiento used to amount to 101,730 dollars, and its alcavala to 813 dollars annually. The capital is of the same name. This
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belongs to the bishopric of La Paz, and is so situate as to have a fine view of the lake. It is a settlement at once the most pleasant and convenient, fertile, and abounding in fruits and cattle, but its temperature is excessively cold. It has two parishes, with the dedicatory title of Santo Domingo and La Asuncion, and two hermitages dedicated to St. Barbara and St. Sebastian. The other settlements are,
Asiento de Minas de Mi- Asiento del Desagua-
Asiento de San Ante- Acora,
nio de Esquilache, Hi lave,
Asiento de Huacullani, Santiago,
Same name, The lake of, which, although it be thus called, is also known by the name of Titicaca, is 51 leagues in length from n. w. to s. e. and 26 in width, although in some parts less. On its shores are six provinces or corregimientos^ which are. The province of this Paucarcolla, name, Lampa, Pacages, Asangaro. Omasuyos, This lake is of sufficient depth for vessels of any size, since in many bays not far in from its shores there are from four to six fathoms of water, and within it, some places from 40 to 50. It is, as far as is ascertained, without any shoals or banks. Near it grow some herbs, called clacchos, eaten by the cows and pigs ; also a great quantity of the herb called totora, or cat’s tail, which in some parts grows to the length of a yard and an half. Of this the Indians make rafts, not only for fishing but for carrying to and fro the cattleand productions of the harvest and crops growing in the various islands lying in this lake. Some of these islands are so covered and hemmed in with the herb totora that it requires much force and labour to cut a passage through it. In one of the largest of these islands the Incas had a magnificent temple, dedicated to the sun, the first that was ever built. This lake is not without its tempests and squalls ; they are, on the contrary, frequent, and have at times caused no inconsiderable mischief. Its waters are thick, but are nevertheless drank by the cattle, and even the Indians ; particularly by those of the nation of the Uros, who are a poor ignorant people, who formerly lived upon the islands in great wretchedness, and who by dint of great solicitations have been prevailed upon to leave them for the mainland^ where they now reside in some miserable caves, excavated places, or holes in the earth covered over with fiags of totora^ maintain-
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ing themselves by fishing. This lake contains likewise various kinds of fish, such as trout, ormantos, cuches, anchovies, and boquillas in abundance; these are, for the most part, about the length of a man’s hand, and three fingers thick. The Indians of Yunguyo take upwards of 700 yearly, and sell them at four and six dollars the thousand. They also catch some small pejereyesy and an infinite variety of birds, which are salted, and afford excellent food. It is confidently and repeatedly asserted by the Indians, that the greater part of the riches of the country was thrown into this lake when the Spaniards entered it at the time of the conquest ; and amongst other valuables the great gold chain made by the order of the Inca Huayanacap, which was 2S3 yards in length, and within which 6000 men could dance.
CHUCURPU, an ancient settlement of warlike Indians of the province and corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru. It lies to the e. of this city, and was subjected and united to the empire after a long resistance by Pachacutec, emperor of the Incas.
CHUCUTI, a river of the province and government of Darien in the government of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains towards the e. and following this course, enters the Taranena at a small distance from its source.
CHUDAUINAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Quito, to the s, e. of this city. They inhabit the part lying s. w. of the river Pastaza, and are bounded on the s. e, by the Ipapuisas, and w. by the Xibaros. They are not numerous, owing to the continual wars which they have maintained with their neighbours ; and though of a martial spirt, they are of a docile and humane disposition. Some of them have 'United themselves with the Andoas, in the settlement of this name, which lies upon the w. shore of the river Pastaza.
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of Key in Brazil. It runs s. and turning e. enters the lake Mini.
CHUIGOTES. See Chiugotob.
Same name, a river of the above province (Cicasica), which rises at the end of the cordillera of Ancuma, begins its course to the e. and forming a large bend towards the n. enters the Beni just at its source, and where it keeps the name of the Chuquiavo.
CHUMA, a river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which flows down from the mountains of Bogota. It waters the territory of Merida, passing opposite the city, and enters through the s. side into the lake of Maracaybo.
CHUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlenidnt of Zozocoles, and alculdia mayor of Papantla, in Nueva Espana. It is situate at the top of an higli mountain, and from it may be seen all the settlements belonging to this jurisdiction. Its population amounts to 183 families of Indians, and it lies to the n. of its head settlement, three leagues distant from this, and 14 from the capital.
CHUMBE, a village of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. It is to the xd. of Tarqui, and on the w. shore of one of the torrents rising in fhe river Paute. Not far from it are some excellent hot baths, of which no use is made. LHere the stately melastoma and the embothriuin are growing at an elevation of 12,000 feet, according to Humboldt, who visited this village in 1802. Lat. 3° 10' s.]
CHUMBI, a settlement of the province and corof Parinacochas in Peru, where there is a pious sanctuary, with an excellent painting of the blessed virgin, said to have been given by a pontitf to the curate of this settlement when he was at Rome.
CHUMBILLA, a mountain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru ; celebrated for a rich silver mine. It lies three leagues from a small settlement called Canaria, which is at present abandoned and deserted.
CHUMBIVILCAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru. It is bounded n. by the province of Quispicanchialgo, and by that of Chilques and Masques on the n. w. ; by those of Cotabamba and Aymaraez on the jr. ; by that of Condcsuyos de Arequipa on the s . ; and on the e. by that of Canes and Cauches. Its temperature is for the most part cold, although in some places temperate, so that it produces the fruits peculiar to either climate ; such as wheat, barley, maize, papas, and other seeds, though none in abundance, but plenty of neat cattle. In this province are found the lofty and vast snowy mountains called Condesuyos del Cuzco. It lies on the boundaries of the province of Parinacocha, being separated from it by the river which flows down from the province of Camana. Here much cloth peculiar to the country is manufactured ; and in its district are many mouths of gold and silver mines, the mounds and pits of which, together with the remains of several mills for working metal, indicate that in former times they were probably worked to no small advantage. They gather here a great quantity of Cochineal, which is called macno, with which cloths are dyed of very fine colours. It has likewise fountains and mineral streams of hot water, and is subject to earthquakes. Its repartimento used to amount to 85,800 dollars, and its alcavala to 685 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants, including the district of Condesuyos, amount to 16,000 souls, who live in the 22 following settlements :
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Belille, Ayacasi, Libitaco, Tofora, Palaqueua, Alahamaca, Toro, Asicnto de Quivio, Colquemarca, Yanqui, Capacmarca, Cancahuana, Llauzeo, Caspi, Quinota, Santo Tomas, Alca, Piiica, Tomipampaj Cotahuassi, Qnillunza, Cupi.
CHUNCARA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Cuzco in Peru ; one of those which have remained in this kingdom from the time of the Incas. It was the boundary or extent of the conquests of Sinchiroca, eleventh Emperor, and he left at it a strong garrison to guard against invasion from the neighbouring people. Twenty leagues from its capital.
Same name, another settlement of the province and government of Jaen de Bracamoros in the same kingdom. It is entirely of Indians, of an hot climate, atid in its territory towards the n. and towards the e. are some gold mines, which were in former times worked, but to-day abandoned. Its situation is between the rivers Patacones to the e. and Chinchipe to the w. upon the high road which leads from Loyola to Tomependa.
CHUNCHOS, a barbarous nation of Indians, of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, and much dreaded by the Spaniards, on account of the repeated incursions made by those savages on their possessions. In Lima they are in a continal state of fear and apprehension of some sudden attack from these enemies ; for in 1742 they took and destroyed several settlements and estates, killing many Franciscan monks who were missionaries amongst them. They were, however, once attacked by the brigadier, the Marquis de Mena Hermosa, general of Callao, who constructed some forts, which are still served with artillery and troops sufficient to protect them. These Indians have a chief or prince, called the chuncho, descended, according to their accounts, from the royal race of the Incas, who would fain lay claim to the monarchy of Peru as his right; and accordingly, in 1744, represented to the Marquis of Villa Garcia, not without great threats, his intention of doing himself justice by force of arms : he is a Catholic, and has added to h is own honours the title of King of Peru ; he was brought up at Lima amongst the Spaniards as the son of a cazique, where he was instructed in the rules of government, policy, and military tactics, which he introduced into his own country, and made known the use of swords and fire-arms. He went to Rome disguised as a menial, was introduced to the court of Madrid, where he kissed the hand of King Philip V. and the foot of the Pontiff Clement XII. He has two sons well instructed and equal in mental energies. These Chuiichos Indians are numerous, and live, some of them, in villages, and others scattered over the mountains and in the woods ; they maintain a secret correspondence with the "Indians of all the other settlements of Peru and Quito, as well as with the Christians and infidels inhabiting the forests where missions are established ; by tliis means they know vvhat is passing in all the provinces, cities, and settlements, &c. Many Indians who are malcontents, or fugitives from justice on account oferimeordebt, invariably betake themselves to the Chunchos, and this is the reason why this nation is so very populous. The viceroy of Peru uses the greatest precautions, and is continually on the alert against any movements of the Chunchos or other Indians, and keeps a garrison of good troops upon his frontiers.
CHUNCHURI, an ancient province of Peru in Las Charcas. It is small, and its natives were the most valorous and hardy of any in the kingdom. The Inca Roca, fourth Emperor, subjected them, having attacked them with 30,000 of his best troops.
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corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Anco.
CHUNIANIS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the lands of Magellan, in the vicinity of the straits of Magellan. It is a tribe descended from the Huyellanes. They are numerous and ferocious ; the men and women go entirely naked ; their arms are bows and arrows, the latter being pointed with well-filed flints ; they are robust, of great strength, and fine appearance. Some travellers pretend that these are the fabulous giants of whom so many have written.
CHUPACHOS, a river of Peru, which flows down from the mountains of the Andes. It rises from the lake Patancocho, in lat. 10° 4P s . ; washes the country of the Chupachos Indians, from whence it takes its name, and finishes its course by emptying itself into the Mollobamba, on the®, side, in lat. 7° 21' s.
CHUPANA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises iu the cordillera of the Andes, to the n. of the city of Guanuco in Peru, and after collecting the waters of several other rivers in its protracted course, enters the river Maranon in a very broad stream.
CHUPAS, an extensive valley or plain of the province and corregimiento of Huamanga in Peru, near to the city. It is celebrated for the battle which was fought here by the Licentiate Baca de Castro, of the royal council of Castille, governor of Peru, on the 16th September 1542, against the army of the rebels commanded by Diego de Almagro the younger, and son of the conqueror of the same name, when the latter was routed and taken prisoner with the loss of more than 700 men.
CHUQUIABO. See PAZ.
CHUQUICARA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Guamachuco. It rises in the same province, and enters the river Santa, changing its own name to this, immediately that it touche* the boundary of this jurisdiction, which it divide* from those of Truxillo and Guamachuco.
CHUQUINGA, a settlement close to that of Nasca, and nearly upon the shore of the river Amancay, where there is a narrow pass, through which two men cannot without great difficulty go abreast ; for on one side rises the mountain nearly perpendicular, and on the other is a precipice which runs into the river ; this is the spot where a signal victory was obtained by the rebel Francisco Hernandez Giron, in 1554, against the Brigadier Alonzo de Alvarado, both of them leaders of factions, maintaining the separate interests enkindled in the civil wars of Peru.
CHUQUIRIBAMBA, a large settlement of Indians, of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito ; on the shore of a small river which enters the Catamayu, on which account some maintain that it is the origin of the latter. It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile
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territory, where the noble families of Loxa have their best possessions.
CHUQUISACA, La Plata, a city and capital of the province of Peru, founded by Pedro Anzures in 1539, who gave it this name. It had a settlement of Indians on the same spot. The first founders called it La Plata, from the celebrated mine of this metal (silver) in the mountain of Porco, close to the aforesaid settlement, and from whence immense wealth was extracted by the emperors the Jncas of Peru. This city is situate on a plain surrounded by pleasant hills, which defend it from the inclemency of the winds ; the climate is mild and agreeable, but during the winter, dreadful tempests, accompanied with thunder and lightning, are not unusual ; the edifices are good, handsome, and well adorned, having delightful orchards and gardens. The waters are delicate, cold, and salutary, and divided into different aqueducts, by which they are carried to the public fountains, forming an object at once useful and ornamental. Its nobility is of the first and most distinguished families of Peru, who have many privileges and distinctions. The cathedral consists of three naves ; it is very rich, and adorned with fine furniture and beautiful paintings. It contains convents of the religious orders of St. Domingo, St. Augustin, St. Francis, La Merced, and San Juan de Dios, with a good hospital, a handsome college and a magnificent church which belonged to the regulars of the company ; also three monasteries of nuns, the one of Santa Clara, the other of Santa Monica, and the third of the Carmelites ; a royal university with the title of San Francisco Xavier, the rector of which was universally of the college of the regulars of the company of the Jesuits. It has also two houses of study for youth, the one the seminary of San Christoval, and the other the college of San Juan, which were likewise under the controul of the Jesuits until the year 1767 ; also an hermitage dedicated to San Roque. It was erected into a bishopric by the pontiff Julius III. in 1551, and afterwards into a metropolitan in 1608, with an archbishop, five dignitaries, six canons, four prebends, and as many more demi-prebends. The tribunal of audience was erected here in 1559, and afterwards those of the inquisition of the cruzada. Its arms are a shield divided horizontally, having in the upper part two mountains with a cross upon each, in the middle a tree with two columns on the sides, in the lower part to the left two lions rampant,
on the right two towers with two lions, a standard being in the middle, and the whole embossed upon a silver field. At the distance of six leagues from this city passes the river Pilcoraayu, by which it is supplied with good fish, and upon the shores of the Cachimayu, which is only two leagues distant, the nobility have many rural seats. In 1662 a great insurrection took place here amongst the Mustees and the people of colour. It is the native place of several illustrious persons, and amongst others of the following :
Don Rodrigo de Orozco, Marquis of Mortara, captain-general of the principality of Cataluna, and of the council of state and war.
Fra}/ Antonio de Calancha, a monk of St. Augustin, a celebrated author.
Don Rodrigo de Santillana, oidor of Valladolid, and afterwards in his country.
The venerable Friar Martin de Aguirre, of the order of St. Augustin.
Don Alonso Corveda de Zarate, canon of Lima, and professor of languages.
The Father Maestro Diego Trexo, a Dominican monk.
The Father Juan de Cordoba, of the extinguished company of Jesuits, a celebrated theologist.
Its archbishopric has for suffragans, the bishoprics of Santa (3ruz de la Sierra, La Paz, Tucuman, and La Ascencion of Paraguay ; and to its diocese belong 188 curacies. Its inhabitants in and about it amount to 13,000, of which 4000 are Spaniards, 3000 Mustees, 4500 Indians, and 15,000 Negroes and Mulattoes. It is 290 leagues from Cuzco, in lat. 19° 31' s.
Archbishops of the church of La Plata.
1. Don Frau Tomas de San Martin, a monk of the order of St. Dominic, a master in his order, and one of the first monks who passed over into Peru with the Friar Vicente de Valverde; he W 2 is provincial there, returned to Spain with the Licentiate Pedro de la Gasca, and as a reward for his labours, presented by the king to the first archbishopric of Charcas, in 1553: he died in 1559.
2. Don Fraj/ Pedro de la Torre, who was elected, but not consecrated ; and in his place,
3. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda.
4. Don Fernan Gonzalez de la Cuesta, who laid the foundation of the cathedral church.
5. Don Fray Domingo de Santo Tomas, of the order of St. Dominic, a noted preacher, and one of those who went over to Peru with the Fray Vicente Valverde ; he was prior in different convents, and general visitor of his order in those kingdoms.
6. Don Fernando de Santillana, native of Se-
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villa, president of the courts of chancery of Granada and Valladolid, elected bishop ; he died in Lima before he took possession.
7. Don Alonso Ramirez Granero, and not Pedro, as Gil Gonzalez will have it ; a native of V illaescusa in the bishopric of Cuenca, a collegiate of this city, dean of the church of Guadix, and Jiscal of the inquisition of Mexico ; elected archbishop in 1574 ; he governed until 1578.
8. Don Frai/ Juan de Vivero, native of Valladolid, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passed over to Peru, was prior of his convent of Lima, presented to the archbishopric .of Cartagena of the Indies, and to this archbishopric ; but these dignities he would not accept ; he returned to Spain, and died in his convent of Toledo.
9. Don Alonso Ramirez de Vergara, native of Segura de Leon, collegiate in Malaga, Alcala, and Salamanca, professor of arts, and canon of Malaga ; he was presented to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1594, and died in 1 603.
10. Don Fra^ Luis Lopez de Solis, native of Salamanca, of the order of St. Augustin ; he passed over into Peru, where he was master of his religious order, professor of theology, prior provincial, and qualificator of the inquisition; he was promoted to the church of Quito, and to this metropolitan see.
11. Don Fra?y Ignacio de Loyola, a monk of the barefooted order of St. Francis ; he was commissary in the province of Pilipinas, and on his return to Spain elected archbishop of Charcas.
12. Don Alonso de Peralta, native of Arequipa, archdeacon and inquisitor of Mexico, and archbishop of Charcas, where he died.
13. Don Frn^ Geronimo de Tiedra, native of Salamanca, of the order of St. Domingo ; he was prior of his convent, and preacher to the king, and archbishop of Charcas in 1616.
14. Don Fernando Arias de Ugarte, native of Santa Fe of Bogota, of whom we have treated in the catalogue of the bishops of Quito ; he passed over from the archbishopric of Santa Fe to this in 1630.
15. Don Francisco de Sotomayor.
16. Don FVr/y Francisco de Borja, of the order of San Benito, master in the university of Salamanca, and professor of theology ; elected bishop of Charcas in 1634.
17. Don Fru7/ Pedro de Oviedo, of the order of San Benito, native of Madrid ; he studied arts and theoloijy in Alcala, was abbot of the monastery of S. Cloclio, and difinidor of his order ; he was promoted from the bishopric of Quito to this archbishopric in 1645 : he died in 1649.
18. Don Juan Alonso de Ocon, native of La Roja, collegiate-major of San Ildefonso in Alcala, doctor and professor of theology, curate of Elechosa in the archbishopric of Toledo, and of the parish of Santa Cruz of Madrid ; he was promoted from the church of Cuzco to this of La Plata.
19. Don Fray Gaspar de Villaroel, of the order of St. Augustin, native of Riobamba ; he studied in the royal university of Lima, and with the reputation of being very learned, of which, indeed, his works bear testimony ; he was promoted from the church of Arequipa to this in 1658.
20. Don Bernardo de Izaguirre, native of Toledo ; he was fiscal of the inquisition of Cartagena and of Lima, and was promoted from the church of Cuzco to this metropolitan see.
21. Don Fray Alonso de la Cerda, of the order of preachers, native of Lima, provincial of his order, bishop of Honduras ; from whence he was promoted to this church.
22. Don Melchor de Lilian and Cisneros, native of Tordelaguna, of Avhom we speak in the catalogue of the bishops of Santa Marta ; he was removed from the bishopric of Popayan in 1672, governed until 1678, when he was promoted to the metropolitan see of Lima.
23. Don Bartolome Gonzalez de Poveda, who became archbishop, and governed until 1692.
24. Don Fray Diego Morcillo Rubio de Aunon, of the bishopric of La Paz in 1711, where he remained until 1724, when he was promoted to the archbishopric of Lima.
25. Don Francisco Luis Romero, promoted from the archbishopric of Quito ; he governed until 1725.
26. Don Alonso del Pozo and Silva, of the bishopric of Santiago of Chile.
27. Don Agustin Delgado, in 1743 ; governed until 1746.
28. Don Salvador Bermudez, from the aforesaid year ; governed until 1747.
29. Don Gregorio de Molleda y Clerque, of the bishopric of Truxillo, in 1748 ; he governed until 1758, when he died.
30. Don Cayetano Marcellano y Agramont, of the bishopric of Buenos Ayres, in 1758 ; he governed until 1761, when he died.
31. Don Pedro de Argandoua, promoted in the above year ; he governed until 1776, when he died.
32. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, who governed from 1776 to 1784.
33. Don Arqy Joseph Antonio de San Alberto, who governed in 178.5.
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ment of the province and corre^innenlo of Hiiamachuco in Peru ; one of the lour divisions of the curacy of Estancias.
CHUQUIYAPU, an ancient province of Peru, which was conquered and united to the empire by Mayta Capac, fourth Emperor of the Incas, after the famous battle and victory of Huallu against the Collas Indians. It is tolerably well j, copied, and of a cold climate. Its territory abounds in excellent pastures, iti which there are great quantities of cattle. In some parts, where the temperature is hot, there is found maize, cacao, and sugarcane. This country abountls in woods, and in these are found tigers, leopards, stags, and monkeys of many dilFerent species.
[CHURCH Creek Town, in Dorchester county, Maryland, lies at the head of Church creek, a branch of Hudson river, seven miles $.w. from Cambridge.]
[Church Hill, a village in Queen Ann’s county, Maryland, at tlie head of S. E. Creek, a branch of Chester river, n. w. of Bridgetown, and n. e. of Centreville eight miles, and 85 s. w. from Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 6' n. Long. 76° 10' a?.]
CHURCHILL, a great river of New S. Wales, one of tlie provinces of N. America, at the mouth of which the English Hudson bay company have a fort and establishment; situate in lat. 59° w. and long. 94° 12' w. The commerce of this place is great and lucrative, and on account of its great distance entirely secure from any disturbance from the French. In 1747 the number of castor-skins, which were brought by 100 Indians to this spot in their canoes, amounted to 20,000. Several other kinds of skins were also brought from the n, by 200 other Indians ; some of whom came hither by the river Seals, or Marine Wolves, 15 leagues to the s. of the fort. To the n. of this fort there are no castors, since there arc no woods where these animals are found, though there are many other woods Avhich abound in wolves, bears, foxes, buffaloes, and other animals whose skins are valuable. Here are great quantities of shrubs or small trees, planted by the factory, supplying timber ; but the opposite side, of the river is most favourable to their growth ; and at a still greater distance are found large trees of various kinds. The company residing in the fort is exposed to many risks, and obliged to inhabit a rock surrounded by frosts and snows for eight months in the year, being exposed to all the winds and tempests. On account of the deficiency of pasture, they maintain near the factory no more than four or five horses, and a bull w ith two cows ; for the maintenance of which during the winter, fodder is brought from a fenny bottom some miles distant from the river. Those who have been hero allirm, that between this river and the river Nelson there is, at a great distance up the country, a communication or narrow pass of land, by which these rivers are divided; and the Indians who carry on this traffic, have dealings with the English navigating the river Nelson or Albany. [See New Britain.]
[CHURCHTOWN, a village so called, in the n. e. part of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, about 20 miles e.n.e. of Lancaster, and 50w.n.w.oi' Philadelphia. It has 12 houses, and an episcopal church ; and m the environs are two forges, which
|manufacture about 450 tons of bar iron annually.|
It has some celebrated fountains of mineral waters,
CHURUMACO, a settlement of the head settlement and dlealdia mayor of Cinagua in Nueva España ; situate in a dry and warm country ; on which account the seeds scarcely ever come to maturity, save those of maize ; melons indeed grow in abundance, owing to the cultivation they find, and from water being brought to them from a river which runs at least a league’s distance from the the settlement. In its district are several herds of large cattle, which form the principal branch of the commerce of the inhabitants : these consist of 80 families of Indians. In its limits are also found some ranchos, in which reside 22 families of Spaniards, and 34 of Mustees and Mulattoes. At a short distance is the mountain called Ynguaran, in which copper mines are found, though this metal has not been observed much to abound. Four leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHYAIZAQUES, a barbarous nation, and
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but very little known, of Indians, of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, bordering upon the river Fusagasuga. They are few, and live dispersed in the woods, having a communication with the Faeces and Fusungaes.
[CHYENNES, Indians of N. America, the remnant of a nation once respectable in point of number. They formerly resided on a branch of the Red river of Lake Winnipie, which still bears their name. Being oppressed by the Sioux, they removed to the w, side of the Missouri, about 15 miles below the mouth of Warricunne creek, where they built and fortified a village ; but being pursued by their ancient enemies the Sioux, they fled to the Black hills, about the head of the Chyenne river, where they wander in quest of the buffalo, having no fixed residence. They do not cultivate. They are well disposed towards the whites, and might easily be induced to settle on the Missouri, if they could be assured of being protected from the Sioux. Their number annually diminishes. Their trade may be made valuable.]
[CIACICA. See Cicasica.]
[CIBOLA, or Civola, the name of a town in, ana also the ancient name of, New Granada in Tierra Firroe, S. America. The country here, though not mountainous, is very cool ; and the Indians are said to be the whitest, wittiest, most sincere and orderly of all the aboriginal Americans. When the country was discovered, they had each but one wife, and were excessively jealous. They worshipped water, and an old woman that was a magician ; and believed she lay hid under one of tlicir
CIBOO, Minas de, some rough and craggy mountains, nearly in the centre of the island of St. Domingo, where some gold mines are worked, and from whence great wealth was procured at the be* ginning of the conquest.
CICASICA, a province and corregimiento of Perú ; bounded n. and n. e. by the mountains of the Andes, and the province of Larecaxa ; e. by the province of Cochabamba ; s. e. by that of Paria and coTTCgirnicnto of Oruro ; on the s . it is touched by the river of Desaguadero ; s. w, by the province of Pacages ; and n. w.. and w. by the city of La Paz. It is one of the greatest in the whole kingdom, since the corregidor is obliged to place here 12 lieutenants for the administration of justice, on account of its extent. It is five leagues from n. to j. and 80 from e. to w. Its temperature is various ; in some parts there are some very cold serrantasy in which breed every species of cattle, in proportion to the number of estates found there. That part which borders upon the Andes is very hot and moist, but at the same time fertile, and abounding in all kinds of fruits and plantations of sugar-cane, and in cacao estates, the crops of which are very great, and produce a lucrative commerce ; the use of this leaf, which was before only common to the Indians, being now general amongst the Spaniards of both sexes and all classes ; so that one basketful, which formerly cost no more than five dollars, will now fetch from 10 to 11 ; vines are also cultivated, and from these is made excellent wine. This province is watered by the river La Paz, which is the source of the Beni ; also by a river descending from the branches of the cordillera, and which, in the wet season, is tolerably large. At the river Corico begins the navigation by means of rafts to the settlement of Los Reyes. Amongst the productions of this province may be counted Jesuits bark, equal to that of Loxa, according to the experiments made at Lima. This province begins at the river Majaviri, which divides the suburbs of Santa Barbara from the city of La Paz, and here is a little valley watered by the above river, and in it are a few houses or country-seats belonging to the inhabitants of the above city. This valley, which is of a delightful temperature, extends as far as the gold mine called Clmquiahuilla, on the skirt of the cordillera, where was found that rich lump of gold which weighed 90 marks, the largest ever seen in that kingdom, with the peculiarity, that upon assaying it, it was found to have six different alloys ; its degrees of perfection differing from 18 to 23 j ; and that being valued in Spanish money, it proved to be worth 11,269 dollars reals. This prize was carried to the royal treasury, and upon this occasion the Marquis of Castelfuerte, then viceroy, received the thanks of his majesty. In the territory of Cinco Curatos (or Five Curacies) of the Andes are found in the forests excellent woods, such as cedars, corcoholos, &c. and many fine fruits, also tobacco. It had formerly very rich mines of gold and silver, which are still known to exist in other mountains besides that of Santiago, but the natives have no inclination to work them. The aforementioned mountain has the peculiarity of abounding in either sort of the said metals. In the asiento of the mines of Arica, there is a gold mine which produces but little. From the wo^ of the flocks are made sora«