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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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America, having an excellent port, three leagues in length, and in which there are many other small islands. On the adjoining mainland there is a river called De Salmones, (salmon), on account of its abounding with these fish, of which indeed great quantities are taken, as they are esteemed the finest species of fish of any in that part of the world .

Canseau, a small settlement of the same island, which was burnt by the French in the war of 1744.

Canseau, a cape of the same island, at the entrance of the straits, and also a sand-bank at the mouth of them.

CANTA, a province and government of Peru, bounded on the n. e. and e. by Tarma, on the w. by Chancay, partly by the corregimiento of Cercado, and on the s. by Huarochiri. It is 24 leagues in length n. to s. and 35 in width e. to w. Its territory is generally uneven, being in the cordillera. It has some deep pits or canals, on the sides of which, and in small spots, they sow and cultivate vegetables, fruits, and potatoes. The breed of cattle is by no means inconsiderable here, and there are to be found most of the wild animals which are natives of the sierra, namely, vicuñas, (wild goats), and sheep peculiar to these countries, and differing from those of Europe. In this province as well as in nearly all those of the sierra, there is scarcely any wood for the purposes of cooking, and this want is supplied by the use of turf, which makes a lively fire, but which is very apt to smoke. Those parts which are called quebradas, or rugged and uneven, are very sickly, and are subject to two species of maladies common to other cold climates in this country ; the one is that of warts, which not budding in due time, often become exceedingly troublesome, and even dangerous ; the other of corrosive sores, shewing themselves particularly upon the face, and are difficult to be cured, and which are attributed to the sting of an insect called uta. Some mines of silver were formerly worked here, which were so abundant, that they used to render 200 marks each cajon, (an excavation of 20 feet square, more or less), but these, from not being regularly worked, are filled with water. Here are also two hills of loadstone, as also some minerals of alum, copper, and red lead. The following rivers take their rise in this province : The Carabaya from the lakes Tacaimbaba and Lorococha, which empty themselves into the sea on the n. of Lima ; and the Pasamayo, which runs to the s. of Chancay, first receiving the waters of some hot medicitial springs. Its corregidor used to receive a repar-

timiento of 125,000 dollars, and it paid yearly 1000 for alcavala.

The capital is a town of the same name, in lat. 11° 10' s. and its jurisdiction comprehends 62 others, which are,

Carhua, Arahuay,

Obrajillo, Anaica,

Parsamaria, Quiby,

Chaqui, Pirca,

Pamacocha, Cotoc,

Carhuacayan, Chaupic,

Yanta, Pampas,

Pari, Marco,

Uchayucarpa, Rauma,

Huaillas, Huacos,

Huasichao, Biscas,

Pacaraos, Yazú,

Uschaicocha, Yanga,

Santa Cruz, Baños,

Santa Catarina, Carae,

Chauca, San Agustin,

Rivira, Huamantanga,

Chupas, Sumbirca,

Culli, San Buenaventura,

Vircay, Huaros,

Atabillos Altos, San Lorenzo,

Pasa, Mayo,

Chisque, Alpamarca,

Huanoquin, Atabillos Baxos,

Cormo, Huaicoi,

Lampian, Puruchucu,

Pallas, Ama,

San Juan, San Joseph,

Quipan, Culluay,

Guandaro, Pampacocha,

San Miguel, Quizú.

CANTANABALO, a river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the new kingdom of Granada. It rises between the Caviusari and the Sinaruco, and running nearly parallel with them, enters into the Orinoco.

CANTERBURY, a fort of the province of Hampshire, one of the four composing the colony of New England. It is built on the shore of the river Pennycook, and at the mouth of the watercourse formed by the lake Winnipisiokee.

(Canterbury, a township in Windham county, Connecticut, on the w. side of Quinnabaug river, which separates it from Plainfield. It is seven miles e. by s. of Windham, and about 10 or 12 n. of Norwich.)

CANTLA, a small settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Cuquio in Nueva España, situate on the n. of its capital.

(CANTON, a new township in Norfolk county,

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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito, who had served as captain of cavalry in the regiment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was governor of the province of Moxos, being of the rank of colonel ; he was nominated as president by way of reward for his services, in having been instrumental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru, and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, which was besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786, when he was removed from the presidency.

Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aullaga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac, fourth monarch of the Incas. At present they are reduced to the Christian faith in the government of Chuquisaca or La Plata.

Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are marked the boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those of Nueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spaniards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of Indians dispersed in the rancherias and the estates of its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to the n. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 to the n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'. Long. 100° 40'.

Charcas, another settlement and real of the mines of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from the capital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco, in which they work with quicksilver the metals of the mines. To its curacy, which is adminstered by one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed two small settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whom are found some few of the Tepeguana nation.

CHARIMIZA, a river of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the cordillera towards the s. and enters the Maranon.

(CHARLEMONT, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusets, 16 miles w. of Deerfield, having 665 inhabitants.)

(Charles, a cape on the s.w. part of the strait entering into Hudson’s bay. Lat. 62° 40' n. Long. 75° 15' w.)

Charles, a small lake of New France, to the n. of the city of Quebec, which empties itself into the river St. Lawrence.

Charles, another cape or point of the coast of the country of Labrador ; one of those which form the w. entrance or mouth of the strait of Belleisle.

(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called anciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream, the principal branch of which rises from a pond bordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Holliston and Bellingham, and divides Medway from Med field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thence into Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms a peninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream called lother brook runs out of this river in this town, and falls into Neponsit river, forming a natural canal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a number of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham the course of the river is n. dividing Newton from Needham, Weston, and Waltham, passing over romantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e. through Watertown and Cambridge, and passing into Boston harbour, mingles with the waters of Mystic river, at the point of the peninsula of Charlestown. It is navigable for boats to Watertown, seven miles. The most remarkable bridges on this river are those which connect Boston with Charlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereare seven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.] [Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland, lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Its chief town is port Tobacco, on the river of that name. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth 24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including 10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is generally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, &c.)

(Charles City County, in Virginia, lies between Chickahominy and James rivers. It contained formerly part of what now forms Prince George’s county. It has 5588 inhabitants, including 3141 slaves.)

(Charles, a cape of Virginia, in about lat. 37° 15' n. It is on the n. side of the mouth of Chesapeak bay, having cape Henry opposite to it.]

Charles, a promontory in N. America, mentioned by the English captain Thomas James, in his voyage published 1663, which was made for the sake of discovering a pass to S. America.

CHARLES. See Carlos, San.

CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina, is one of the best of N. America, excelling in beauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situate upon a long strip of land between two navigable rivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and the greater part of it upon the latter. This forms in the city two small bays, the one to the n. and the other to the s. The town is of a regular construction, and well fortified both by nature and art, having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; on the side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of

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raense advantage to the neighbouring states, particularly to Virginia. Of that state it has been observed, with some little exaggeration, however, that “ every planter has a river at his door.”)

(CHESHIRE county, in New Hampshire, lies in the s. w. part of the state, on the e. bank of Connecticut river. It has the state of Massachusetts on the s. Grafton county on the n. and Hillsborough county e. It lias 34 townships, of which Charlestown and Keene are the chief, and 28,772 inhabitants, including 16 slaves.)

(Cheshire, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts ; famous for its good cheese ; 140 miles fi. w. from Boston.)

(Cheshire, a township in New-Haven county, Connecticut, 15 miles n. of New-Haven city, and 26 s.to. of Hartford. It contains an Episcopal church and academy, and three Conffreffational churches.)

(CHESNUT HILL, a township in Northampton county, Pennsylvania.)

(Chesnut Creek, a branch of the Great Kanhaway, in Virginia, where it crosses the Carolina line. Here, it is said, are iron mines.)

(Chesnut Ridge. Part of the Alleghany mountains, in Pennsylvania, are thus called, s. e. of Greensborough.)

CHESSOT, a town of the province and colony of North Carolina ; situate on the shore of the river Euphasee.

(CHESTER, a township in Lunenburg county, Nova Scotia, on Mali one bay, settled originally by a few families from New England. From hence to Windsor is a road, the distance of 25 miles.)

(Chester, a small plantation in Lincoln county, Maine, nine miles from Titcomb. It has eight or nine families.)

(Chester, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, adjoining Westfield on the e. and about 20 miles n. w. of Springfield. It contains 177 houses, and 1119 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a large, pleasant, and elegant township in Rockingham county. New Hampshire. It is 21 miles in length ; and on the w. side is a pretty large lake, which sends its waters to Merrimack river. It was incorporated in 1722, and contains 1902 inhabitants, who are chiefly farmers. It is situated on the e. side of Merrimack river, 14 miles n. w. of Haverhill, as far w. of Exeter, 35 tflTby s. of Portsmouth, six n. of Londonderry, and 306 from Philadelphia. From the compact part of this town there is a gentle descent to the sea, which, in a clear day, may be seen from thence. It is a post-town, and contains about 60

houses and a Congregational church. Rattlesnake hill, in this township, is a great curiosity; it is half a mile in diameter, of a circular form, and 400 feet high. On the side, 10 yards from its base, is the entrance of a cave, called the Devil’s Den, which is a room 15 or 20 feet square, and four feet high, floored and circled by a regular rock, from the upper part of which are dependent many excrescences, nearly in the form and size of a pear, which, when approached by a torch, throw out a sparkling lustre of almost every hue; It is a cold, dreary place, of which many frightful stories are told by those who delight in the marvellous.)

(Chester, a township in Windsor county, Vermont, w. of Springfield, and II miles w. by s. of Charlestown, in New Hampshire, and contains 981 inhabitants.)

(Chester, a borough and post-town in Pennsylvania, and the capital of Delaware county; pleasantly situated on the w. side of Delaware river, near Marcus hook, and 13 miles n. e. of Wilmington. It contains about 60 houses, built on a regular plan, a court-house, and a gaol. From Cliester to Philadelphia is 20 miles by water, and 15 n. e. by land ; here the river is narrowed by islands of marsh, which are generally banked, and turned into rich and immensely valuable meadows. The first colonial assembly was convened here, the 4th of December 1682. The place affords genteel inns and good entertainment, and is the resort of much company from the metropolis duringthe summer season. It was incorporated in December 1795, and is governed by two burgesses, a constable, a town-clerk, and three assistants ; whose power is limited to preserve the peace and order of the place.)

(Chester County, in Pennsylvania, w. of Delaware county, and s. w. of Philadelphia ; about 45 miles in length, and 30 in breadth. It contains 33 townships, of which West Chester is the shire town, and 27,937 inhabitants, of whom 145 are slaves. Iron ore is found in the n. parts, which employs six forges : these manufacture 'about 1000 tons of bar-iron annually.)

(Chester Court-House, in South Carolina, 22 miles s. of Pinckney court-house, and 58 n. w. of Columbia. A post-office is kept here.)

(Chester River, a navigable water of the e. side of Maryland, which rises two miles within the line of Delaware state, by two sources, Cyprus and Andover creeks, which unite at Bridgetown ; runs nearly s. w. ; after passing Chester it runs s. nearly three miles, when it receives South-Eastern creek ; and 15 miles farther, in a s. w. direction, it

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empties into Chesapeak bay, at Love point. It forms an island at its mouth, and by acbannel on the e. side of Kent island, communicates with. Eastern bay. It is proposed to cut a canal, about 1 1 miles long, from Andover creek, a mile and a half from Bridgetown to Salisbury, on Upper Duck creek, which falls into Delaware at Hook island.)

(Chester, a small town in Shannandoah county, Virginia, situate on the point of land formed by the junction of Allen’s or North river and South river, which form the Shannandoah ; 16 miles s. by w. of Winchester. Lat. 39° 4' n. Long. 78° 25' w.)

(Chester County, in Pinckney district, South Carolina, lies in the s.e. corner of the district, on W ateree river, and contains 6866 inhabitants ; of whom 5866 are whites, and 938 slaves. It sends two representatives, but no senator, to the state legislature.)

(Chester, a town in Cumberland county, Virginia ; situate on the s. w. bank of James river, 15 miles n. of Blandford, and six s. of Richmond.)

(CHESTERFIELD, a township in Hampshire county, Massachusetts, 14 mites w. of Northampton. It contains 180 houses, and 1183 inhabitants.)

(Chesterfield, a township in Cheshire county. New Hampshire, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, having Westmoreland n. and Hinsdale s. It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1905 inhabitants. It lies about 25 miles s. by w. of Charlestown, and about 90 or 100 w. of Portsmouth. About the year 1730, the garrison of fort Dummer was alarmed with frequent explosions, and with columns of fire and smoke, emitted from W est River mountain in th is township , and four miles distant from that fort. The like appearances have been observed at various times since ; particularly, one in 1752 was the most severe of any. There are two places where the rocks bear marks of having been heated and calcined.)

(Chesterfield County, in South Carolina, is in Cheraws district, on the North Carolina line. It is about 30 mites long, and 29 broad.)

Chesterfield County, in Virginia, is between James and Appamatox rivers. It is about 30 miles long, and 25 broad ; and contains 14,214 inhabitants, including 7487 slaves.)

(Chesterfield Inlet, on the w. side of Hudson’s bay, in New South Wales, upwards of 200 miles in length, and from 10 to 30 in breadth ; full of islands.)

(CHESTERTOWN, a post-town and the capital of Kent county, Maryland, on the w. side of

Chester river, 16 miles s.w. of Georgetown, 38 e. by s. from Baltimore, and 81 s.w. of Philadel* phia. It contains about 140 houses, a church, college, court-house, and gaol. The college was incorporated in 1782, by the name of Washington. It is under the direction of 24 trustees, who are empowered to supply vacancies and hold, estates, whose yearly value shall not exceed 6000/. currency. In 1787 it had a permanent fund of 1250/. a year settled upon it by law. Lat. 39° 12' n. Long. 76° 10' cc;.)

CHETIMACHAS, a river of the province and government of Louisiana. It is an arm of the Mississippi, which runs s. e. and enters the sea on the side of the bay of Asuncion or Ascension. [On the Chetiraachas, six leagues from the Mississippi, there is a settlement of Indians of the same name ; and thus far it is uniformly 100 yards broad, and from two to four fathoms cleep, vfhen the water is lowest. Some drifted logs have formed a shoal at its mouth on the Mississippi ; but as the water is deep under them they could be easily removed; and the Indians say there is nothing to impede navigation from their village to the gulf. The banks are more elevated than those of the Mississippi, and in some places are so high as never to be overflowed. The natural productions are the same as on the Mississippi, but the soil, from the extraordinary size and compactness of the canes, is superior. If measures were adopted and pursued with a view to improve this communication, there would soon be on its banks the most prosperous and important settlements in that colony.)

(Chetimachas, Grand Lake of, in Loui-. siana, near the mouth of the Mississippi, is 24 miles long, and nine broad. Lake de Portage, which is 13 miles long, and If broad, communicates with this lake at the n. end, by a strait a quarter of a mile wide. The country bordering on these lakes is low and flat, timbered with cypress, live and other kinds of oak ; and on the €. side, the land between it and the Chafalaya river is divided by innumerable streams, which occasion as many islands. Some of these streams are* navigable. A little distance from the s. e. short? of the lake Chetimachas, is an island where persons passing that way generally halt as a resting place. Nearly opposite this island there is an opening which leads to the sea. It is about 150 yards wide, and has 16 or 17 fathoms water.)

CHETO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; to the curacy of which is annexed the extensive valley of Huaillabamba, in the province of Chnchapoyas.

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