The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this river and that of Pasimoni.
Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surname of Real) of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata, near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part, there is a lake of very good sweet water.
Carlos, San, a valley in the province and government of Tucumán, which is very fertile in vines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birds and animals of the chase. Its natives are those who most of all infested the Spaniards when they conquered this province.
Carlos, San, another, of the province and country of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the society of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Araucaso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahumaris Indians.
Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, called De Don Carlos, in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra of Los Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formed by the mouth of the river La Plata.
CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river of its name. Its territory is most fertile, but the climate is very cold, and the streets almost always
Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlement of Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.
CARMEN, a river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs from w. to e. and gathering the waters of many others, enters in a large body into the Mazarroni.
Carmen, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate in the district of the mountains of Marca, between those of San Jacinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one of those new settlements that were founded by the Govemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.
Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situate near a stream and on the shore of the river Tocantines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayal of San Feliz.
Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, of Villa Rica.
CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shore of a river thus called.
Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in this province, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.
Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.
CASAUATAI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake of the Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. of the Maraiion, and following its course towards the n. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter the Ucayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receive the waters of the Zapofe.
CASCABELES, a river of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito : it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, and enters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruins of the city of Mocoa.
CASCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Conturnaza ; in the district of which there is, at three leagues distance, a large piece of hewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of a yard wide on every face, particularly rough and unpolished.
Cascas, a large swamp of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, which is formed from different arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and communicates itself with the lake of Arechona ; both of these lakes being near the last river, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain desert of Chisgas.
(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreads n. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and cape Small Point on the n. e. Within these points, which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated. The land on these islands, and on the opposite coast on the main, is the best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast of this country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoit bay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. The waters of Casco extend several arms or creeks of salt water into the country. The waters go up Meadow’s river, where vessels of a considerable size are carried by the tide, and where it flows within one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. On the e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the sea called Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscot river, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag, which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens to the waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; its extent is not great, but it has several valuable mills upon it. Rayal’s river, called by the natives W estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from
merit of Venezuela ; situate upon the coast near cape Blanco.
(CATABAW River. See Wateree.)
(Catabaw Indians, a small tribe who have one town called Catabaw, situate on the river of that name, hit. 44° S9' n, on the boundary line between N. and S. Carolina, and contains about 450 inhabitants, of which about 150 are fighting men. They are the only tribe w hich resides in the state ; 144,000 acres of land . were granted them by the proprietary government. These are the remains of a forrnidalile nation, the bravest and most generous enemy thp Six Nations had, butthey have degenerated sincp they have been surrounded by the whites.)
CATACACHI, a settlement of the province and corregimiehto of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Santa Cruz, in which there is a stream of water Avhich distils from some crevices, and deposits in its bed a sort of white stone or crystalline substance, which they call catachi^ and which being dissolved in water, is accounted a specific in the flux.
CATACUMBO, a river of the province and government of Maracaibo, which rises to the e. of the city of Las Palmas, and runs e. increasing its stream by many others which flow into it, until it unites itself with the Sulia, to enter the lake of Maracaibo; where, at its mouth, it extends itself and forms a large pool of water called La Laguneta.
CATALINA, Santa, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva Espana ; annexed to the settlement of Nuestra Senora de la Purificacion. It contains 132 families of Indians.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the head settlement of Tantoyuca, and alcaldia mayor of Tampico, in the same kingdom : it is of a hot temperature, and contains 80 families of Indians, who apply themselves to the culture of the soil ; is 10 leagues to the e. of its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another,' of the head settlement of Mistepeque, and alcaldia mayor of Nejapa, in Nueva España: it is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of a mountain, with 60 families of Indians, and is 4 leagues from its head settlement.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Tepeguana and kingdom of Nueva Viscaya, on the shore of the river Las Nasas ; is 30 leagues to the n. w. of its capital.
CATALINA, Santa, another settlement, with the addition of Sera, of the province and government of Maracaibo, in the district of the city of Pedraza ; situate on the shore of the river Pariva ; is one of the missions which are held in Barinas bj the religion of St. Domingo.
CATALINA, Santa, another, of the same pro
CATAMARCA, S. Fernando de, a city of the province and government of Tucumán, founded by Juan Gomez Zurita, in 1538, in the fertile and extensive valley of Conando. It has a fort to repress the encroachments of the Indians. The name of Canete was given it in honour to the viceroy who then commanded in Peru ; this was afterwards changed to London, in honour to the queen of England, wife of Philip II. king of Spain. The inquietudes caused amongst the inhabitants by the infidel Indians induced Don Geronimo Luis de Cabrera, son of a governor of that province, in 1663, to remove it to another not less fertile valley, and to give it the name of San J uan de la Rivero ; and lastly, by the permission of the king, in 1683, it was transferred to a spot in the valley of Catamarca ; where it still remains, under the same title, at 80 leagues distance from its first station. It has, besides the parish church, a convent of the Recoletos monks of St. Francis, with the dedicatory title of San Pedro de Alcantara ; an hospital of Merced ; aud a house of residence, which formerly belonged to the regulars of the company of Jesuits. On the w. side of the valley is a mountain in which there are gold mines ; and on the w. also from n. to s. runs a serrama^ the skirts of which are for many leagues covered with estates and cultivated grounds, and filled, from the abundance of fine pastures, with lage and small cattle and with mules. A tolerably large river runs through the valley in the rainy season, and terminates in some lakes M’hich are formed by it about 30 leagues s. of the city. The commerce of this city is very small, so that there is no coin current ; and even the payments of the royal duties are paid in effects, and in the productions of the country, such as cotton, linens, pepper, brandy, and wheat. Lat. 27° s.
Catamarca, a settlement of the same province and government ; situate in the district of this city.
Mapoyes, runs w. and enters the Orinoco close to the torrent of Los Atures.
CATARAQUA, or Catarakui, a copious river of the province and country of the Iroquees Indians. It rises from the lake Ontario, runs n. e. and continues its course as far as Quebec, from whence it takes the name of St. Lawrence, and then enters the sea.
CATARUBEN, a settlement of the missions of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; one of the seven which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits, and belonging to the nation of the Salivas Indians. The Caribes burnt and destroyed it in 1684.
(CATAWESSY, a township in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania ; situate on the s. e. bank of the e. branch of Susquehannah river, opposite the mouth of Fishing creek, and about 20 miles n. e. of Sunbury.)
(CATHERINE’S Isle, St, a small island in the captainship of St. Vincent’s in Brazil, belonging to the Portuguese, 47 leagues s. of Cananea island. It is about 23 miles from n. to s. inhabited by Indians, wiio assist the Portuguese against their enemies, the natives of Brazil. Lak 27° 10' s. Long. 47° 15' w.)
X X 2
C A X
C A X
from six to 20 feet diameter, worn almost perfectly smooth, into the solid body of a rock.]
CAXAMARCA, a province and corregimiento of Peru, in the bishopric of Truxillo ; bounded s. e. by the province of Caxamarquilla, e. by that of Chachapoyas, n.w. by that of Luya and ChilIgos : all these three being situate at that part of t^e Maranon which serves as a limit to this province of Caxamarca. It is bounded ». by the province of Jaen, n. w. by that of Piura, w. by that of Saha and by a part of Truxillo, and s. by that of Huamachuco. It is in length 40 leagues from s. e. ion. w. ; and in breadth, or across, 36 leagues. To enter it through the province of Truxillo, which is the grand road, it is necessary to pass the cordillera, which is not here so lofty as in the s. provinces. This province, however, abounds with eminences which are branches of the cordillera; and on account of the height and situation of these, a great variety of temperature is experienced, some parts being subject to an intense heat, and others to , a severe cold. Thus it partakes of the nature of the sierra, and its uneven figure no less corresponds with it : but it is for the most part of a good temperature, particularly in the capital. The province abounds greatly in all kinds of fruits and cattle : in it are fabricated cloths, baizes, blankets, canvas for sails of ships, and cotton garments of a Very fine and excellent quality. Formerly its principal commerce was in swine ; at present it is not, though these animals still abound in some parts. It is watered by many rivers, of which those rising on the w. side of the cordillera, as the Sana, Lambay eque, and those passing through the province of Truxillo, all enter the S. sea. The others, amongst which that of the Criznejas is the largest, incoporate themselves with the Maranon. On its shores are lavaderos, or washing-places of gold; and its rivers in general abound in very good and wholesome fish. Besides the fruits and the productions of every kind found in this province, it has to boast many gold and silver mines, some of which are worked. There a e also some of copper,
very fine lead, brimstone, and alcaparrosa. Towards the n. part, where it touches the province of Jaen, are found some bark-trees, the production of which, although not equal to the trees of Loxa, is of the colour of heated copper, and possesses all the virtues of the common bark. Here are also many medicinal herbs, and amongst them the celebrated calagimla. In the time of the Indians, and before the conquest, it was so well peopled that its natives formed upwards of 500 settlements. At present they amount to 46,000, being divided into 46 settlements. The capital bears the same title, and the repartimiento of the corregidor used to amount to 80,000 dollars, and it paid an alcavala of 640 dollars per annum.
The settlements are.
Caxamarca, the capital,
San Joseph, Cherillo,
Trinidad de Chetu, S. Francisco do Cay an,
Santa Catalina de Chugod,
San Pablo de Chalique,
S. Luis de Tunibadin,
S. Bernardino de
S. Juan de Llallan, Nepos,
San Miguel de Pallaques,
San Marcos, Catacachi, Amarcucho, Ichocan,
San Juan de Huambos,
Todos Santos de Chota, Tacabamba, Yauyucan.
its figure is
The capital is large and handsome irregular, and it is situate upon a level plainT The houses are of clay, and the streets are wide and straight. The parish church, Avhich has three naves, is of finely worked stone, and the building expences of it Avere defrayed by King Charles II. in the time of the viceroy the Duke of La Palata, in 1682. It has a parish of Spaniards, called Santa Catalina ; two of Indians, which are San Pedro and San Joseph ; two convents of the order of St. Francis, one of the Observers, and another of the Recoletans ; an hospital and a convent of Bethlemites, a monastery of nuns of La Concepcion, an house of entertainment of Nuestra Senora de