The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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the natives make friezes. The low part, looking upon the coast, enjoys a temperature equal in mildness to that of Lima. It is very fertile, and in the many estates which are in it maize grows in great quantities, and it, besides serving as food for the labourers, and independent of that which is devoured by the wild pigeons with which those fields are filled, serves to fatten numbers of pigs, which are carried to supply the markets of Lima ; those animals, one year with another, amounting to 22,000 head, and producing an emolument of 300,000 dollars to the proprietors of the estates. Here are also some estates of sugar-cane, and others of French beans and wheat, of which the crops were formerly very great, and used, together with the vines, to be reckoned amongst the chief productions of this country, though they have now made room for a more general cultivation of maize. What conduces much to render the soil fertile, is what the Indians call huano^ and which, in their language, signifies dung, this being brought from some small islands at a little distance from the coast towards the n. It is thought to be the excrement of some birds called huanaes^ who have been accustomed to deposit it in the above places from time immemorial. Some of it has also been found in various other islands of the coast of Canete, Arica, and others. Of this it is certain, that a handful being put at the root of a plant of maize, it becomes so invigorated as to produce upwards of 200 for one, and that not less than 90,000 bushels of this valuable manure is used yearly. In the centre of the province, and upon the coast, are some fine salines^ which supply some of the neighbouring districts ; and amongst the rest, those of Canta, Tarma, Caxatambo, Huamalies, Huanuco, Conchuco, and Huailas, are the most noted. The salt is not only used in the workingof the metals, but for preserving the cattle from a venomous insect called alicuya^ which preys upon their entrails until it destroys them. The population consists of 37 settlements ; the capital of which is the town of Arnedo or Chancay. Its repartimiento amounted to 122,000 dollars, and its alcavala to 976 dollars per annum.
Arnedo or Chancay,
S. Juan de Huaral,
Cauchaz or Maráz,
Chancay, the capital of the above province, founded in a beautiful and very healthy valley, at a league and a half’s distance from the river Pasamayo, by order of the viceroy Count of Nieva, in 1563 ; who destined it for the honour of being an university, at which however it never attained. It has a tolerable port, frequented by trading vessels, a convent of monks of the order of St. Francis, and a good hospital. It is well peopled, and its inhabitants consist of several noble and rich families. One league from the sea, and 15 from Lima. Lat. 11° 30' 5.
CHANCHAMAIU, a settlement of the province and government of Tarma in Peru, with a fort upon the river Tapo, in the part washed by this river, called El Balseadero de Chanchamaiu. The Chunchos Indians of this province took possession of it in 1742, and abandoned it in 1743.
CHANDUI, a settlement of the district of Santa Elena in the province and government of Guayaquil ; situate on the sea-shore, with a port which is frequented by vessels only in stress ; it having some extensive shoals which lie just at its entrance. Here it was that the admiral’s ship of the Armada del Sur foundered and was wrecked in 1654, as it was dropping down to Panama, for the purpose of dispatching the galleons under the charge of the Marquis de Villarubia ; although, through the opportune assistance of the viceroy of Peru, Count de Salvatierra, and of tlm president of Quito, Don Pedro Vazquez de Veljixco, the greater part of the property on board was saved. Likewise, in 1721. another ship was lost here, carrying the salaries to the Plaza of Panama, without a single thing on board being saved ; until, in 1728, a furious wind from the s. w. blew ashore several fragments of the
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the Catholic faith, and are reduced to settlements, though the number of these is very small.
CHITEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espaiia. It is of a cold temperature, and contains 39 families of Indians, who live by sowing maize, the only vegetable production of their territory. Five leagues w. n. w. of its capital.
CHITO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jaen de Bracamoros in the kingdom of Quito, upon the s. shore of the river Sangalla, and in the royal road of Loxa, which leads to Tomependa. In its vicinity are some gold mines, but which are not worked ; its temperature is hot and moist, and consequently unhealthy.
[CHITTENDEN County, in Vermont, lies on lake Champlain, between Franklin county on the w. and Addison s. ; La Moille river passes through its n. w. corner, and Onion river divides it nearly in the centre.' Its chief town is Burlington. This county contained, by the census of 1791, 44 townships and 7301 inhabitants. Since that time the n. counties have been taken from it, so that neither its size or number of inhabitants can now be ascertained.]
[Chittenden, a township in Rutland county, Vermont, contains 159 inhabitants. The road over the mountain passes through this township. It lies seven miles e. from the fort on Otter creek, in Pittsford, and about 60 n. by e. from Bennington.]
[CHITTENENGO, or Canaserage, a considerable stream which runs n. into lake Oneida, in the state of New York.]
CHIUAO, a small river of the province and colony of Surinam, or the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch . It rises in the mountain of Sincomay, runs n. and turning w. enters another river which is without a name, and where several others unite to enter the Cuyuni on the s. side.
CHIUATA, a river of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises from some plains in this territory, runs s. collecting the waters of several other rivers, particularly that of the Suata, and then enters the sea, just as it becomes navigable.
CHIUCHIN, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Chancay in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Canchas. In its district there is a mineral hot-water spring, much renowned for the curing of various kinds of maladies.
CHIUGOTOS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the province and government of Venezuela, bordering upon the settlement of Maracapana. They are very few, and live retired in the mountains ; they are cruel even to cannibalism.
CHIXILA, a settlement and head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espana. It is of an hot temperature, contains 134 families of Indians, and lies 12 leagues to the n. of its capital.
CHOCAMAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Zacan, and alcaldia mayor of Cordoba, in Nueva Espana. It is of a cold and moist temperature, contains 103 families of Indians, and is five leagues to the n, n. w. of the capital.
CHOCO, a large province and government of the jurisdiction of Popayan ; by the territory of which it is bounded e. and s. e . ; on the w. by the Pacific or S. sea; n. by the barbarous nations of Indians, and by the province of Darien ; and s. by that of Barbacoas. The whole of this province abounds in woods and mountains, and is crossed by a chain of the Andes, which run as far as the isthmus of Panama. It is watered by several rivers and streams, all of which run w. and enter the S. sea. The districts of Citara and Raposo form a part of this province ; very few of their ancient inhabitants remain at the present day ; the greater part of them having perished in the war of the
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Bishops who have presided in Santa Cruz de la Sierra.
1. Don Antonio Calderon, native of Vilches, dean of the holy church of Santa Fe, bisliop of Puertorico and Panama; first bishop in 1605; died at the advanced age of upwards of 100 years.
2. Don Fray Fernando de Ocampo, of the religious order of St. Francis, a native of Madrid.
3. Don Juan Zapata y Figueroa, native of Velez-Malaga ; he was canon and inquisitor of Seville ; presented to the brishopric of Santa Cruz in 1634.
Fray Juan de Arguinao, a religious Dominican, native of Lima, was prior and provincial in his religion, first professor of theology and writing in that university, qualificator of the inquisition ; presented to the bishopric of Santa Cruz in 1646, and promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe in 1661.
5. Don Fray Bernardino de Cardenas, native of Lima, of the order of St. Francis ; promoted from Paraguay to this bishopric in 1666.
6. Don Fray Juan de Rivera, of the order of St. Augustin, native of Pisco in Peru ; first professor of theology.
7. Don Fray Juan de Esturrizaga, of the order of preachers, native of Lima.
8. Don Pedro de Cardenas y Arbieto, native of Lima, collegian of the royal college of San Martin, canon of its holy church.
9. Hon Fray Juan de los Rios, of the order of St. Dominic, a native of Lima, provincial of his religion in the province of San Juan Bautista del Peru.
10. Don Fray Miguel Alvarez de Toledo, of the order of Nuestra Sexiora de la Merced, elected in 1701.
11. Don Miguel Bernardo de la Fuente, dean of the holy church of Truxillo, elected in 1727.
12. Don Andres de Vergara and Uribe, elected in 1744 ; he died in 1745.
13. Don Juan Pablo de Olmedo, native of Tucuman, elected in 1745, died in 1757.
14. Don Fernando Perez de Obiitas, native of Arequipa, elected in the aforesaid year, died in 1760.
15. Don Francisco Ramon de Herboso, native of Lima, elected in 1760, promoted to the archbishopric of Charcas in 1766.
16. Don Juan Domingo Gonzalez de la Rigucra, elected the aforesaid year, and promoted to the archbishopric of the holy metropolitan church of Lima in 1780.
17. Don Alexandro de Ochoa, elected in 1782.
Cruz, Santa, a city of the above province, which was once the capital ; founded by Nuno de Chaves in 1557, after that he had passed along the shores of the river Paraguay to discover a communication with the other provinces. Its inhabitants, however, not being able to stay in it through the incessant sallies of the Indians who surrounded them, were under the necessity of changing their settlement ; but disagreeing in the choice of place, some of them united together, and founded the city of Santiago del Puerto, and others that of San Lorenzo de la Frontcra, which is to-day the capital, the former city being entirely abandoned.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement and alca’d'ia mayor of Jochimilco in Nueva Espana ; situate in a mountainous and cold country, containing 46 families of Indians, who live by cutting timber and making fuel. It is two leagues to the cU. of its capital.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the head settlement of St. Francisco del Valle, and akaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 28 families of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation of the land, and cutting bark from trees. Ten leagues from its head settlement.
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vince and government of Buenos Ayres, founded in ]629, in lat. 29° 29' 1" 5.] t])Cruz, Santa, an island oftheN. sea,^one of the Antilles, 22 leagues long and five wide. Its territory is fertile, but the air unhealthy at certain seasons, from the low situation. It has many rivers, streams, and fountains, with three very good and convenient ports. It was for a long while desert, until some English settled themselves in it, and began to cultivate it; afterwards the French possessed themselves of it, in 1650, and sold it the following year to the knights of Malta, from whom it was bought, in 1664, by the West India company. In 1674, it was incorporated with the possessions of the crown by the king of France. Its inhabitants afterwards removed to the island of St. Domingo, demolished the forts, and sold it to a company of Danes, of Copenhagen, who now possess it. It was the first of the Antilles which was occupied by the Spaniards ; is SO leagues
from the island of St. Christopher’s, eight from Puertorico, six from that of Boriquen, and five from that of St. Thomas. It abounds in sugars cane and tobacco, as also in fruits, which render it very delightful. [It is said to produce SO, 000 or 40,000 hhds. of sugar annually, and other W. India commodities, in tolerable plenty. It is in a high state of cultivation, and has about 3000 white inhabitants and 30,000 slaves. A great proportion of the Negroes of this island have embraced Christianity, under the Moravian missionaries, whose influence has been greatly promotive of its prosperity.
The official value of the Imports and Exports of Santa Cruz were, in
1809, imports ^^435,378, exports ^ig84,964.
1810, 422,033, 89,949.
And the quantities of the principal articles im--
ported into Great Britain were, in
Santa Cruz is in lat. 70° 44' n. Long. 64° 43' w. See West Indies.]
Cruz, Santa, a small island in the straits ©f Magellan, opposite cape Monday. The Admiral Pedro Sarmiento took possession of it for the crown of Spain, that making the tenth time of its being captured.
Cruz, Santa, a sand -bank or islet near the n. coast of the island of Cuba, and close to the sandbank of Cumplido.
Cruz, Santa, a point of the coast of the province and government of Honduras, called Triunfo de la Cruz, (Triumph of the Cross), between the port of La Sal and the river Tian, SO leagues from the gulf, in lat. 15° 40'.
Cruz, Santa, a port of the coast which lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. On one side it has the Ensenada Grande, or Large Bay, and on the other the mountain of Santa Ines. Lat. 50° 10' s.
==Cruz, Santa, a river of the coastwhich lies between the river La Plata and the straits of Magellan. It runs into the sea.
Cruz, Santa, a small river of the province and captainship of Los Ilheos in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and enters the sea between the Grande and the Dulce, opposite the shoals ofS. Antonio.
Cruz, Santa, another, of the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom. It rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea between the point of Palmeras and that of Tortuga,
Cruz, Santa, a cape or point of the coast of thx