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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]



escape the destruction which followed them whereever they fled. Still are the vestiges of this calamity to be seen, and there are large quantities of this mud or lava, now become hard, scattered on the s. side of the settlement.

CARHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Canta in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of its capital.

CARHUACAIAN, a settlement of the same province and corregimiento as the former ; annexed to the curacy of Pomacocha.

CARHUACALLANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Jauja in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chongos.

CARHUACUCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Laramate.

CARHUAMAIO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru.

CARHUAPAMPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Lorenzo de Quinti.

Carhuapampa, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cajatambo in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Hacas.

CARHUAZ, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huailas in Peru.

CARI, a river of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the Mesa (Table-land) de Guanipa, and runs s. being navigable to the centre of the province, and enters the Orinoco near the narrow part.

Cari, a settlement of the same province; one of those under the care of the religious order of S. Francisco, missionaries of Piritu. It is situate on the shore of the former river.

CARIAI, a small river of the country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It is by no means a considerable stream, runs n. and enters the Xingu.

CARIACO, a large gulf of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Curnana. It is also called, Of Curnana, from this -capital being built upon its shores. The bajr runs 10 or 12 leagues from w. to c. and is one league toroad at its widest part. It is from 80 to 100 fathoms deep, and the waters are so quiet as to resemble rather the waters of a lake than those of the ocean. It is surrounded by the serramasy or lofty chains of mountains, which shelter it from all winds excepting that of the n. e. which, blowing on it as it were through a straitened and narrow passage, it accustomed to cause a swell, especially from 10

m the morning until five in the evening, after which all becomes calm. Under the above circumstances, the larger vessels ply to windward ; and if the wind be very strong, they come to an anchor ou the one or other coast, and wait till the evening, when the land breezes spring up from the s. e. In this gulf there are some good ports and bays, viz. the lake of Obispo, of Juanantar, of Gurintar, and others.

Cariaco, a river of the same province and government, taking its rise from many streams and rivulets which rise in the serrania, and unite be. fore they flow into the valley of the same Uame. After it has run some distance over the plain, it is cut off' to water some cacao plantations, and then empties itself into the sea through the former gulf. In the winter great part of the capital, which is situate upon its banks, is inundated, and the river is tlien navigated by small barks or barges ; but in the summer it becomes so dry that there is scarcely water sufficient to nqvigate a canoe.

Cariaco, a small city of the same province, situate on the shore of the gulf. [This city (according to Depons) bears, in the official papers and in the courts of justice, the name of San Felipe de Austria. The population is only 6500, but every one makes such a good use of his time as to banish misery from the place. The production most natural to the soil is cotton, the beauty of which is superior to that of all Tierra Firme. This place alone furnishes annually more than 3000 quintals ; and besides cacao they grow a little sugar. Lat. 10° SO' n. Long. 63° 39' w.

(CARIACOU is the ehief of the small isles dependent on Granada island in the West Indies; situate four leagues from isle Rhonde, which is a like distance from the «. end of Granada. It contains 6913 acres of fertile and well cultivated land, producing about 1,000,000 lbs. of cotton, besides corn, yams, potatoes, and plaintains for the Negroes. It has two singular plantations, and a town called Hillsborough.)

CARIAMANGA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito.

CARIATAPA, a settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province of Topia and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the middle of the sierra of this name, and on the shore of the river Piastla.

CARIBABARE, a small settlement which belonged to the missions of the regular order of ths Jesuits, in the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos of the new kingdom of Granada.

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emolument which used to be derived to the English froPA the skins of the castor, is at present greatly abridged from the circumstance of the Indians invariably destroying this animal; but the loss is in a great measure made up from the great gain acquired in the sale of turpentine, fish, and pitch. Here they cultivate quantities of indigo of three sorts, much maize, and in the low lands excellent rice. All this province is a plain 80 miles in length, carrying on a great commerce in the above productions, and formerly that of rice was very considerable; it being computed to have yielded that article to the value of 150,000/. sterling per annum. In its woods are many exquisite kinds of timber, and the country abounds with rabbits, hares, dantas, deer, pheasants, partridges, cranes, pigeons, and other birds, and with numbers of ravenous and fierce wolves, against the attacks of which it is difficult to preserve the cattle. The European animals have also multiplied here astonishingly, so that it is not unusual for persons, who at first had not more than three or four cows, now to possess as many thousands. These two provinces forming Carolina have 10 navigable rivers, with an infinite number of smaller note, all abounding in fish ; but they hare few good ports, and the best of these is Cape Fear. N. Carolina is not so rich as is S. Carolina, and Denton was formerly the capital of the former, but it is at present reduced to a miserable village ; the capital of both is Charlestown, which since the last w^r is independent of the jEnglish, together with all the country, which now forms one of the 13 provinces composing the United States of America. [See North Carolina and South Carolina.]

(CAROLINE County, in Virginia, is on the s. side of Rappahannock river, which separates it from King George’s county. It is about 40 miles square, and contains 17,489 inhabitants, including 10,292 slaves.)

(Caroline County, on the e. shore in Maryland, borders on Delaware state to the e. and contains 9506 inhabitants, including 2057 slaves. Its chief town Danton.)

CARONI, a settlement of the province of Guayana, and government of Cumana ; one of those of the missions held in that province by the Catalanian Capuchin fathers.

Caroni, another, in the government of Maracaibo, and jurisdiction of Varinas. It is very poor and of a hot temperature, but abounding in fruits of maize, yucas, plaintains, and sugar-canes.

Caroni, another, in the government of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on a lofty spot, and one of the most pleasant and delightful of any in the

whole province. It abounds in gold mines, and is fertile in all the fruits peculiar to the climate, but it is much reduced.

Caroni, a large and abundant river of the province of Guayana. It rises in the mountains inhabited by the Mediterranean Caribes Indians, runs many leagues, laving the territory of the Capuchin missionaries of Guayana. Its shores are very delightful, from the variety of trees and birds found upon them. It enters the Orinoco on the s. side, eight leagues from the garrison of Guayana, and 72 leagues before this river enters the sea, being divided into two arms, which form a small island. It is very abundant and wide, but it is not navigable, on account of the rapidity of its current, and from its being filled with little islands and shoals, as likewise on account of a great waterfall or cataract, which causes a prodigious noise, and is close to the mission and settlement of Aguacagua. Its waters are very clear, although at first sight they appear dark and muddy, which effect is produced from the bed of the river being of a sand of this colour. Its source, though not accurately known, is affirmed by the Caribes Indians to be in the snowy sierra to the n. of the lake of Parime, that also being the source by which this lake is supplied. At its entrance into the Orinoco, it gushes with &uch impetuosity as to repel the waters of this river the distance of a gun’s shot, [or, as 'Depons observes, half a league. Its course is directly from s. to n. and its source is more than 100 leagues from its mouth.]

CAROPI, a river of the island and government of Trinidad. It runs from e. to w. and enters the sea in the gulf Triste.

==CARORA, S. Juan Bautista del Portillo DE==, a city of the province and government of Venezuela, founded by Captain John Salamanca in 1572, and not in 1566, as is asserted by Father Coleti, in the Siege of Baraquiga. It is situate in the savanas or Uanuras ; is of a hot temperature, but very healthy, although deficient in water, since the river Morere, which passes in its vicinity, affords but a trifling stream in tlie summer, and is at times entirely dry. In its district are bred all kinds of cattle, but particularly thegoat, as the quantities of thorns and thistles found in this country render it peculiarly adapted for the nourishment of this animal. It abounds in very fine grains, also in aromatic balsams and gums, noted for the cure of w'ounds. At present it is reduced to a miserable population, unworthy of the name of a city, consisting of Mustees, Mulattoes, and some Indians.; but it still preserves a very good parish church, a convent of monks of St. hhancisco, and

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The antidote, however, is oil taken in abundance internally, and applied outwardly. Neither wheat nor barley are known here, but the place abounds in maize and rice, of which they make cakes, and which are the common bread of the natives, and more particularly so that called cazave^ being a sort of cake made of the root yiica^ name, or moniato. There are also a great number of cotton trees. The arms of this city are a green cross upon a gold ground, with a lion rampant on each side. It was sacked in 1593 by Robert Baal, a pirate ; in 1583, by Sir Francis Drake, 23 years from the time of its being fortified, and not from its foundation, as according to Mr. La Matiniere ; again iti 1695, by Mr. Ducase, assisted by the adventurers or fiibustiers, who completely pillaged it : but a great sensation having been caused amongst the inhabitants at the loss of a superb sepulchre made of silver, in which it rvas usual on a good Friday to deposit the eucharist, they had the good fortune to obtain its restitution through the interest and favour of Louis XI F. The English, under the command of Admiral Vernon and Sir Charles Ogle, besieged this city in 1740, when, although its castles were destroyed, and it was completely besieged, it would not surrender, being gloriously defended by the viceroy Don Sebastian de Esiava, and Don Bias de Lezo, who caused the English to abandon the enterprise with precipitancy and with great loss. [For this conduct on the part of the English, several reasons were assigned besides the strength of the place ; namely, the mortality among the troops, want of skill in the commanders, and certain ditferences between the admiral and the general. The fortifications which they demolished have since been repaired.] It is the only part of all America where there is etfective coin of a fourth part of a real in silver. Its inhabitants amount to 9160 souls in communion. It has been the native place of many celebrated persons, such are,

Don Augustin Samiento de Sotomayor, of the order of Santiago, viscount of Portillo.

Don Andres de la Vega, professor at Salamanca, a famous lawyer.

Fray Carlos de Melgarejo, a religious Dominican, an excellent preacher, and a man of unblemished life.

Don Caspar de Cuba and Arce, head collegiate of San Marcos de Lima, oidor of Chile.

Don Gonzalo de Herrera, Marquis of Villalta, governor of Antioquia.

Don Gregorio Castellar y Mantilla, governor of Cumana, and general of the armada of the guard of the coasts of Cartagena.

Don Joseph de Paredes, captain of infantry, knight of the order of Santiago.

Fray Joseph Pacheco, of the order of St. Augustin, master, visitor, and vicar-general i:i his province of the Nuevo Reyno.

The Father Joseph de Urbina, of the extinguished company, rector of the college of Santa Fe.

Don.Iuan Fernandez Rosillo, dean of the church of his country, bishop of V^erapez and of Mechoacan .

Fray Juan Pereyra, a religious Dominican.

Don Lope Duke Estrada, kiiight of the order of Santiago.

It is in long. 75° 24' and lat. 10° 25' n. [For account of the present revolutions, see Venezuela.]

Bishops who have presided in Cartagena.

1. Don Fray Tomas del Toro, a monk of the order of St. Domingo, elected the . first bishop in 1532; but being at Talavera, his country, at the time, he unfortunately died before he was consecrated.

2. Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa, a Dominican monk, renowned for his virtue and talent, and for his experience in Indian affairs ; he was elected in the room of the former, was consecrated at Valladolid, and there he erected the church into a cathedral in 1538, the same year in which he entered Cartagena ; from hence he was promoted to the archbishopric of Lima in 1542.

3. Don Fray Francisco de Santa Maria y Benavides, of the order of St. Gerome, of the illustrious family of the Marquises of Fromesta ; serving at that time the Emperor in Flanders, he took to a religious life, and was elected bishop of Cartagena in 1543. The city, in his time, was plundered by two pirates, lieaded by the Spanisli pilot Alonso Vexines, who cominitted thisactout of revenge for a flogging he had received ; they also ill-treated the venerable prelate, who had the additional grievance, in the year L551, of witnessing the city in flames. In 1554 he was promoted to the church of Modonedo in Galicia, and was succeeded in Cartagena by,

4. Don Fray Gregorio de Beteta, a Dominican monk, brought up in the convent of Salamanca, and one of the twenty who went to the Nuevo Reyno de Gratiada, from whence he passed over to Mexico to convert the Indians, and afterwards with the same object to the provinces of Santa Marta, Uraba, ami Cartagena ; and being teacher ami curate in one of his settlements, he received the order of presentation to this bishopric in 1555 ; although he endeavoured to decline the dignify,

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he was at length persuaded to accept it by the acclamations and remonstrances of all parties, and especially of the vicar-general of his order; he began to preside without being consecrated ; but being yet full of scruples, he renounced the office, and without permission returned to Spain ; h^ then went to Koine, but being desired by his holiness to return to his diocese, he was said to have been so much affected as not to have been able to prevail upon himself to enter the city : he returned, therefore, immediately to the coast, and embarked for Florida, with a view of converting some of the infidels ; and with this object he again set off for Spain, in order to obtain his renunciation ; when being at length tired with his wanderings, and Avorn out Avith age, he died in his convent of Toledo in 1562.

5. Don Juan de Simancas, native of Cordova, collegian of San Clemente de Bolonia ; he entered in 1560, went to be consecrated at Santa Fe, and upon his return, had the mortification to find that the suburbs of Xiximani had been sacked by some French pirates ; which disaster was again repeated in the following year, 1561. This bishop, after having governed his church for the space of 10 years, and suffering much from the influence of a hot climate, left the see without a licence, and returned to his country, where he died in 1570.

6. Don Ft. Luis Zapata de Cardenas, of the order of St. Francis, native of Llerena in Estremadura, third commissary-general of the Indies ; elected bishop in 1570, promoted to the archbishopric of Santa Fe before he left Spain, and in his place was chosen,

7. Don Fr. Juan de Vivero, a monk of the order of St. Augustin, native of Valladolid ; he passed over into America, was prior of the convent of Lima, founder of the convent of Cuzco, elected bishop, which he renounced ; nor would he accept the archbishopric of Chacas, to which he was promoted : he died in Toledo.

8. Don Fr. Dionisio de los Santos, of the order of Santiago, prior of the convent of Granada, and provincial of the province of Andalucia ; elected in 1573 : he died in 1578.

9. Don Fr. Juan de Montalvo, of the same order of St. Domingo, native of Arevalo ; elected bishop, he entered Cartagena in 1579, passed over to Santa Fe to the synod celebrated there by the archbishop ; and in 1583 had the mortification of seeing his city sacked, plundered, and destroyed by Sir Francis Drake; Avhich calamity had such a great effect upon him, and well knowing noAV that he had no means of relieving the necessities of the

poor, who were dependent upon him, he fell sick and died the same year.

10. Don Fr. Diego Osorio, of the same order of St. Domingo ; he went over as a monk to Cartagena, from thence to Lima and Nueva Espana, received the presentation to this bishopric in 1587, which he would not accept, and died in 1579, in Mexico.

11. Don Fr. Antonio de Hervias, also a Dominican monk, collegian of San Gregorio de Valladolid, his native place, where he had studied arts ; he passed over to Peru, and was the first morning-lecturer in the university of Lima, manager of the studies, qualificator of the inquisition, vicar-general of the province of Quito, and afterwards presented to the bishopric of Arequipa, then to that of Verapaz, and lastly to that of Cartagena, where he died in 1590.

12. Don Fr. Pedro de Arevalo, monk of the order of St. Gerome ; he was consecrated in Spain, and renounced the bishopric before he came to take possession of it.

13. Don Fr. Juan de Ladrada, a Dominican monk, native of Granada ; he A^'as curate and religious instructor in the Indies, in the settlements of Suesca and Bogota, vicar-general of his religion in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, lecturer on the sacred scriptures and on theology in Santa Fe,' was consecrated bishop of Cartagena in 1596 : he rebuilt the cathedral, established a choir of boys and chaplains, and made a present of a canopy to be carried by the priests over the blessed sacrament when in procession ; he assisted at the foundation of the college of the regulars of the society of Jesuits, and of that of the fathers called the barefooted Augustins, on the mountain of La Popa ; he had the satisfaction of having for his provisor the celebrated Don Bernardino de Almansa, a wise and virtuous man, who was afterAvards archbishop of Santa Fe ; he frequently visited his bishopric, and after having governed 17 years, died in 1613.

14. Don Fr. Pedro de Vega, a monk of the same order of St. Domingo, native of Bubierca in the kingdom of Aragon, professor of theology and of the sacred AA'ritings in the universities of Lerida and Zaragoza ; he entered Cartagena as bishop in 1614, and his short duration disappinted the hopes he had so universally excited, for he died in 1616.

15. Don Diego Ramirez de Zepeda, friar of the order of Santiago, native of Lima, a renowned preacher, and consummate theologist ; being at Madrid, he was elected, and died before he could reach the bishopric.

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also De Piedras ; at its top is, according to the account of Don J nan de la Cruz, the Bugio del Gato, which serves as a watch-tower, which others maintain is situate upon the point Canoa, just by its side.

CARUMAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Mosquehua in Peru.

CARUPANO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, on the sea-shore, at the cape of Tres Puntas i there are in its district 25 small estates of cacao, 35 of sugar-cane, a few of yucas and other fruits ; some of them belonging to its inhabitants, and others to tlie inhabitants of Margareta and Cumana.

CARUPARABAS, a nation of Indians but little known, who inhabit the woods and shores of the rivers which run into the Negro.

(CARVEL OF St. Thomas, a rock between the Virgin isles e. and Porto Rico on the w. at a small distance it appears like a sail, as it is white and lias two points. Between it and St. Thomas, passes Sir Francis Drake’s channel.)

(CARVEL, a township in Plymouth county, Massachussetts. Here is a pond with such plenty of iron ore, that 500 tons have been dragged out of the clear water in a year. They have a furnace upon a stream which runs from the pond ; and the iron made of this ore is better than that made out of bog ore, and some is almost as good as refined iron.)

(Carver’s River, a branch of St. Peter’s river, which empties into the Mississippi. See St. Pierre or Peter’s River.)

CASA, a settlement of the island of Joanes or Marajo, on the coast of Brazil, near the mouth of the great arm of the river Amazonas, on the e. coast.

CASABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Chincheros.

CASABLANCA, San Gabriel de, a settlement of the head settlement of Teutitlan, and alcaldia mayor of Cuicatlan, in Nueva Espana: it contains 34 families of Indians, who live by the commerce of salt from some saMnes which they have in their district, at about a league’s distance from this settlement ; here are also some crops of maize : it is of a hot temperature, and lies two leagues from its head settlement.

Casablanca, also with the dedicatory title of Santa Barbara, a town of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile, situate on the coast : it formerly belonged to the jurisdiction of Valparaiso, from which it was separated.

CASACACHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paria in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Condocondo.

(CASACORES, a lake in Paraguay or La Plata in S. America, about 100 miles long.)

CASA-GRANDE, a town of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Apaches Indians, on the shore of the large river of Gila.

CASAGULA, a snowy mountain or páramo of the province and corregimiento of Amboto in the kingdom of Quito.

CASANARE, a large river of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; on the shores of which are various settlements of the missions, which under this name were held at the expence of the regulars of the society of Jesuits, and which are at present under the care of the monks of St. Domingo : it rises in the paramos or mountain-deserts of Chita, of the district of the city of Pamplona, and after running many leagues, divides itself into two branches : the one, named the Uruhi, enters the Meta ; and the other, named the Sirapuco, enters the Orinoco, first receiving those of Purare and Tacoragua. To the w. of this river are the reducciones of the Pantos Indians, and to the n. those of the Pautes ; to the e. and upon a plain, is the river San Salvador, aftbrding an handy port for communication with the Meta and the Orinoco : it is afterwards entered by the river Tame, which pours into it in a large stream from the same sierras, and has upon its banks the two numerous nations, the reducciones of the Giraras and Botoyes Indians.

Casanare, some very extensive llanuras or plains which lie between the rivers Orinoco, Sinaruca, and Meta.

Casanare, a settlement of Indians, of the reducciones which were made by the regulars of the society of Jesuits, in the same province and government as the former river : it consists of the Achaguas Indians, being situate on the shore of that river, with a good and well-frequented port : it is fertile^ and abounds in maize, yucas, and above all in cattle : its natives, who are very numerous, employ themselves in making little trunks of cane neatly painted of various colours, and mats and sieves^ which they call manares : here are also some white inhabitants, and the reduccion is now under the care of the religion of St. Domingo.

CASANAY, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana in the kingdom of Tierra Firme, situate near the coast and the city of Cariaco.

CASAPA, a settlement of the missions which

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