The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.
ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]
ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.
ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.
[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]
[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]
Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.
ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.
Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.
out various ways, and watering, from the place in which it rises, the extensive vallies of Curimon, Aconcagua, Quillota, and Concon; in which are cultivated large crops of wheat, flax and hemp; and it, moreover, enters the sea in as large a stream as if it had never undergone the like ramifications: its mouth is in 33° lat.
ACONQUIJA, the most lofty mountain of the province and government of Tucuman, in the district of the city of Catamarca, and very near it. It is perpetually covered with snow, and abounds with minerals of gold. Its jurisdiction is disputed by the province of Atacama.
ACOTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Autlan. It contains 15 Indian families, who employ themselves in breeding the larger sort of cattle, in making sugar and honey, in dressing seeds, and extracting oil of cacao, which abounds greatly, from the number of trees yielding this fruit. It is annexed to the curacy of Tecolotlan, from whence it is two leagues to the S W.
ACTOPAN, the district and alcaldía mayor of Nueva España, commonly called Octupan. Its productions and commerce are as follows: They consist in seeds, rigging, saltpetre, and the feeding of goats and sheep, chiefly prized on account of their skins and their fat. It is of a mild temperature; but the ground is infested with prickly plants, thorns, and teasels. There are some estates here of about eight or ten labouring families each. In this district, and in its environs, are many singing birds, which, in the Mexican language, are called zenzontla; and among otlicrs is the nightingale. The capital bears the same name, and in it there are no less than 2750 families of Othomies Indians, divided into two parties, and separated by the church, which is a convent of the order of St. Augustin, and a very ancient piece of architecture. It also contains 50 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees. 23 leagues N N E of Mexico. Long. 98° 49' W. Lat. 20° 19'30" N.
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C A U
(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito, who had served as captain of cavalry in the regiment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was governor of the province of Moxos, being of the rank of colonel ; he was nominated as president by way of reward for his services, in having been instrumental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru, and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, which was besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786, when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aullaga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac, fourth monarch of the Incas. At present they are reduced to the Christian faith in the government of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are marked the boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those of Nueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spaniards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of Indians dispersed in the rancherias and the estates of its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to the n. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 to the n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'. Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of the mines of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from the capital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco, in which they work with quicksilver the metals of the mines. To its curacy, which is adminstered by one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed two small settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whom are found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called anciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream, the principal branch of which rises from a pond bordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Holliston and Bellingham, and divides Medway from Med field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thence into Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms a peninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream called lother brook runs out of this river in this town, and falls into Neponsit river, forming a natural canal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a number of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham the course of the river is n. dividing Newton from Needham, Weston, and Waltham, passing over romantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e. through Watertown and Cambridge, and passing into Boston harbour, mingles with the waters of Mystic river, at the point of the peninsula of Charlestown. It is navigable for boats to Watertown, seven miles. The most remarkable bridges on this river are those which connect Boston with Charlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereare seven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.] [Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland, lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Its chief town is port Tobacco, on the river of that name. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth 24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including 10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is generally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina, is one of the best of N. America, excelling in beauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situate upon a long strip of land between two navigable rivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and the greater part of it upon the latter. This forms in the city two small bays, the one to the n. and the other to the s. The town is of a regular construction, and well fortified both by nature and art, having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; on the side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
(CHEGOMEGAN, a point of land about 60 miles in length, on the s. side of lake Superior. About 100 miles w. of this cape, a considerable river falls into the lake ; upon its banks abundance of virgin copper is found.)
CHEGONOIS, a small river of the same province and colony as the former. It runs s. w, and enters the Basin des Mines.
(CHELMSFORD, a township in Middlesex county, Massachusetts ; situated on the s. side of Merrimack river, 26 miles n. w. from Boston, and contains 1144 inhabitants. There is an ingeniously constructed bridge over the river at Pawtucket falls, which connects this town with Dracut. The route of the Middlesex canal, designed to connect the waters of Merrimack with those of Boston harbour, will be s. through the e. part of Chelmsford.)
(CHELSEA, called by the ancient natives Winnisimet, a town in Suffolk county, Massachusetts, containing 472 inhabitants. Before its incorporation, in 1738, it was award of the town of Boston, It is situated n. e. of the metropolis, and separated from it by the ferry across the harbour, called Winnisimet.)
(Chelsea, the name of a parish in the city of Norwich, (Connecticut), called the Landing, situated at the head of the river Thames, 14 miles n. of New London, on a point of land formed by the junction ofShetucket and Norwich, or Little rivers, w hose united waters constitute the Thames. It is a busy, commercial, thriving, romantic, and agreeable place, of about 150 houses, ascending
one above another in tiers, on artificial foundations, on the 5. point of a high rocky hill,)
(CHEMUNG is a township in Tioga county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 81 of its inhabitants were electors. It has Newton w. and Oswego e. about 160 miles n. w. fiom New York city, measuring in a straight line. Between this place and Newton, General Sullivan, in his victorious expedition against the Indians in 1779, hada desperate engagement with the Six Nations, whom he defeated. The Indians werestrongly entrenched, and it required the utmost exertions of the American army, with field pieces, to dislodge them ; although the former, including 250 tories, amounted only to 800 men, while the Americans were 5000 in number, ami well appointed in every respect.)
(CHENENGO is a n. branch of Susquehannah river. Many of the military townships are watered by the n. w. branch of this river. The towns of Fayette, Jerico, Greene, Clinton, and Chenengo, in Tioga county, lie between this river and the e. waters of Susquehannah.)
(Chenengo, a post town, and one of the chief in Tioga county, New York. The settled part of the town lies about 40 miles w. e. from Tioga point, between Chenengo river and Susquehannah ; has the town of Jerico on the n. By the state census of 1796, 169 of its inhabitants are electors. It was taken off from Montgomery county, and in 1791 it had only 45 inhabitants. It is 375 miles n. n. w. of Philadelphia.)
(CHENESSEE or GENESSEE River rises in Pennsylvania, near the spot, which is the highest ground in that state, where the eastern most water of Alleghany river, and Pine creek, a water of Susquehannah, and Tioga river, rise. Fifty miles from its source there are falls of 40 feet, and five from its mouth of 75 feet, and a little above that of 96 feet. These falls furnish excellent mill-seats, which arc improved by the inhabitants. After a course of about 100 miles, mostly n, e. by n. it empties into lakeQntario, four