The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
Tlacolula, from whence it is distant a league ant a half to the N.
ACATEPEQUE, S. Franciso de, a settlement of the head settlement of St. Andres de Cholula, and alcaldía mayor of this name. It contains 140 Indian families, and is half a league to the S of its capital.
ACATLAN, a settlement and capital of the alcaldía mayor of this name. It is of a mild temperature, and its situation is at the entrance of the Misteca Baxa. It contains 850 families of Indians, and 20 of Spaniards and Mustees. In its vicinity are some excellent saltgrounds, in which its commerce chiefly consists. The jurisdiction of this alcaldía, which contains four other head settlements of the district, is fertile and pleasant, abounding in flowers, fruits, all kinds of pulse and seeds, and is well watered. They have here large breeds of goats, which they slaughter chiefly for the skin and the fat, salting down the flesh, and sending it to La Puebla and other parts to be sold. In its district are many cultivated lands. It is 55 leagues leagues to the E S E of Mexico. Long. 275° 10' W Lat. 19° 4' N.
another settlement of the same name, with the dedicatory title of S. Andres, in the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Xalapa, in the same kingdom, situate on a clayey spot of ground, of a cold moist temperature, rendered fertile by an abundance of streams, which in a very regular manner water the lands; although,it being void of mountains and exposed to the N winds, the fruits within its neighourhood do not come to maturity. It contains 180 Indian families, including those of the new settlement, which was established at a league's distance to the S of its head settlement, and which is called San Miguel de las Aguastelas. Acatlan is a league and a half distant from its head settlement.
another settlement, having the dedicatory title of San Pedro, belonging to the head settlement of Malacatepec and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, in the same kingdom. It contains 80 Indian families, who trade in wool and in the fish called bobo, quantities of which are found in a large river which runs close by the settlement, and which are a great source of emolument to them. It is four leagues N of its capital.
another settlement of the head settlement of Atotonilco, and alcaldía mayor of Tulanzingo in the same kingdom. It contains 115 Indian families, and a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin. — Two leagues N of its head settlement.
ACATLAZINGO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of Xicula, and alcaldía mayor of Nexapa, situate in a plain that is surrounded on all sides by mountains. It contains 67 Indian families, who employ themselves in the culture of the cochineal plant.
ACAXEE, a nation of Indians of the province of Topia. It is well peopled, and was converted to the Catholic faith by the father Hernando de Santaren, and others of the abolished society of the Jesuits, in 1602. They are docile, of good dispositions and abilities. In the time of their idolatry, they used to bend the heads of their dead with their bodies and knees together, and in this posture inter them in a cave, or under a rock, giving them provisions for the journey which they fancied them about to make ; also laying by them a bow and arrows for their defence. Should an Indian woman happen to have died in childbed, the infant was put to death ; for they used to say, it was the cause of her death. These Indians were once induced by a sorcerer to make an insurrection, but it was quelled by the governor of the province, Don Francisco de Ordinola, in the year 1612.
ACAXETE, Santa María de, the head, settlement of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Tepcaca, situate on the slope of the noted sierra of Tlascala. It is of a cold and dry temperature, contains seven Spanish families, 10 of Mustees and Mulattoes, and 176 of Mexican Indians. In its vicinity is a reservoir, formed of hewn stone, which serves at once to catch the waters as they come down from the sierra, and to conduct them to Tepcaca, three leagues N N W of its capital.
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AGUADILLA, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. Here ships take in water, on account of the convenience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same castle, which was built under the directions of Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.
AGUADORES, River of the, in the island of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is seven leagues distant.
AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in the year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Queretaro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra Gorda.
AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the jurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of Indians, including the wards of its district; 17 leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n. Long. 103° 33' w.
AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits as the other settlements of this province.
AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, ^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.
AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father Lorenzo Lucero.
AGUAPAI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises between the Parana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of San Carlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c. enters the last of the above rivers not far from the settlement of La Cruz.
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Aguarico, a river of the same province and f overnment, being one of those which enter the Napo by the n. side. At its mouth, or entrance, begins the large province of the Encabellados ; and here it was that the Portuguese attempted to establish themselves in 1732, invading it with a certain number of Piraguas, (small vessels), which came from Para. They were, however, through the well-timed precautions of the president of Quito, forced to retire without attaining their object. This river contains much gold in its sands, and its body is much increased by other streams, such as those of the Azuela, Cofanes, Sardinas, and Duino. It descends from the grand Cordillera of the Andes, near the town of San Miguel de Ibarra, washes the territory of the Sucurabios Indians, and enters the Napo in lat. 1° 23' s.
Aguaro, Cano de, a river of the province and government of Venezuela. It enters the Guarico, and is famous for abounding in fish, particularly a kind called pabon, which has a circular spot of sky-blue and gold upon its tail, resembling an eye, and which is much esteemed for its excellent flavour.
Aguas-blancas. See Yaguapiui.
Aguas-calientes, an alcaldia mayor of the the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara, in Nueva España. Its jurisdiction includes four head settlements of the district, and two large estates called the Pavellon, as also the estate Del Fuerte, in which quantities of grain and seed are cultivated. The principal settlement is the town of the same name, of a moderate temperature, its inhabitants consisting of 500 Spanish families, as also of some of Mustees and Mulattoes; and although some Mexican Indians arc to be found here, they merely come to traffic with the productions of the other jurisdictions. It contains three convents ; one of the bare- footed Franciscans, a sumptuous and well-built fabric ; one of the Mercenarios; and a third of San Juan de Dios, with a well-endowed hospital ; not to mention several other chapels and altars in the vicinity. It is 140 leagues n. n. w. of Mexico, and 35 of Guadaiaxara. Long. 101° 51' 30" w. Lat. 22° 2' n.
AGUASTELAS, San Miguel de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Andres of Acatlan, and alcaldia mayor of Xalapa, in Nueva España. It is but lately established, and is one league s. of its head settlement.
AGUATLAN, the head settlement of the district of the alcadia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana. It was formerly a separate jurisdiction; but on account of its smallness, and the ill-favoured and craggy state of its soil, it was incorporated with another close to it. It contains 46 Indian families, and is 12 leagues e. of its capital.
Agueda, a point or cape near the above mountain.
AGUILA, Villa Gutierrez de la, a town of the alcaldia mayor of Xerez in Nueva España. It was formerly very considerable, and had a numerous population of Spaniards, when it was made a fortress against the Tepehuanes and Taraumaras Indians. It is an alcaldia mayor ^ but its jurisdiction is consolidated with another, on account of its being a place of little consideration, and its population being very scanty, and living in some small wards and estates in its district. It lies at the c. entrance of the province of Nayarith, and is the boundary of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, being nine leagues e. of Xerez.
Aguila, a very lofty mountain of the province
caldia mayor of Zacattan, in Nueva España, five leagues from its head settlement.
CAXICA, or Busongote, a settlement of the corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of a moderately cold temperature, being agreeable and healthy, and producing much wheat, maize, barley, and other productions incidental to a cold climate. Its population amounts to 150 families, and as many families of Indians, who had in it a capital fortress, in which the Zipa or king of Bogota shut himself up in order to defend the entrance into his kingdom against the Spaniards: he was, however, routed and taken by Gonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537. Is five leagues to the n. of Santa Fe.
CAXITITLAN, the alcaldia mayor and district or jurisdiction of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, and bishopric of Guadalaxara : in its district is a large, fertile valley, abounding in every kind of seed, as maize, wheat, French beans, and various sorts of pulse : is of a mild temperature, and the district of its jurisdiction consists of six settlements : in it is the great lake or sea of Chapala : it is seven leagues s, e. of Guadalaxara. Long. 102° 43'. Lat. 20° 35'.
San Luis, Istahuacan,
Cuyatan, Santa Cruz,
CAXITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of Almololoyan, and alcaldia mayor of Colina, in Nueva España : it contains 30 families of Spaniards, 20 of Mustees, and five of Mulattoes : in its district are various estates of palms of Cocos, (palmasde Qocos)^ and some herds of large cattle : is seven leagues to the w. of its head settlement.
(CAYAHAGA, or Cayuga, sometimes called the Great River, empties in at the s. bank of lake Erie, 40 miles e. of the mouth of Huron ; having an Indian town of the same name on its banks. It is navigable for boats ; and its mouth is wide, and deep enough to receive large sloops from the lake. Near this are the celebrated rocks which project over the lake. They are several miles in lengtl), and rise 40 or 50 feet perpendicular out of the water. Some parts of them consist of several strata of different colours, lying in a horizontal direction, and so exactly parallel, that they resemble the work of art. The view from the land is grand, but the water presents the most magnificent prospect of this sublime work of nature ; it is attended, however, with great danger ; for if the least storm Arises, the force of the surf is such that no vessel
can escape being dashed to pieces against the rocks . Colonel Broadshead suffered shipwreck here in the late war, and lost a number of his men, when a strong wind arose, so that the last canoe narrowly escaped. The heathen Indians, when they pass this impending danger, offer a sacrifice of tobacco to the water. Part of the boundary line between the United States of America and the Indians begins at the mouth of Cayahaga, and run‘< up the same to the portage between that and the Tuscarawa branch of the Muskingum. The Cayuga nation, consisting of 500 Indians, 40 of whom reside in the United States, the rest in Canada, receive of the state of New York an annuity of 2300 dollars, besides 50 dollars granted to one of their chiefs, as a consideration for lands sold by them to the state, and 500 dollars from the United States, agreeably to the treaty of 1794. See Six Nations.)
CAYENNE, a large island of the province and government of Guayana : it is six leagues in length from n. to s. and three quarters of a league in its broadest part. On the n. side it has the sea, on the VO . the river Cayenne, on thee, the Ou>ti, and on the s. an arm which is formed by this and the Orapii. The soil is excellent, fertile, and irrigated by many streams. That part whicli looks to the n. is the most pleasant and healthy ; and in it are many mountains well cultivated and covered with country seats. The part facing the s. is much lower, and abounds in meadows, called salanas, and which arc inundated in the rainy seasons. The point of the island formed by the mouth of the river Cayenne, is called Caperoux, where there is a fortress with a French garrison, and below this a convenient and large port, capable of containing in security 100 ships. The French established themselves in this island in the year 1625, and abandoned it in 1654, when the English entered it, and were routed by Mr. de la Barre, in the year 1664. The Dutch had their revenge in 1676 : but the year following it was recovered by the French, under the command of D’Estrees, on whom the celebrated Jesuit Carlos de la Rue made the following inscription :
Vice Ameralio Cayana. Tabaco VI. Captis Batavorum Americana classe deleta
[The capitulation of Cayenne to the English arms, in conjunction with the Portuguese, took