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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]


out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.

Aconcagua, a settlement of the same province, which was formerly its capital, until the foundation of the city of S. Felipe. It is very thinly peopled, and is situate in the valley of this name.

Aconcagua, a volcano of the same province.

ACONCHI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España.

ACONICHI, a settlement of Indians of N. Carolina, situate on the shore of the river Eno.

ACONICHI, an Island in the middle of the river Dan, in the same province.

ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.

ACOPIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Sangarara.

ACORA, a settlement of the province and government of Chucuito in Peru, situate on the shore of the Gran Laguna (great lake). Lat. 16° 40' 30" S. Long. 70° 15' W.

ACORI, a small river of the province and capitainship of Pará in Brazil. It runs N between the Pacajes and Yavarais, and enters the river of the Amazonas, in the arm formed by the island of Marajo.

ACORIA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Angaraes in Peru.

ACORO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Tambillo.

ACOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru.

another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quispicanchi, annexed to the curacy of Acomayo.

ACOSTA, a settlement of the province and capitainship of Pernambuco in Brazil, situate on the N shore of the large river of San Francisco, near where it enters the sea.

ACOSTAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Castro-virreyna in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Pilpichacha.

ACOSTAMBO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Huaribaraba.

ACOTAMA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Iguari.

ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.

[ACOUEZ, an Indian nation in Canada.]

ACOXCHIAPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Xonacatepec, and alcaldía mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva España.

==ACQUACKNACK, a town on the W side of Passaic river, in Essex county, New Jersey, ten miles N of Newark, and 17 N W from New York. Lat. 40° 47' N. Long. 74° 10' W.

ACTIPA, San Mateo de, a settlement of the alcaldía mayor of Tezeoro in Nueva Espana, annexed to the curacy of Capulalpa.

ACTIPAQUE, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Toluca in Nueva España, four leagues to the S of its capital, and situate on the shore of the lake Tezcoco.

[ACTON, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, containing 853 inhabitants ; 24miles N W of Boston.]

ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.

ACTUPAN, San Pedro de, the head settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 210 Indian families, including those of its wards.

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(the city clean and healthy ; but are too narrow for so large a place and so warm a climate. Their general breadth is from 35 to 66 feet. The houses which have been lately built are brick with tiled roofs. The buildings in general are elegant, and most of them are neat, airy, and well furnished. The public buildings are, an exchange, a statebouse, an armoury, a poor-house, and an orphan’s house. Here are several respectable academies. Part of the old barracks has been handsomely fitted lip, and converted into a college, and there are a number of students ; but it can only be called as yet a respectable academy. Here are two banks ; a branch of the national bank, and the S. Carolina bank, established in 1792. The houses for public worship are, two Episcopal churches, two for Independents, one for Scotch Presbyterians, one for Baptists, one for German Lutherans, two for Methodists, one for French Protestants, a meetinghouse for Quakers, a Roman Catholic chapel, and a Jewish synagogue. Little attention is paid to the public markets ; a great proportion of the most wealthy inhabitants having plantations, from which they receive supplies of almost every article of living. The country abounds with poultry and wild ducks. Their beef, mutton, and veal are not generally of the best kind ; and few fish are found in the market. In 1787 it was computed that there were 1600 houses in this city, and 15,000 inhabitants, including 5400 slaves ; and what evinces the healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of the white inhabitants were above 60 years of age. In 1791 there were 16,359 inhabitants, of whom 7684 were slaves. This city has often suffered much by fire ; the last and most destructive happened as late as June 1796. Charleston was incorporated in 1783, and divided into three wards, which choose as many wardens, from among whom the citizens elect an intendant of the city. The intendant and wardens form the city-council, who have power to make and enforce bye-laws for the regulation of the city. The value of exports from this port, in the year ending November 1787, amounted to 505,279/. 19^. 5d. sterling. The number of vessels cleared from the custom-house the same year was 947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, measuring 41,531 tons, were American ; theothers belonged to Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, France, and the United Netherlands. In the year 1794 the value of exports amounted to 3,846,392 dollars. It is 60 miles s. w. by s. of Georgetown, 150 e. by s. of Augusta, 497 s. by w. of Richmond, 630 s. w. by s. of Washington city ; 763 s. w. by s. of Philadelphia, and 1110 s. w. of Boston. Lat. 32° 48'. Long. 80° 2' w. Knoxville, the capital of the state

of Tennessee, is much nearer to this than to any sea-port town in the Atlantic ocean. A waggon road of only 15 miles is wanted to open the communication ; and the plan is about to be executed by the state.)

Charleston, another capital city of the county of Middlesex in New England; situate on the bank of the river Charles. It is well peopled and of a good construction, occupying the whole of the space which lies between the aforesaid river and that of Mystic, the former river dividing the city from Boston, in the same manner as the Thames divides London from Southwark. It has a raft for the traffic of the river instead of a bridge, the fare or produce of which belongs to the college of Norwood in the city of Cambridge, which is close by : this city is as it were the half of Boston, and its situation, as being upon a peninsula, is very advantageous. At certain times it has fairs, and is the meeting place for the assembly of the county. It has a very large and handsome church, and a marketplace, ornamentally and conveniently situate on the river side, at which there are sold all kinds of flesh, fish, and other necessaries ; it has two large streets leading to it. The river is navigable, and runs through the country for many leagues. Is in Lat. 42° 24' n. Long. 71° 6' ay.

(CHARLESTOWN, the principal town in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, called Mishawun by the aboriginal inhabitants, lies n. of Boston, with which it is now connected by Charles river bridge. The town, properly so called, is built on a peninsula formed by Mystic river on the e. and a bay setting up from Charles river on the w. It is very advantageously situated for health, navigation, trade, and manufactures of almost all the various kinds. A dam across the mouth of the bay, which sets up from Charles river, would afford a great number of mill-seats for manufactures. Bunker’s, Breed’s, and Cobble (now Barrell’s) hills, are celebrated in the history of the American revolution. The second hill has upon its summit a monument erected to the memory of Major-general W arren, near the spot where he fell, among the first sacrifices to American liberty. The brow of the hill begins to be ornamented with elegant houses. All these hills afford elegant and delightful prospects of Boston, and its charmingly variegated harbour, of Cambridge and its colleges, and of an extensive tract of highly cultivated country. It contains within the neck or parish about 250 houses, and about 2000 inhabitants. The only public buildings of consequence are, a handsome Congregational church, with an elegant steeple and clock, and an alms-house, very commodious

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CHATACANCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Olleros.

(CHATA-HATCHI, or Hatchi, is the largest river which falls into St. Rose’s bay in W. Florida. It is also called Pea river, and runs from n. e. entering the bottom of the bay through several mouths, but so shoal that only a small boat or canoe can pass them. Mr. Hutchins ascended this river about 25 leagues, where there was a small settlement of Coussac Indians. The soil and timber on the banks of the river resemble very much those of Escambia.)

CHATAHOUCHI, a settlement of Indians of Georgia, in which the English have an establishment. It is situate on the shore of the river Apalachicola.

CHATAS, some islands of the N. sea, which are very small and desert, and lie to the n. of the island of Ynagua.

(CHATAUCHE, or Chatahuthe, a river in Georgia. The n. part of Apalachiola river bears this name. It is about SO rods wide, very rapid, and full of shoals. The lands on its banks are light and sandy, and the clay of a bright red. The lower creeks are settled in scattering clans and villages from the head to the mouth of this river. Their huts and cabins, from the high colour of the clay, resemble clusters of new-burned brick kilns. The distance from this river to the Talapose river, is about 70 miles, by the war-path, which crosses at the falls, just above the town of the Tuckabatches.)

(CHATAUGHQUE Lake, in Ontario county. New York, is about 18 miles long, and three broad. Conewango river, which runs a s. s. e. course, connects it with Alleghany river. Tliis lake is conveniently situated fora communication between lake Erie and the Ohio ; there being water enough for boats from fort Franklin on the Alleghany to the n. w. corner of this lake ; from thence there is a portage of nine miles to Cliatanghque harbour on lake Erie, over ground capable of being made a good waggon road. This communication was once used by the French.)

CHATEAU, a settlement of New France, in which the French have a castle and establishment, on the shore of the river St. Lawrence.

CHATEAUX, a small river of the country and land of Labrador. It runs s. and enters the sea in the strait of Belleisle.

(CHATHAM, a maritime township in Barnstaple county, Massachusetts ; situate on the exterior extremity of the elbow of cape Cod, conve-

niently for the fishery ; in which they have usually about 40 vessels employed. It has 1140 inhabitants, and lies 95 miles s. e. of Boston. See Cape Cod.)

(Chatham, a township in Grafton county, New Hampshire, it Avas incorporated in 1767, and in 1790 contained 58 inhabitants.)

(Chatham, a flourishing township in Middlesex county, Connecticut, on the e. bank of Connecticut river, and opposite Middleton city, it was a part of the township of Middleton till 1767.)

(Chatham, a township in Essex county, N. Jersey, is situated on Passaic river, 13 miles zd. of Elizabethtown, and nearly the same from Newark.)

(Chatham, a township of Columbia county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 380 of its inhabitants were electors.)

(Chatham County, in Hillsborough district, N. Carolina, about the centre of the state. It contains 9221 inhabitants, of whom 1632 are slaves. Chief town, Pittsburg. The court-house is a few miles w. of Raleigh, on a branch of Cape Fear river.)

(Chatham, a town of S. Carolina, in Cheraws district ; situate in Chesterfield county, on the w. side of Great Pedee river. Its situation, in a highly cultivated and rich country, and at the head of a navigable river, bids fair to render it a place of great importance. At present it has only about 30 houses, lately built.)

(Chatham County, in the lower district of Georgia, lies in the n. e. corner of the state, having the Atlantic ocean e. and Savannah river n. e. It contains 10,769 inhabitants., including 8201 slaves. The chief toAvn is Savannah, tlie former capital of the state.)

(Chatham or Punjo Bay, a large bay on the w. side of the s. end of the promontory of E. Florida. It receives North and Delaware rivers.)

(Chatham House, in the territory of the Hudson bay company. Lat. 55° 28' n. Long. 97* 32' w. from Greenwich.)

CHAUCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Casta.

Chauca, another settlement, in the province and corregimiento of Canta ; annexed to the curacy of Pari.

CHAUCAIAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Caxacai, in the province of Caxatambo.

CHAUCHILLOS, a settlement of the province

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(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60 miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior. About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerable river falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundance of virgin copper is found.)

CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same province and colony as the former. It runs s. w, and enters the Basin des Mines.

CHEGUEHUE, a river of the province of Sucumbios in the kingdom of Quito. It runs s. w. and enters the Aguarico, in lat. 6' n.

CHEGUIQUILLA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile ; situate to the s. of the town of Copiapo.

CHEJANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carabaya in Peru ; annexed to tlie curacy of Para.

CHEKOUTIMI, a settlement of Indians of Canada, in the country of the nation of its name, on the shore of the river Saguenay.

CHELEL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Cheto.

(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side of Merrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, and contains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniously constructed bridge over the river at Pawtucket falls, which connects this town with Dracut. The route of the Middlesex canal, designed to connect the waters of Merrimack with those of Boston harbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelmsford.)

CHELQUE, a settlement of Indians of the district of Guadalabquen in the kingdom of Chile; situate on the shore of the river Valdivia.

(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Winnisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts, containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorporation, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston, It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separated from it by the ferry across the harbour, called Winnisimet.)

(Chelsea, a township in Orange county, Vermont, having 239 inhabitants.)

(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city of Norwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n. of New London, on a point of land formed by the junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Little rivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames. It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, and agreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending

one above another in tiers, on artificial foundations, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)

Chelsea, a settlement of the English in the province and colony of Massachusetts, one of the four of New England, on the shore of the port of Boston.

CHEMIN, Croix de la Molle De, a cross in Canada, standing in the middle of the road near the river W abache.

(CHEMUNG, The w. branch of Susquehannah river is sometimes so called. See Tioga River.)

(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 of its inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w. and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom New York city, measuring in a straight line. Between this place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his victorious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hada desperate engagement with the Six Nations, whom he defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched, and it required the utmost exertions of the American army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ; although the former, including 250 tories, amounted only to 800 men, while the Americans were 5000 in number, ami well appointed in every respect.)

CHENE, a river of Canada, which runs n. w, and enters the river St. Lawrence, opposite the settlement of New Port.

(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehannah river. Many of the military townships are watered by the n. w. branch of this river. The towns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, and Chenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this river and the e. waters of Susquehannah.)

(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chief in Tioga county, New York. The settled part of the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tioga point, between Chenengo river and Susquehannah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By the state census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants are electors. It was taken off from Montgomery county, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants. It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)

(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Pennsylvania, near the spot, which is the highest ground in that state, where the eastern most water of Alleghany river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah, and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its source there are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75 feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These falls furnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved by the inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles, mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four

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on the banks of the river of its name, near where this river joins that of Florido. It is garrisoned by a captain, a lieutenant, a serjeant, and 33 soldiers, to guard against the irruptions of the infidel Indians. In its vicinity are the estates of La Cienega, Sapian, and El Pilar. Fifty-eight leagues to the n.n.e. of the city of Guadalaxara.

CONCHUCOS, a province and corresimiento of Peru ; bounded n. by the province of Huamachucos, n. e. by that of Pataz, and separated from thence by the river Marafion, e. and s. e. by the province of Huraalies, and s. by that of Caxatambo. It is 52 leagues in length, and in some parts 20 in width. It is of a very irregular figure, and of various temperature, according to the different situation of its territories ; cold in all the parts bordering upon the cordil/era, mild in some parts, and in others excessively hot. It is 'V-ery pleasant, and it has all kinds of fruits, which it produces in abundance, and in the same manner wheat, barley, and pot herbs. On its skirts are found numerous herds of cattle of every species, and from the wools of some of these are made the cloth manufactures of the country, which meet with a ready demand in the other provinces. The principal rivers by which it is watered are three ; and these are formed by various streams : the one of them enters that of Santa to the zo. and the other two the Marafion. The most s. is called De Miraflores, and the other, which is very large, keeps the name of the province. Here are some mines of silver, which were formerly very rich ; as also some lavaderos, or washing places of gold, of the purest quality, the standard weight of it being 23 carats. Also in the curacy of Llamelin are some mines of brimstone, and a fountain or stream, the waters of which, falling down into a deep slough, become condensed and converted into a stone called Catachi, in the form of columns much resembling wax-candles, of a very white colour. The same substance is used as a remedy against the bloody flux, and it is said, that being made into powders, and mixed Avith the white of an egg, it forms a salve which accelerates in a Avonderful manner the knitting of fractured bones. It comprehends 15 curacies, Avithout the annexed settlements, all of Avhich, the former and the latter, are

as folloAVS :

Huari del Rey, the capital,



San Marcos,

San Ildefonso,

San Christoval, Yunga,











M irgas,






San Luis de Huari,







Conch UCOS,




CONCHUCOS, a settlement of the same province ; annexed to the curacy of Pallasca.

CONCHUCOS, a river of the province and corregimiento of the same name in Peru, Avhich rises in the cordillera. It runs s. and enters the Maranon near the settlement of Uchos in the province of Andahuailas.

CONCON, a port of the coast of the kingdQm of Chile, in the S. sea, and province and corregimiento of Quillota,

(CONCORD, a post-toAvn of New Hampshire, very flourishing, and pleasantly situated on the w. bank of Merrimack river, in Rockingham county, eight miles above Hookset falls. The legislature, of late, have commonly held their sessions here ; and from its central situation, and a thriving back country, it will probably become the permanent seat of government. Much of the trade of the upper country centres here. A liandsorae tall bridge across the Merrimack connects this town Avith Pembroke. It has 1747 inhabitants, and Avas incorporated in 1765. The Indian name Avas Penacook. It was granted by Massachusetts, and called Rumford. Tlie compact part of the town contains about 170 houses, a Congregational churcli, and an academy, which was incorporated in 1790. It is 54 miles w. n. w. of Portsmouth, 58 s. w. of Dartmouth college, and 70 n. from Boston. Lat. 43” 12' n. Long. 71° 31' a?.)

(Concord, in Essex county, Vermont, lies on Connecticut river, opposite a part of the Fifteenmile falls.)

(Concord, in Massachusetts, a post-town, one of the most considerable towns in Middlesex county ; situated on Concord river, in a healthy and pleasant spot, nearly in the centre of the county, and 18 miles n. w. of Boston, and 17 e. of Lancaster. Its Indian name Avas Musquetequid; and it owes its present name to the peaceable manner in which it was obtained from the natives. The first settlers, among whom Avere the Rev. Messrs. Buckley and Jones, having settled- the


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