The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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the natives make friezes. The low part, looking upon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal in mildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, and in the many estates which are in it maize grows in great quantities, and it, besides serving as food for the labourers, and independent of that which is devoured by the wild pigeons with which those fields are filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which are carried to supply the markets of Lima ; those animals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000 head, and producing an emolument of 300,000 dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here are also some estates of sugar-cane, and others of French beans and wheat, of which the crops were formerly very great, and used, together with the vines, to be reckoned amongst the chief productions of this country, though they have now made room for a more general cultivation of maize. What conduces much to render the soil fertile, is what the Indians call huano^ and which, in their language, signifies dung, this being brought from some small islands at a little distance from the coast towards the n. It is thought to be the excrement of some birds called huanaes^ who have been accustomed to deposit it in the above places from time immemorial. Some of it has also been found in various other islands of the coast of Canete, Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that a handful being put at the root of a plant of maize, it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwards of 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000 bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly. In the centre of the province, and upon the coast, are some fine salines^ which supply some of the neighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, those of Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Huanuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted. The salt is not only used in the workingof the metals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomous insect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrails until it destroys them. The population consists of 37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town of Arnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amounted to 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dollars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, at a league and a half’s distance from the river Pasamayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in 1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being an university, at which however it never attained. It has a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels, a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, and a good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inhabitants consist of several noble and rich families. One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat. 11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort upon the river Tapo, in the part washed by this river, called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. The Chunchos Indians of this province took possession of it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of Santa Elena in the province and government of Guayaquil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port which is frequented by vessels only in stress ; it having some extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance. Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armada del Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as it was dropping down to Panama, for the purpose of dispatching the galleons under the charge of the Marquis de Villarubia ; although, through the opportune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Count de Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, Don Pedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of the property on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721. another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries to the Plaza of Panama, without a single thing on board being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious wind from the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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same kingdom. It contains 180 families of Indians, and 60 of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes. Here is an hospital of the religious order of St. Francis. Seven leagues from its capital.
COXIMAR, a large plain of the coast of the island of Cuba, close by the city of Havana, in which is a fortified tower. On this plain the English drew up their troops when they besieged that place, in 1762.
COXUMATLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Zanguio and afcaldia mayor of Zamora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the sea of Chapala, and being backed by a large mountain covered with fruit-trees of various kinds, and excellent timber and woods. It contains 17 tamilies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishing and in agriculture. Four leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
COYAIMAS, a barbarous and ancient nation of Indians of the province and government of Popayán in the kingdom of Quito, and district of the townofNeiba. Tliese Indians are valorous, robust, faithful, and enemies to the Pijaos. Some of tl)ern have become converted to the Catholic faith, and liveuniteil in settlemenis.
COYONES, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the s. w. of Tocuyo. They are ferocious and infidels, and live upon the mountains. Their numbers at the present day are much reduced.
COZALCAQUE, San Felipe de, a settlement of the head settlement of Tenantitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Acaynca, in Nueva Espana. It contains 51 families of Indians, and is 10 leagues to the e. and one-fourth to the a. e, of its head settlement.
bears the same name, with the dedicatory title of San Martin, and which is situate on a plain half a league long, and somewhat less broad, surrounded by mountains so knit together, that, at the time of its foundation, passes were obliged to be o[>ened. Through this province runs a river, which flows down from the sferTflA of Zongolica, and which afterwards takes the nam.e of Alvarado, it is of a hot and moist temperature, and continually exposed to inundations during the rainy seasons, owing to the immense overflowings of the rivers. Its population is composed of 38 families of Spaniards, 128 of Mulattoes, and 34 of Mexican Indians, who maintain themselves by the gathering of cotton and maize ; and this last in such abundance as to supply Vera Cruz. The Spaniards employ themselves in fishing in the rivers, which abound with fish the three last months of the year, and they carry them for sale into the other jurisdictions. It has, besides the parish church, a temple of superior architecture, dedicated to Nuestra Seilora de la Soledad, though it be commonly called, Of Cozomalotipan, being of such ancient origin as to be said to liave existed 12 years before the conquest of the kingdom. This temple was inhabited by a religious fraternity, approved by his holiness Gregory XIII. he having granted to the same many favours and indulgences, which, through the devotion of the communily, were perpetuated, through several prodigies and miracles which afterwards took place in the settlement, and in its district. One hundred and fifteen leagues s. s.xo. of Mexico, in lat. 17^ 47' ; long. 274° 50'. The jurisdiction of this alcaldia consists in the folloAving settlements :
A rnatlnn, Acula,
Ixmaluliacan, Chacaltiaiiguis, Texliuacaii, Tlacotalpan,
COZAQUl, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of Acazingo and alcaldia mayor of Tepeaca, in Nueva Espana. It contains four families of Spaniards, 33 Aluslees and Mulattocs, and 51 of Indians. It is a quarter of a league lioni its head settlement.
iid is two leagues to the w. of
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bounded ??. and 71 . w. by Mifiiin ; e. and n.e. by Susqiiehaiinah river, which divides it from Dauphin ; i-. by York, and s.w. by Franklin county. It is 47 miles in length, and 42 in breadth, and has 10 townships, of which Carlisle is the chief. The county is generally mountainous; lies between^ North and Soutli mountain ; on each side of Conedogwinet creek, there is an extensive, rich, and well cultivated valley. It contains 18,243 inhabitants, of whom 223 are slaves.]
[Cumberland, a post-town and the chief township of Alleghany county, Maryland, lies on the «. bank of a great bend of Potowmack river, and on both sides of the mouth of Will’s creek. It is 148 miles w. by n. of Baltimore, 109 measured miles above Georgetown, and about 105 ». w. of Washington City. Fort Cumberland stood formerly at the w. side of the mouth of Will’s creek.]
[Cumberland County, in Virginia, on the «, side of Appamatox river, which divides it from Prince Edward. It contains 8153 inhabitants, of whom 4434 are slaves. The court-house is 28 miles from Pawhatan court-house, and 52 from Richmond.]
[Cumberland Mountain occupies a part of the uninhabited country of the state of Tennessee, between the districts of Washington and Hamilton and Mero district, and between the two first named districts and the state of Kentucky. The ridge is about SO miles broad, and extends from Crow creek, on Tennessee river, from s. w. ion. e. The place where the Tennessee breaks through the Great ridge, called the Whirl or Suck, is 250 miles above the Muscle shoals. Limestone is found on both sides the mountain. The mountain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggy rocks of any mountain in the w. country ; in several parts of it, it is inaccessible for miles, even to the Indians on foot. In one place particularly, near the summit of the mountain, there is a most remarkable ledge of rocks, of about SO miles in length, and 200 feet thick, shewing a perpendicular face to the s. e. more noble and grand than any artificial fortification in the known world, and apparently equal in point of regularity.]
[Cumberland River, called by the Indians “ Shawanee,” and by the French “ Shavanon,” falls into the Ohio 10 miles above the mouth of Tennessee river, and about 24 miles due e. from fort Massac, and 1113 below Pittsburg. It is navigable for large vessels to Nashville in Tennessee, and from thence to the mouth of Obed’s or Obas river. The Caney-fork, Harpeth, Stones, Red, and Obed’s, are its chief branches ; some of them are navigable to a great distance. The Cumberland mountains in Virginia separate the head waters of this river from those of Clinch river ; it runs s. w. till it comes near the s. line of Kentucky, when its course is w. in general, through Lincoln county, receiving many streams from each side ; thence it flows s. w. into the state of Tennessee, where it takes a winding course, inclosing Sumner, Davidson, and Tennessee counties ; afterwards it takes a n. w. direction, and reenters the state of Kentucky ; and from thence it preserves nearly an uniform distance from Tennessee river to its mouth, where it is 300 yards wide. It is 200 yards broad at Nashville, and its whole length is computed to be above 450 miles.]
CUMBINAMA. See Loyola.
[CUMMASHAWAS, or Cummasuawaa, a sound and village on the e. side of Washington island, on the n. w. coast of N. America. The port is capacious and safe. In this port Captain Ingraham remained some time, and he observes, in his journal, that here, in direct opposition to most other parts of the world, the women maintained a precedency to the men in every point ; insomuch that a man dares not trade without the concurrence of his wife, and that he has often been witness to men’s being abused for parting with skins before their approbation was obtained ; and this precedency often occasioned much disturbance.
CUMPAYO, a settlement of the province of
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CUTI, a river of the province and captainship of Maranan in Brazil. CUTIGUBAGUBA, a settlement of the Portuguese, in the province and captainship of Para in Brazil; situate on the shore of the river of Las Amazonas ; to the n. of the city of Para. Cutiguba, an island of the river of Las Amazonas, opposite the city of Para.
CUTUBUS, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of the river Besani. CUTUCUCHE, a river of the province and government of Tacunga in the kingdom of Quito. It flows down on the s. side of the skirt of the mountain and volcano of Cotopacsi, and united with the Alaques, forms the San Miguel, which laves part of the llanura of Callo, runs near the settlement of Mulahalo, and by a country seat and estate of the Marquisses of Maenza, who have here some very good cloth manufactories. This river runs very rapid, and in 1766, owing to an eruption of the volcano, it inundated the country, doing infinite mischief; again it was, a second time, thrown out of its bed, though the damage it then did was nothing like what it was on the former occasion.
CUTUN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. COTUNLAQUE, a pass of the road which leads from the city of Quito to Machache, almost impracticable in the winter time, and only noted for being a place of infinite difficulty and vexation to such as are obliged to travel it. CUTUPITE, Cano de, an arm of the river Orinoco, in the province and government of Guayana, one of those which form ifs different mouths or entrances; it is that which lies most close to the coast of Tierra Firme, aud which, with the coast, forms part of the canal of Manao.
CUYO, Cotio, or Cujo, a large province of the kingdom of Chile, and part of that which is called Chile Oriental or Tramontano, from its being on the other side of the cordiUera of the Andes; bounded e. by the country called Pampas ; n. by the district of Rioxa, in the province and government of Tucuman ; *. by the lands of Magellan, or of the Patagonians; and®, by the cordillera of the Andes, which is here called the Western, Cismontana, part of those mountains. It is of a benign and healthy climate ; and although in the summer, the heat on the llanuras is rather oppressive, extremely fertile, and abounding, independently of the fruits peculiar to the country, in wheat, all kinds of pulse, wine, and brandies, which were formerly carried to the provinces of Tucuman aud Buenos Ayres, although this traffic has of late fallen into decay, from the frequent arrivals of vessels from Spain. It abounds in all kinds of cattle, and in the cordiUera, and even ia the pampas, are large breeds of vicunas, huanacos, vizcachas, turtles, two kinds of squirrels, ostriches, tigers, leopards, and an infinite quantity of partridges, pigeons, and turtledoves. The flesh of the swine and mules is esteemed the best in all America; and, generally speaking, victuals areso cheap that it may be procured at little or no expence. The skirts of the mountains are covered with beautiful woods, and their tops are overspread with snow. Throughout nearly the whole province is found a great quantity of glasswort, and in the cordiUera are some mines of silver, especially in the valley of Iluspallata, which were formerly worked by fusion, to the great detriment of the metal, but which are to this day worked in the same manner as those of Peru, and consequently afford greater emolument. Here are also some gold mines, and others of very good copper. The rivers which water this province all rise in the cordiUera, and the most considerable of them are the Tunuyan, which is the first to the s. those of Mendoza, San Juan, Jachal, and the Colorado to the n. e. In the cordiUera, near the high road leading from Santiago to Mendoza, is the great lake of the Inca, wherein are said to be great treasures deposited by the Incas at the beginning of the conquest, to keep them from the Spaniards. This lake is bottomless, and it is thought to be formed of the snows melted and flowing down from the mountainous parts of the district. On the side towards Chile the lake has a vent by six or seven small branches, forming the river of Aconcagua ; and from the opposite side issue some other streams in a contrary direction, and form the Mendoza. In the very heat of summer this