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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
tive of Barcelana, a celebrated engineeer; also renowned in the constructing of the land-gate or entrance to Cadiz : he was promoted to this government for the purpose of inspecting and repairing the towers which had been destroyed by Admiral Vernon, which commission, after he had executed, he returned to Spain in 1755, and died directorgeneral of the body of engineers.
61. Don Fernando Morillo Velarde, knight of the order of Alcantara, colonel of infantry, at that time king’s lieutenant, when he received the government on account of the proprietor having gone to fortify the town of Portobelo.
62. Don Diego Tabares, knight of the order of Santiago, brigadier-general ; promoted to this government from that of Camana in 1755, and governed till 1761, when arrived his successor,
63. Don Joseph de Sobremonte, Marquis of this name, a brigadier, who was captain of the regiment of Spanish guards when he was nominated : he governed till 1770, when he died.
64. Don Gregorio de Sierra, also captain of grenadiers of the express regiment of Spanish guards ; he entered Cartagena in 1771, and died in 1774.
65. Don Juan Pimienta, colonel of the regiment of the infantry of Zamora, in rank a brigadier, and knight of the distinguished order of Charles III. ; he entered into the possession of the government in 1774, and died in 1781.
66. Don Roque de Quiroga, king’s lieutenant of the fortified town, or Plaza ; promoted as provincial governor through the death of his antecessor, until arrived, under the king’s appointment, the proprietor,
67. Don Joseph de Carrion y Andrade, a brigadier, who before had been governor of the Plaza of Manilla, and had rendered himself renowned when it was besieged by the Emperor of Marruecos, being nominated to this government in 1774 : he died in 1785.
CARTAGO, a city of the province and government of Popayan, founded by the Brigadier George Robledo in 1540, who gave it this name, with the dedicatory title of San Juan, his patron; the greater part of the military in it having come from the city of Cartagena in Europe. It did lie between the rivers Otun and Quindio; but the
continual invasions it has experienced from the Pijaos and Pimaes Indians, who are a bold and warlike people, determined its inhabitants to remove it at the end of the I7th century to the spot where it now stands ; having bought for that purpose some land of Tomasa Izquierdo, on the bank of an arm of the river of La Vieja, which is a large stream, and navigable for canoes and rafts, and which is at the distance of rather better than a quarter of a mile from the large river Cauca, into which the above river enters, forming before the city an island, which abounds in animals of the chase, and in cattle, and having on its banks excellent fishing. This city is of a dry and healthy climate ; and although hot, the atmosphere is always clear and serene. It is situate upon a level and somewhat elevated plain , of beautiful appearance ; the streets are spacious, wide and straight. It has a very large grand square. Its buildings are solid and of good structure, and universally roofed over with straw, having, however, the walls of solid stone from the top to the bottom ; others are built of brick, and others with rafters of wood, the walls being of clay, (which they call imbulidoSy or inlaid), so solid as to resist the force of the most violent earthquakes, as was experienced in one that happened in 1785. At a small distance from the city are various lakes or pools of water, which they call denegas, formed by nature, assisted by art. It is the residence of the lieutenant-governor of the government of Popayan, of two ordinary alcaldes, two of La Hermandad, two member* of an inferior court, a recorder, a procurator-general, a major domo de propiosy and six regidors^ the cabildo enjoying the privilege of electing and confirming these officers yearly. It has also a battalion of city militia, and two disciplined companies ; also some royal cofiers, which were brought from the city of Anserma. Besides the church of Matriz, in which is venerated, as the patroness, the Holy Virgin, under the image of Nuestra Senora de la Paz, (this being the pious gift of Philip III.) it has five parishes, viz. Santa Ana, Santa Barbara, Llano de Buga, Naranjo, Micos, and Pueblo de los Cerritos. The territory is extremely fertile and pleasant, abounding as well in fruits and pulse as in birds of various sorts ; and in no part whatever are plantains so various, or of so fine a quality. Tlie coffee is good, and the cacao, which is of two sorts, is excellent, and is called yellow and purple hayna. Of no less estimation is the tobacco, with which a great traffic was formerly carried on at Choco. The district of this city abounds in trees, medicinal herbs and fruits, and in an exquisite variety of cacao plants; also
Olifo, and between the rivers of Great and Little Mance.]
CASTRO, a capital city of the province and government of Chiloé in the kingdom of Chile; peopled by the order of Don Lope Garcia de Castro, governor of Peru, who gave it his name in 1560 : it lies, between two small livers, and has a good port; is inhabited by some good and opulent families, and enjoys a pleasant ,and healthy temperature. It is also called Chjloe, and is of a regular and beautiful form ; has, besides the parish church, a convent of monks of St. Francis, and a bishop auxiliary to that of Santiago. It was .sacked by the Dutch in 1643 ; is 42 leagues s. of the city of Osorno, in lat. 42° 40' s.
Castro-Vireyna, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. w. by the province ofCanete, «. by that of Yauyos, n. e. by that of Angaraes, and partly by the jurisdiction of Huamanga and Huanta, m. by that of Vilcas Huaman, s. w. by that of Lucanas, and s. s. w. and w. by that of \^ca. It is uneven and barren, and its inhabitants, on this account, amount scarcely to 6900, although it is 22 leagues in length from e. to as, and 25 in width n. to s. No mines have been discovered here, nor are there any other roads to it than merely such as are opened through passes in the snow, or where no obstruction is ofered by the copious streams which every where precipitate themselves down from the mountains, and which are particularly large in the rainy season, which is from October to Slarch. Its productions are wheat, maize, and potatoes; and in some glens, where the cold is not so great, fruits and cattle are extremely plentiful. Here are also lla~ mas, vicunas, and huanacos, the wool of which they turn to some profit. This province is watered by rivers, some of which descend from the provinces of the coast of the S. sea, and others from the further side of the cordillera, running towards the e. and entering the Maranon ; it is also watered by the Canete, which rises from the Chicha, and collects other streams in this province ; by the Pisco, which rises from a lake called .firacocha ; by the Yea, from the lake Choclo-
cocha ; and by the Calcamayo, which enters the province of Vilcas Huaman. In all the waters of this province, notwithstanding they are very abundant, there is a great scarcity of fish, and without doubt this arises from the cold which prevails here. This province is but thinly peopled, and its inhabitants are poor : they do not, we have heard, amount to more than 7000 souls. It consists of six curacies, to which there are 29 other settlements annexed. Its yearly reparlimiento amounted to 86,400 dollars, and it paid an alcavala equal to 691 dollars. The capital is of the same name ; this is a small and poor town, situate on a lofty spot, where the cold is most intense : close to it runs a river, which is made use of for working the mills of the silver mines ; which, although they produce this metal of a good quality, they are by no means well stocked with it. The town has a convent of monks of St. Francis, and two large estates called Huallanto and Huallanga, in which thera are churches annexed to this curacy ; is 14 leagues from Huancablica, 26 from Pisco, and 60 from
la. Long. 74° 44'. Lat. 13° 49' s. The
ements of the province
CATA, a settlement of the province and govern
C H A
and government of Tucumán, in the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero, on the shore of the river Choromoros.
(CHAUDIERE River, a s. e. water of the St. Lawrence, rising in Lincoln and Hancock counties, in the district of Maine. The carrying place from boatable waters in it, to boatable Avaters in the Ketmebeck, is only five miles.)
(CHAUDIERE Falls are situate about nine miles above Quebec, on the opposite shore, and about three or four miles back from the river St. Lawrence, into which the river Chaudiere disembogues itself. The river is seen at a distance, emerging from a thick wood, and gradually expanding from an almost imperceptible stream till it reaches die cataract, whose breadth is upwards of 360 feet. Here the disordered masses of rock, which iippear to have been rent from their bed by some violent convulsion of nature, break the course of the waters, and precipitate them from a height of 120 feet into an immense chasm below. In some parts large sheets of water roll over the precipice, and fall unbroken to the bottom ; while in other places the water dashes from one fragment of the rock to another, with wild impetuosity, bellowing and foaming with rage in every hollow and cavity that obstructs its progress ; from thence it rushes down with the rapidity of lightning into the boiling surge beneath, where it rages with inconceivable fury, till driven from the gulf by fresh columns, it hurries away and loses itself in the waters of the St. Lawrence. The scenery which accompanies the cataract of Chaudiere is beautiful and romantic beyond description. In the centre, a large fragment of rock, which first divides the water, at the summit of the precipice, forms a small island ; and a handsome fir-tree, which grows upon it, is thus placed in a most singular and picturesque situation. The forest on either side the river consists of firs, pines, birch, oak, ash, and a variety of other trees and shrubs, intermingled in the most wild and romantic manner. Their dark green foliage, joined with the brown and sombre tint of the rocky fragments over which the water precipitates itself, form a striking and pleasing contrast to the snowy whiteness of the foaming surge, and the columns of sparkling spray which rise in clouds and mingle with the air.)
C H A
mayor of Juxtlahuaca, in Nueva España. It contains 57 families of Indians.
CHAYANTA, or Charcas, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded n. by that of Cochabamba, n. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, e. by the province of Yamparaez, s. e. and s. by that of Porco, and w. by that of Paria ; is 36 leagues in length from w. to e. and 44 in width, n. s. Its temperature is various, since it contains the settlements of Puna and Valles ; in the former of these are found in abundance the productions of the sierra^ and in the latter wheat, maize, and other seeds and herbs : they have equally a traffic with the surrounding provinces, especially in the articles of wheat and flour of maize. Here are bred
appears to have been a settlement towards the n, of the island, from some vestiges still remaining. It is at present frequented only by some of the inliabitants of Chepo, who cultivate and gather here oral^ges, lemons, and plantains of an excellent flavour, which are found here in abundance. In lat. 8^ 57' n.
CHEPO, San Christoval de, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme, and government of Panama ; situate on the shore of the river Mamoni ; is of a kind temperature, fertile and agreeable, though little cultivated. The air is however so pure that it is resorted to by invalids, and seldom fails of affording a speedy relief. It has a fort, which is an esfacada, or surrounded with palisades, having a ditch furnished with six small cannon, and being manned by a detachment from the garrison of Panama, for the purpose of suppressing the encroachments of the infidel Indians of Darien. This territory was discovered by Tello Guzman in 1515, who gave it the name of Chepo, through its Cazique Chepauri, in 1679. It was invaded by the pirates Bartholomew Charps, John Guarlem, and Edward Bolmen, when the settlement Avas robbed and destroyed, and unheard-of prosecutions and torments were suffered by the inhabitants. Fourteen leagues nearly due e. of Panama, [and six leagues from the sea ; in lat. 9° 8' «.]
(CHEQUETAN, or Seguataneio, on the coast of Mexico or New Spain, lies seven leagues w. of of the rocks of Seguataneio. Between this and Acapulco, to the e. is a beach of sand, of 18 leagues extent, against which the sea breaks so violently, that it is impossible for boats to land on any part of it ; but there is a good anchorage for shipping at a mile or two from the shore during the fair season. The harbour of Chequetan is very hard to be traced, and of great importance to such vessels as cruise in these seas, being the most secure harbour to be met with in a vast extent of coast, yielding plenty of wood and water; and the ground near it is able to be defended by a few men. When Lord Anson touched here, the place was uninhabited.)
CHEQUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Maúle in the kingdom of Chile, and in the valley or plain of Tango, near the river Colorado. In its vicinity, toAvards the s. is an estate called El Portrero del Key, at the source of the river Maipo.
CHERAKEE. See Cherokee.
CHERAKILICHI, or Apalachicola, a fort of the English , in the province and colony of Georgia, on the shore of the river Apalachicola, and at the conflux, or where this river is entered by the Caillore.
CHERAN EL Grande, S. Francisco de, a settlement of the head settlement of Siguinan, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in Nueva Espana, contains 100 families of Curtidores Indians, and is a little more than half a league from its head settlement.
CHERAPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiernto of Piura in Peru, on the confines of the province of Jaen de Bracamoros, upon the river Tambarapa, is of a hot and moist temperature, and consequently unhealthy ; and is situate in the royal road which leads from Lpxa through Ayabaca and Guancabamba to Tomependa, a port of the river Maranon.
(CHERAWS, a district in the upper country of South Carolina, having North Carolina on the n. and n. e. Georgetown district on the s. e. and Lynche’s creek on the s. w. which separates it from Camden district. Its length is about 83 miles, and its breadth 63 ; and is subdivided into the counties of Darlington, Chesterfield, and Marlborough. By the census of 1791, there were 10,706 inhabitants, of Avhich 7618 were white inhabitants, the rest slaves. It sends to the state legislature six representatives and two senators ; and in conjunction Avith Georgetown district, one member to congress. This district is watered by Great Peter river and a number of smaller streams, on the banks of vdiich the land is thickly settled and Aveli cultivated. The chief towns are Greenville and Chatham. The court-house in this district is 52 miles from Camden, as far from Lumberton, and 90 from Georgetown. The mail stops at this place.]
CHERIGUANES. See Chiriguanos.
CHERINOS, a river of the province and go-
settlement of Naiilingo, and alcaldm mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva Espaila, the name of which signifies the place of six fountains. It is situate in the most lofty part of a rugged and mountainous sierra, on which account its temperature is every where cold, and subject more than any other part of its district to continual fogs and rains. Its commerce consists in maize, which it produces in abundance, and in the breeding of swine, both of which articles are carried for sale to Vera Cruz. Its inhabitants are also engaged in the mule-droves which pass through these parts in tlieir way to the windward coasts, and which proceed over a road so rough and stony that they are under the necessity of descending and ascending precipices by means of steps or artificial passages hewn out of the rocks ; and however difficult this might appear to some, they do not experience any gleat delay, although the animals are very heavily loaded, and the road be rendered still more diflicult, if, as it often happens, the journey be performed in the winter season. This very stony route is a narrow pass or defile which shortens the way leading to the province of La Guasca. The inhabitants of this settlement are composed of 236 families of Indians. It lies three short leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHICONCUAUTLA, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Guachinango in Nueva Espana. It is of a mild temperature, and contains 270 families of Indians, including the three other small settlements of its district. Six leagues to the e. of its capital.
CHICUAS, a nation of Indians of Peru. It is at present reduced to merely a settlement of the province of Condesuyos, in which is found abundance of cochineal, made use of by the natives in dyeing of wool ; this being the branch of commerce by which they maintain themselves.
CHIETLAN, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Yzucar in Nueva Espaila. It was formerly the corregbniento, and is at present embodied with this jurisdiction. It is of a warm and moist temperature, but very pleasant, and covered with gardens full of flowers, fruits, and vegetables. The territory also abounds in wheat, maize, and other seeds, and particularly in dates, the whole of the district being covered with palms. Its inhabitants consist of 267 families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattocs, and of 356 families of Indians, including those dwelling in the settlements which belong to this district. It abounds likewise in garbanzos, or Spanish pease, anniseed, and melons, all of which are of the best quality of anj^ in the whole kingdom. It lies three leagues s. of its capital.
The aforesaid settlements are,
San Nicolas de Tenaxcalco,
Santiago de Azalan.
CHIGUACHI, a settlement of the corregimiento of Ubaqué in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate behind the mountains of Guadalupe and Monserrat, of the city of Santa Fe, from whence it is distant five leagues to the c. It is of a delightful temperature, and abounds in wheat, maize, barley, potatoes, sugar-cane, and plantains. Its inhabitants consist of 200 families of Spaniards, and a very tew Indians.
CHIGUAGUA, San Felipe de, a town of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Viscaya ; situate near the river San Pedro. Its population consists of 2000 families of Spaniards, and some of Mustees and Mulattoes. The town is large and well built, and the liouses are handsome ; amongst otlier buildings, the most con-