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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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river Hudson. It is small, but has a great trade from the contiguity of the Iroquese Indians. It contains 350 houses, buiH afterthe Dutch fashion ; and that of the magistracy, which consists of a mayor, six aldermen, and a recorder, is very beautiful. The city is defended by a regular fort with four bastions, the rest of the fortification consisting of palisades. Here the treaties and alliances have been made with the Indians. It was taken by Robert Car in 1664, and added to this province by Colonel Dongan. [It is 160 miles «. of the city of New York, to which it is next in rank, and 340 s. of Quebec. This city and suburbs, by enumeration in 1797, contained 1263 buildings, of which 863 were dwelling houses, and 6021 inhabitants. Many of them are in the Gothic style, with the gable end to the street, which custom the first se^ttlers brought from Holland; the new houses arc built in the modern style. Its inhabitants are collected from various parts of tlie world, and speak a great variety of languageJ^, but the English predominates ; and the use of efery other is gradually lessening. Albany is urfrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country ay. and w. — a country of an excellent soil, abounding in every article for the W. India market; plentifully watered with navigable lakes, creeks, Snd rivers ; settling with unexampled rapidity ; and capable of aftbrdingsubsistenceto millions of inhabitants. The public buildings are, a low Dutch church, of ancient and very curious construction, one for Episcopalians, two for Presbyterians, one for Germans'or Higli Dutch, and one for Methodists ; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome brick jail. In the year 1609, Henry II udson, whose name the river bears, ascended it in his boat to Aurnnla, the spot on which Albany now stands. The improvements in this city have, of late years, been very great in almost all respects. Wharfs have been built on the river, the streets have been paved, a bank instituted, a new and handsome style of building introduced. One mile n. of this city, in its suburbs, near the manor-house of lieutenant-governor Van Renssalaer, are very ingeniously constructed extensive and useful works, for the manufacture of Scotch and rappee snuff, roll and cut tobacco of dilferent kinds, chocolate, mustard, starch, hair-powder, splitpease, and hulled barley. These valuable works are the property of Mr. James Caldwell, who unfortunately lost a complete set of similar works by fire, in Jidy 1791, with the stock, valued at

37,500 dollars. It is a circumstance worthy of remark, and is evincive of the industry and enterprise of the proprietor, that the whole of the pre« sent buildings and machinery were begun and completed in the short space of eleven mouths. These works are decidedly superior to any of the kind in America. All the articles above enumerated, even to the spinning of tobacco, are manufactured by the aid of water machinery. For the invention of this machinery, the proprietor has obtained a patent. These Avorks give employment and subsistence to 40 poor boys, and a number of workmen.] Long. 73° 42' w. Lat. 42° 40' n.

Albania, or Albany, a large river of New France, which takes its rise from the lake Christinaux, runs n. e. and enters the sea at Hudson’s bay.

Albania, or Albany, a fortress in New South Wales, N. America. [Lat. 32° 17' n. Long. 81° 51' a;.]

ALBARICOQUES, Point of the, a cape on the n. coast, in the head settlement of the island of Santo Domingo, and in the French territories. It lies between the Trou d’Enfers and Cape Bombon.

ALBARRACIN, Desert of, a very lofty mountain, always covered with snow, in tlie new kingdom of Granada.

ALBARRADA, a settlement of Indians of the kingdom of Chile, situate on the shore of the river Cauchupil.

Albarrada, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the head settlement of the district of Mitla, and alcaldia mayor of Tentitlan, in Nueva España. It contains 22 Indian families, and is seven leagues n. of its head settlement.

ALBARREGAS, a large and abundant river of the new kingdom of Granada, which descends from the mountains of Bogota, irrigates the country and the city of Merida, running n. of this city until it enters the lake Maracaibo.

ALBEMARLE, a county of the province and colony of N. Carolina, and that part of it which is most agreeable, fertile, and salutary. It produces various sorts of fruits and pulse, and the winter is very temperate. This colony was established in 1670 by the lords and proprietors of it, who equipped, at their own expence, three ships, and a coiisiderable number of persons, with provisions for 18 months, and an abundance of merchandize, tools, and arms fit for the new establishment ; to which they sent resources yearly, in the proportion . required, until it appeared tube in a fit

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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre tended rights acquired by certain European na tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

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Were Held by the Jesuits, in the province and government of Paraguay ; situate almost to the s, of Villa Rica.

CASA-PIEDRA, Isla De, an island of the coast and kingdom of Brazil, and province and captainship of the Rio Janeiro, close to Cape Frio.

CASA-PIEDRA, a settlement of this province and kingdom ; situate near the coast and upon the shore of a river thus called.

Casa-Piedra, a river which runs s. s. e. in this province, and joins the sea very near Cape Frio.

==CASAPOEIRA, Bahia de, or De Barreras Bermejas==, a bay on the coast and in the captainship of Marañon, arid kingdom of Brazil, between the islands Ygirapa and Sipatuba.

CASARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chincheros.

Casara, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Vilcas Huaman, also of Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Hualla.

CASARANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Condesuyos de Arequipa in Peru.

CASARIDA, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo ; situate on the coast, at the mouth of the river of its name.

Casarida. This river rises near the coast, runs n. and enters the sea.

CASAS-GRANDES, an extensive and beautiful valley of the province of Los Apaches in Nueva España.

CASAUATAI, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas : it rises from the lake of the Gran Cocama, in 6 ° 48' s. hit. runs to the s. of the Maraiion, and following its course towards the n. for more than 25 leagues, runs e. to enter the Ucayale on its e. side, and afterwards to receive the waters of the Zapofe.

CASCABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Andahuailas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Talavera.

CASCABELES, a river of the province and corregimiento of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito : it rises near the ruins of the city of Simancas, and enters the river Caqueta, where are also the ruins of the city of Mocoa.

CASCADE, a small river of country and land of Labrador : it runs s. between the rivers Bois and San Francisco, and enters the sea in the strait of Bellisle.

CASCAJAL, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme : it rises in the mountains of Portovelo, and runs into the sea through the bay of this city.

Cascajal, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate on the shore of the river Cauca, in the district and jurisdiction of the town of Mompox.

CASCAJO, ISLA DEL, an island of the coast of the province and government of Cartagena, close to the island of Arenas.

Cascajo, a point of the s. coast of the island of Santo Domingo, in the French possessions : it lies between port Nonet and port Salud.

CASCARA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacochas in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Lampa.

CASCAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Conturnaza ; in the district of which there is, at three leagues distance, a large piece of hewn stone of 13 yards long and three quarters of a yard wide on every face, particularly rough and unpolished.

Cascas, a large swamp of the province and government of San Juan de los Llanos, which is formed from different arms of the rivers Sarare and Apure, and communicates itself with the lake of Arechona ; both of these lakes being near the last river, and at the skirt of ihe paramo or mountain desert of Chisgas.

CASCAY, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paucartambo in Peru.

CASCAYUNCA, an ancient province of Peru, to the n. e. of Cuzco, conquered by Tupac Yupanqui, twelfth Emperor.

(CASCO Bay, in the district of Maine, spreads n. w. between cape Elizabeth on the s. w. and cape Small Point on the n. e. Within these points, which are about 40 miles apart, are about 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated. The land on these islands, and on the opposite coast on the main, is the best for agriculture of any on the sea-coast of this country. Casco includes several bays. Maquoit bay lays about 20 miles n. of cape Elizabeth. The waters of Casco extend several arms or creeks of salt water into the country. The waters go up Meadow’s river, where vessels of a considerable size are carried by the tide, and where it flows within one mile of the waters of Kennebeck. On the e. side of cape Elizabeth is the arm of the sea called Stroudwater. Farther e. is Presumpscot river, formerly called Presumpea, or Presumpkeag, which rises in Sebago Pond. This river opens to the waters of Casco bay on the e. of Portland ; its extent is not great, but it has several valuable mills upon it. Rayal’s river, called by the natives W estecustego, falls into the bay six miles from

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(Catherine’s Isle, a pleasant island on the harbour of Sunburj, in the state of Georgia.)

(Cathehine’s Isle, a small productive island on the s. coast of St. Domingo, 20 leagues e. of the town of St. Domingo.)

(CATHERINE's Town, in Ontario county, New York, lies three miles s. of the 5 . end of Seneca ake.)

Catilina, a bay of tlie e. coast of the island of Newfoundland, between the capes Santos and Nuevo.

(CATO, a military township in New York state, 12 miles s. e. of lake Ontario, and about 20 s. of Oswego fort.)

CATOA, a river of the province and country of Las Amazonas. It rises in tlie mountains of the Andes, runs n. and enters the Marailon on the s. side, between the rivers Coari and Coyame.

(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)

(CATTAHUNK, one of the Elizabeth isles, in the state of Massachusetts. See Buzzard’s Bay.)

CATUARO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumaná in the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; situate near to and s. of the city of Cariaco.

CAUACUAN, a river of the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. It runs e. and enters the Uruguay, between the rivers Ipau and Piricaya.

CAUAIAMA, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the Uruguay, between the rivers Guarey and Bracuaenda.

CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.

CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.

Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.

CAUALA, a settlement of the province and capiainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate > 1 . of Villarica.

CAU-ALLERIZAS, a settlement of the province and government of Yaguarsongo in the kingdom of Quito.

CAUANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Conchucos in Peru.

CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.

CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.

Cauca, a small river of the province and government of Venezuela. It runs n. and enters the sea at the mouth of the Golfete or Little gulf.

CAUCAQUA, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate near the river Tuy, opposite the cape of Codera.

CAUCHUPIL, a river of the kingdom of Chile; it runs to the s. s. e. and then turning s. enters the Lebo.

CAUIAN, a settlement of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil ; situate on the

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certain seasons of tlie year it is so filled with fish, for seven leagues from its mouth, that the Indians are accustomed to harpoon them from the shores.

Cauten, a point of land, or cape, which is one of those which form the entrance of the former river.

CAUTO, a settlement of the s. coast of the island of Cuba; situate on the shore of a river which bears the same name.

CAUX, Montanas de, mountains in the province and government of French Guinea, which run along the shore of a river of the same name, between the rivers Orapu and Aprovaque.

(CAVALLO, as some erroneously spell it, a sea-port town in the province of Venezuela, in Tierra Firme. Lat. 10'’ 28'. Long. G8° 8'. See Cabello Pderto and Cavello Puerto.)

(CAVAILLON, a town on the s. side of the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, about three leagues n. e. of Les Cayes, and five w. by s. of St. Louis. Lat. 18° 18' w.)

(CAVELLO, Puerto, Borburata. One league e. of Puerto Cavello, was originally the only resort of vessels trading to this part of Venezuela. Puerto Cavello was merely frequented by smugglers, fishermen, and the outcasts of the interior. The old town is surrounded by tlic sea, excepting a space of a few fathoms to tlie w. ; through which they have now cut a canal communicating to the sea on the n. of the town to that on the s. ; thus forming an island, the egress being by a bridge with a gate which is shut every evening, and at which is placed the principal guard. This island being too small for the increasing population, houses were built on a tongue of land to the w. of the town, which was the only part free from inundation ; and this has now become the residence of the merchants, and the principal place. The total population of Puerto Cavello is 7600, of which, excepting the military and the officers of government, none are of the nobility. The whites are generally employed in trade and navigation ; the chief correspondence being with the ports of the continent or the neighbouring colonies ; for, although the port has been open from 1798 to the trade of the metropolis, there is as yet but. little communication with it. Of about 60 vessels trading to this place, 20 at least are from Jamaica, and 20 from Cura 9 oa, whilst only four or five are from Spain. According to the custom-house books, the cargoes of these veesels are of little value ; but the revenue is defrauded, and the vessels discharge their lading on the coast before entering the port. This place supplies all the w. part of Venezuela,

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and the jurisdiction of Valencia, San Carlos, Bariquisimeto, San Felipe, and a part of the valleys of Aragoa. About 20 Europeans engross the w hole trade. All vessels trading to the neighbourhood resort here for repairs, and nothing but the unwholsoraeness of the air prevents Puerto Cavello becoming the most important port in America. This insalubrity arises from the exhalations from the rain water that accumulates in a clayey marsh to the s. of the city. It is particularly fatal to those who are not seasoned to the climate. In 1793 a Spanish squadron anchored at Puerto Cavello ; but in six months of its stay, it lost one-third of the crew; and in 1802 a French squadron in 20 days lost 16 i officers and men. It has been computed that 20,000 piastres fortes would be sufficient to drain this tatal marsh. The inhabitants are supplied by conduits with water from a river that runs into the sea one- fourth of a league w. of the town. A military commander is also at the head of the police, and is likewise the administrator of justice, his decisions being subject to an appeal to the royal audience. The people have demanded the establishment of a cahildo, but without success. They obtained in 1800 a single alcalde y who is appointed annually ; but great inconveniences have been found to arise from this arrangement.

There is no convent, and but one church, in Puerto Cavello. The foundation of another church was begun, but for want of funds it has not beeh completed. There is a military hospital, and another for the poor. The garrison consists of a company of the regiment of Caracas in time of peace ; but daring war it is reinforced from the militia and troops of the line. 'I'hcre arc from 300 to 400 galley-slaves always employed onthepiiblic works.

Puerto Cavello is 30 leagues from Caracas, in embarking for La Guaira, and 48 leagues in the direction of Valencia, Maracay, Tulraero, La Victoria, atid San Pedro. Reaumur’s thermometer is generally in August at 26°, and in January from 18° to 19°. Lat. 10° 20' «. Long. 70* 30' w. of Paris. See Puerto Cabello.)

(CAVENDISH, a township in Windsor county, Vermont, w. of Wcathersfield, on Black river, having 491 inhabitants. Upon this river, and within this township, the channel has been worn down 100 feet, and rocks of very large dimensions have been undermined and thrown down one upon another. Holes are wrought in the rocks of various dimensions and forms ; some cylindrical, from one to eight feet in diameter, and from one to 15 feet in depth ; others are of a spherical form.

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