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C H A

the natives make friezes. The low part, looking
upon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal in
mildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, and
in the many estates which are in it maize grows in
great quantities, and it, besides serving as food for
the labourers, and independent of that which is de
voured by the wild pigeons with which those fields
are filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which are
carried to supply the markets of Lima ; those ani
mals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000
head, and producing an emolument of 300,000
dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here are
also some estates of sugar-cane, and others of
French beans and wheat, of which the crops were
formerly very great, and used, together with the
vines, to be reckoned amongst the chief produc
tions of this country, though they have now made
room for a more general cultivation of maize.
What conduces much to render the soil fertile, is
what the Indians call huano^ and which, in their
language, signifies dung, this being brought from
some small islands at a little distance from the
coast towards the n. It is thought to be the excre
ment of some birds called huanaes^ who have been
accustomed to deposit it in the above places from
time immemorial. Some of it has also been found
in various other islands of the coast of Canete,
Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that a
handful being put at the root of a plant of maize,
it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwards
of 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000
bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly.
In the centre of the province, and upon the coast,
are some fine salines^ which supply some of the
neighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, those
of Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Hua
nuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted.
The salt is not only used in the workingof the me
tals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomous
insect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrails
until it destroys them. The population consists of
37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town of
Arnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amounted
to 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dol
lars per annum.

Arnedo or Chancay,

S. Juan de Huaral,

Huaura,

Mazo,

Vegueta,

Iluacho,

Barraste,

Auccayama,

Sayan,

Tapaya,

Cauchaz or Maráz,

Yurayaco,

Picoy,

Parquin,

Yucul,

Canin,

Mollobamba,

Panun,

Turpay,

Tongos,

Chiuchiu,

Auquimarca,

Paccho,

Yguari,

Ayaranga,

Yancay,

Huacar,

Otequet,

Muca,

Huachinga,

Yacsanga,

Yunqui,

Apache,

Santa Cruz,

Acotama,

Huaycho.

Huanangui,

Chancay, the capital of the above province,
founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, at
a league and a half’s distance from the river Pasa
mayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in
1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being an
university, at which however it never attained. It
has a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels,
a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, and
a good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inha
bitants consist of several noble and rich families.
One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat.
11° 30' 5.

(CHANCEFORD, a township in York county,
Pennsylvania.)

CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the province
and government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort upon
the river Tapo, in the part washed by this river,
called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. The
Chunchos Indians of this province took possession
of it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.

Chanchamaiu, a river of the province of Caxa
marquilla
. It rises in the province of Tarraa, to
the n. of the capital, runs n. and enters the large
river Perene, in the country of the Campas In
dians.

CHANCO, CAPILLA DE, a settlement of the
province and corregimiento of Itata in tbe king
dom of Chile ; situate near the coast.

CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of Santa
Elena
in the province and government of Guaya
quil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port which
is frequented by vessels only in stress ; it having
some extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance.
Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armada
del Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as it
was dropping down to Panama, for the purpose of
dispatching the galleons under the charge of the
Marquis de Villarubia ; although, through the op
portune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Count
de Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, Don
Pedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of the
property on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721.
another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries to
the Plaza of Panama, without a single thing on
board being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious wind
from the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the

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