The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.
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CHACAYACU, a river of the province of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs from e. to w. then turns its course to s. w. and shortly after, passing tlirough the settlement of Loreto, enters the river Suno on its w. shore.
CHACHAGUI. See Tambo Pintado.
CHACHAPOIAS, a province and corregimiento of Peru ; bounded e. and s. by the mountains of the infidel Indians, n. w. by the provinces of Luya and Chillaos, and w. by C.axaraarca. Its greatest length is 38 leagues from n. w. to s. e. and its breadth is nearly as great. Its temperatuse is for the most part mild, though in some places exceedingly hot, and in others equally cold, since a branch of the cordillera intersects it. Upon this account also it abounds greatly in all productions, such as wheat, maize, and other seeds, and in all kinds of herbs and fruits. It produces a good proportion of sugar ; but the principal sources of its commerce are cotton and tobacco ; these productions belonging peculiarly to the district of Mayobamba, three leagues distant to the s. e. and being held in great estimation. The women spin cotton, of which they manufacture canvass for the sails of ships, also for bags : they spin likewise another sort of delicate thread, of which they make linen for garments ; the men employing tliemselves in the looms and in the cultivation of cotton and tobacco : of this they used to gather yearly 600 measures, consisting of 200 mazos or rollos each, each mazo being valued at one real. At present less is cultivated, from the prohibition of commerce, so that the settlement has become much poorer, and the price of the cotton for making sails is now at two reals per lb. ; thougli that which is very fine, at a dollar. As there is no current coin, the inhabitants make barters in kind for the necessaries they want. Thus also they pay liieir tributes, duties, and taxes ; and the treaties amongst them for canvass and linen cloths are consequently very large, the prices being regulated amongst themselves. They cultivate coca, and with this they supply some of the neighbouring provinces.
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They breed cattle of every sort, horses, sheep, and cows ; of whose hides, when tanned and dried by the fire, they manufacture trunks, saddles, chests, &c. It has but a tew mines, and of these, one only is gold, and a few of salt are worked. It is watered by several rivers ; but the principal are the Moyobamba and the Uccubaraba. Its inhabitants amount to 10,000, and are divided into 43 settlements. Its reparti mi etHo amounted to 32,000 dollars ; and it paid nearly 256 for alcavala,
San Juan de la Fron- Nixaque, tera, Corobamba,
Santa Ana, Pomacocha,
San Lazaro, Quispis,
El Santo Christo de Bur- Santo Tomas,
San Christoval de las Junvilla,
San Pedro de Utac, Yambrasbamba,
Santo Tomas de Guillai, Chirta,
San lldefonso, Yapa,
La Magdalena, San Miguel de los 01-
Moyobamba, city, Palanca,
Y rinari, Thoe,
Chachapoias, a river of the above province, which runs «. w. and enters the Marafion.
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wliich there is a bank of fine sand, extending a mile into the sea, and affording good anchorage. Lat. 1° 59' n. Long. 157° 35' w.]
[Christmas Sound, in Tien a del Fuego, S. America. Lat. 55° 21' n. Long. 69° 48' tw.]
CHRISTOVAL, San, a town of the government and jurisdiction of Maracaibo in the Nuevo Rey no de Granada; founded by Captain Juan de Maldonado in 1560. It is of •a hot but healthy temperature, produces abundance of sugar-canes, of which are made honey, sugar, and conserves, in immense quantities ; also a great proportion of smoking tobacco, which is carried to Maracaibo. It has a good church and a convent t)f St. Augustin, which latter has fallen much to decay with regard to its establishment. The population of the town consists of 400 housekeepers. It lies 20 leagues n. e. of Pamplona, from the jurisdiction of which it is divided by the river Pamplonilla. It is the native place of Don Gregorio de Jaimes, archdeacon of Santa Fe, and bishop of Santa Marta.
Same name, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lipes, archbishopric of Charcas in Peru ; in which took place the following extraordinary occurrence: The curate of this place going to confess a sick person in the settlement of Tahisa of the province of Paria, which was annexed to this, sunk into a spring of water in the pampas or llanos dela Sal, when he was drowned, and with the two Indians who accompanied him on horseback, never more appeared, nor were any vestiges ever found of them : this was the reason why the latter settlement has since been disunited from the curacy of San Christoval.
Same name, a capital city of the province and captainship of Sergipé in the kingdom of Brazil ; being also known by that name. It is founded on the sea-shore, and has a fine and well defended port. It has a magnificent parish church with the title of Nuestra Senora de la Victoria ; two fine convents, the one of the order of the Franciscans, and the other of the Carmelites ; also a chapel of devotion of the Virgin of the Rosary. The councilhouse is a very fine edifice, and in the suburbs is a hermitage of San Gonzalo, which is frequented as a pilgrimage by this and other settlements of the jurisdiction. In this city resides the chief captain, who governs this province, and who is attended by a company of troops as a body-guard. In early times it was filled with nobility, descended from the first families in Portugal; but it is now reduced to 600 housekeepers. in its district, towards the part called Coninquiva, is a parish with four chapels, and towards the river Vaza-Barris five others. It has also 25 engines, by which abundance of sugar of an excellent quality is manufactured ; this article affords a great commerce w ith t!ic bay of Todos Santos. Lat. ll°40's. Long. ST'* SO' tw.
Same name, an island of the N. sea ; one of the Antilles, discoverctl by Admiral Christoj)her Columbus, who gave it his name, in 149S. It is five leagues in circumference, and is very fertile, and abounding in productions, particularly in cotton, tobacco, indigo, sugar, and brandy ; by all of which it carries on a great commerce. Here arc some good salines, and in the mountains are some woods of fine timber, well adapted for the building of ships. The English and the French both established themselves here in 1625, holding a divided possession, when they were driven out by the Spaniards. After this the former again returned and re-established themselves in the greatest part of the island, leaving, however, a small share to the French, until the year 1713, when the latter, in conjunction with the Spaniards themselves, ceded it entirely to the English, who from that time have held it and kept it well fortified. [St. Christopher, situate in lat. 17° 21', long. 62° 48' ze. was called by its ancient possessors, the Charibes, Liamuiga, or the Fertile Island. It was discovered in November 1493 by Columbus himself, who was so pleased with its appearance, that he honoured it with his own Christian name. But it was neither planted nor possessed by the Spaniards. It was, however, (notwithstanding that the general opinion ascribes the honour of seniority to Barbadoes), the eldest of all the British territories in the \V. Indies, and in truth, the common mother both of the English and French settlements in the Charibean islands. A Mr. Thomas Warner, an Englishman, associated himself Avith 14 other persons in the year 1622, and with them took his passage on board a ship bound to Virginia. From thence he and his companions sailed from St. Christopher’s, where they arrived in January 1623, and by the month of September following had raised a good crop of tobacco, which they proposed to make their staple commodity. By the generality of historians who have treated of the affairs of the W. Indies, it is asserted that a party oflhe French, under the command of a person of the name of D’Esnambuc, took possession of one part of this island, on the same day that Mr. Warner landed on the other; but the truth is, that the first landing of Warner and his associates happened two years before the arrival of D’Esnambuc; who, it is admitted by Du Tertre, did not leave France until IG25. Unfortunately the English settlers, in the latter end of
1623, had their plantations demolished by a dread- j
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[And the Import of Slaves, by report of privy council, 1788, at a medium of four years, and by a return to house of commons in 1805, at a medium of two years from 1803, was as follows :
Four years to 1787
Tw o years to 1803
By report of privy council, 1788, and by subsequent estimate, the population amounted to
See Caribe (Leeward) Islands; and for the later political inquiries, see West Indies.]
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Pinotepa, and alcaldia mayor of Xicayan, in Nueva Espana. It contains 24 families of Indians, and is seven leagues to the n. of its head settlement.
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and it lies 15 leagues to the w. of its capital, an^ 10 to the n. w. of the capital of the province of Guadalaxara.
Same name, another settlement of the head settlement of Axixique, and alcaldia mayor of Zayula, in the same kingdom ; situate on the shore of the great lake or sea of Chapala. It contains 70 fajmilies of Indians, who employ themselves in fishing and agriculture ; is 13 leagues to the s. of its head settlement.
Same name another settlement of the province and government of Cartagena in the district of Sinu ; situate on the bank of the river Pichelin, in the division of this jurisdiction and that of Tolu. It is one of those which were founded, in 1776, by the Governor Don Juan Piraienta.
[CHRISTOPHER, Sr. See Christovae.] CHUAO, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Venezuela, to the w. of the port of La Guaira.
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on the banks of the river of its name, near where this river joins that of Florido. It is garrisoned by a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 soldiers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidel Indians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Cienega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leagues to the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.
CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huamachucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated from thence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by the province of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxatambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in some parts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure, and of various temperature, according to the different situation of its territories ; cold in all the parts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in some parts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-ery pleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which it produces in abundance, and in the same manner wheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts are found numerous herds of cattle of every species, and from the wools of some of these are made the cloth manufactures of the country, which meet with a ready demand in the other provinces. The principal rivers by which it is watered are three ; and these are formed by various streams : the one of them enters that of Santa to the zo. and the other two the Marafion. The most s. is called De Miraflores, and the other, which is very large, keeps the name of the province. Here are some mines of silver, which were formerly very rich ; as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold, of the purest quality, the standard weight of it being 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelin are some mines of brimstone, and a fountain or stream, the waters of which, falling down into a deep slough, become condensed and converted into a stone called Catachi, in the form of columns much resembling wax-candles, of a very white colour. The same substance is used as a remedy against the bloody flux, and it is said, that being made into powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg, it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderful manner the knitting of fractured bones. It comprehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settlements, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are
as folloAVS :
Huari del Rey, the capital,
San Christoval, Yunga,
San Luis de Huari,
CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and corregimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich rises in the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Maranon near the settlement of Uchos in the province of Andahuailas.
(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire, very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on the w. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockingham county, eight miles above Hookset falls. The legislature, of late, have commonly held their sessions here ; and from its central situation, and a thriving back country, it will probably become the permanent seat of government. Much of the trade of the upper country centres here. A liandsorae tall bridge across the Merrimack connects this town Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants, and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian name Avas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts, and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of the town contains about 170 houses, a Congregational churcli, and an academy, which was incorporated in 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth, 58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. from Boston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)
(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, one of the most considerable towns in Middlesex county ; situated on Concord river, in a healthy and pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of the county, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e. of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid; and it owes its present name to the peaceable manner in which it was obtained from the natives. The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev. Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the