The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
America, having an excellent port, three leaguesin length, and in which there are many othersmall islands. On the adjoining mainland thereis a river called De Salmones, (salmon), on ac-count of its abounding with these fish, of whichindeed great quantities are taken, as they are es-teemed the finest species of fish of any in that partof the world .
Canseau, a small settlement of the sameisland, which was burnt by the French in the warof 1744.
Canseau, a cape of the same island, at the en-trance of the straits, and also a sand-bank at themouth of them.
CANTA, a province and government of Peru,bounded on the n. e. and e. by Tarma, on the w.by Chancay, partly by the corregimiento of Cer-cado, and on the s. by Huarochiri. It is 24leagues in length n. to s. and 35 in width e. to w.Its territory is generally uneven, being in the cor-dillera. It has some deep pits or canals, on thesides of which, and in small spots, they sow andcultivate vegetables, fruits, and potatoes. Thebreed of cattle is by no means inconsiderable here,and there are to be found most of the wild animalswhich are natives of the sierra, namely, vicuñas,(wild goats), and sheep peculiar to these countries,and differing from those of Europe. In this pro-vince as well as in nearly all those of the sierra,there is scarcely any wood for the purposes ofcooking, and this want is supplied by the use ofturf, which makes a lively fire, but which is veryapt to smoke. Those parts which are called que-bradas, or rugged and uneven, are very sickly,and are subject to two species of maladies com-mon to other cold climates in this country ; theone is that of warts, which not budding in duetime, often become exceedingly troublesome, andeven dangerous ; the other of corrosive sores,shewing themselves particularly upon the face,and are difficult to be cured, and which are attri-buted to the sting of an insect called uta. Somemines of silver were formerly worked here, whichwere so abundant, that they used to render 200marks each cajon, (an excavation of 20 feet square,more or less), but these, from not being regularlyworked, are filled with water. Here are also twohills of loadstone, as also some minerals of alum,copper, and red lead. The following rivers taketheir rise in this province : The Carabaya from thelakes Tacaimbaba and Lorococha, which emptythemselves into the sea on the n. of Lima ; andthe Pasamayo, which runs to the s. of Chancay,first receiving the waters of some hot medicitialsprings. Its corregidor used to receive a repar-
timiento of 125,000 dollars, and it paid yearly1000 for alcavala.
The capital is a town of the same name, in lat.11° 10' s. and its jurisdiction comprehends 62others, which are,
Santa Cruz, Baños,
Santa Catarina, Carae,
Chauca, San Agustin,
Culli, San Buenaventura,
Atabillos Altos, San Lorenzo,
Huanoquin, Atabillos Baxos,
San Juan, San Joseph,
San Miguel, Quizú.
CANTANABALO, a river of the province andgovernment of San Juan de los Llanos in thenew kingdom of Granada. It rises between theCaviusari and the Sinaruco, and running nearlyparallel with them, enters into the Orinoco.
CANTERBURY, a fort of the province ofHampshire, one of the four composing the colonyof New England. It is built on the shore of theriver Pennycook, and at the mouth of the water-course formed by the lake Winnipisiokee.
C H A
C H A
20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito,who had served as captain of cavalry in the regi-ment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was go-vernor of the province of Moxos, being of the rankof colonel ; he was nominated as president by wayof reward for his services, in having been instru-mental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru,and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, whichwas besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786,when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation ofIndians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aul-laga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac,fourth monarch of the Incas. At present theyare reduced to the Christian faith in the govern-ment of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory titleof Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of thekingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are markedthe boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those ofNueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric ofMechoacan. It contains a convent of the religi-ous order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spa-niards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of In-dians dispersed in the rancherias and the estatesof its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to then. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 tothe n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'.Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of themines of the province of Copala, and kingdom ofNueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from thecapital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco,in which they work with quicksilver the metals ofthe mines. To its curacy, which is adminsteredby one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed twosmall settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whomare found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called an-ciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream,the principal branch of which rises from a pondbordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Hollis-ton and Bellingham, and divides Medway fromMed field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thenceinto Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms apeninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream calledlother brook runs out of this river in this town,and falls into Neponsit river, forming a naturalcanal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a num-ber of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham thecourse of the river is n. dividing Newton fromNeedham, Weston, and Waltham, passing overromantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e.through Watertown and Cambridge, and passinginto Boston harbour, mingles with the waters ofMystic river, at the point of the peninsula ofCharlestown. It is navigable for boats to Water-town, seven miles. The most remarkable bridgeson this river are those which connect Boston withCharlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereareseven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.][Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland,lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Itschief town is port Tobacco, on the river of thatname. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is gene-rally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indiancorn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina,is one of the best of N. America, excelling inbeauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situateupon a long strip of land between two navigablerivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and thegreater part of it upon the latter. This forms inthe city two small bays, the one to the n. and theother to the s. The town is of a regular construc-tion, and well fortified both by nature and art,having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; onthe side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
raense advantage to the neighbouring states, parti-cularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been ob-served, with some little exaggeration, however,that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)
(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies inthe s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Con-necticut river. It has the state of Massachusettson the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsbo-rough county e. It lias 34 townships, of whichCharlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)
(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant town-ship in Rockingham county. New Hampshire.It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is apretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merri-mack river. It was incorporated in 1722, andcontains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers.It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river,14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter,35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry,and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compactpart of this town there is a gentle descent to thesea, which, in a clear day, may be seen fromthence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60
houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnakehill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it ishalf a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from itsbase, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’sDen, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, andfour feet high, floored and circled by a regularrock, from the upper part of which are depend-ent many excrescences, nearly in the form andsize of a pear, which, when approached by a torch,throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue;It is a cold, dreary place, of which many fright-ful stories are told by those who delight in themarvellous.)
(Chester, a borough and post-town in Penn-sylvania, and the capital of Delaware county;pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware ri-ver, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wil-mington. It contains about 60 houses, built on aregular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. FromCliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed byislands of marsh, which are generally banked,and turned into rich and immensely valuable mea-dows. The first colonial assembly was convenedhere, the 4th of December 1682. The place af-fords genteel inns and good entertainment, and isthe resort of much company from the metropolisduringthe summer season. It was incorporated inDecember 1795, and is governed by two bur-gesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assist-ants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peaceand order of the place.)
(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Dela-ware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains33 townships, of which West Chester is the shiretown, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 areslaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, whichemploys six forges : these manufacture 'about1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)
(Chester River, a navigable water of thee. side of Maryland, which rises two miles withinthe line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprusand Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ;runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s.nearly three miles, when it receives South-Easterncreek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it
empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It formsan island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. sideof Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay.It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long,from Andover creek, a mile and a half fromBridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek,which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)
(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county,Virginia, situate on the point of land formed bythe junction of Allen’s or North river and Southriver, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s.by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long.78° 25' w.)
(Chester County, in Pinckney district, SouthCarolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, onW ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; ofwhom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sendstwo representatives, but no senator, to the statelegislature.)
(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county.New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticutriver, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s.It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 in-habitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. ofCharlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Ports-mouth. About the year 1730, the garrison offort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions,and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted fromW est River mountain in th is township , and four milesdistant from that fort. The like appearances havebeen observed at various times since ; particularly,one in 1752 was the most severe of any. Thereare two places where the rocks bear marks of hav-ing been heated and calcined.)
Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel*phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church,college, court-house, and gaol. The college wasincorporated in 1782, by the name of Washing-ton. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, whoare empowered to supply vacancies and hold,estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/.currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12'n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)
CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province andgovernment of Louisiana. It is an arm of theMississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea onthe side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [Onthe Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi,there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ;and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, andfrom two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water islowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal atits mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water isdeep under them they could be easily removed;and the Indians say there is nothing to impede na-vigation from their village to the gulf. The banksare more elevated than those of the Mississippi, andin some places are so high as never to be over-flowed. The natural productions are the same ason the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordi-nary size and compactness of the canes, is supe-rior. If measures were adopted and pursued witha view to improve this communication, there wouldsoon be on its banks the most prosperous and im-portant settlements in that colony.)
(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-.siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage,which is 13 miles long, and If broad, commu-nicates with this lake at the n. end, by a straita quarter of a mile wide. The country bor-dering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered withcypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the€. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya riveris divided by innumerable streams, which occa-sion as many islands. Some of these streams are*navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short?of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where per-sons passing that way generally halt as a restingplace. Nearly opposite this island there is anopening which leads to the sea. It is about 150yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)