The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,
ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]
Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.
[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre tended rights acquired by certain European na tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of
commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]
ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.
ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.
Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]
Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.
ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.
ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua temala, in the division and district of that city.
ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.
ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.
Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.
ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay man and Gomez.
ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).
ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.
ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the
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(==CATORCE, or La Purissima Concepcion De Alamos de Catorce==, one of the richest mines of New Spain, and in the intendancy of San Luis Potosi. The real de Catorce, however, has only been in existence since 1773, when Don Sebastian Coronado and Don Bernarbe Antonio de Zepeda discovered these celebrated seams, which yield annually the value of more than from 18 to ^20 millions of francs, or from 730,460/. to 833,500/. sterling.)
CAUAILLON, a settlement and parish of the French, in their possessions in St. Domingo ; situate on the coast and at the w. head, near the bay of its name, between the settlements of Torbec and Los Cayos.
CAUAIU, a small river of the same province and government as the former. It runs w. and enters the Parana, between the rivers Verde and Yocare-mini.
Cauaiu, a bay of the same island, opposite the Isla Vaca or Cow island.
CAUASAN, San Francisco Xavier de, a town of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate in the midst of the sierra of Topia, on the coast of the S. sea, on the shore of the river Plastin. It has a small port for lesser vessels, which has oftentimes been invaded by enemies. It is a curacy administered by the clergy, and to which two small settlements of Mexicaa Indians are annexed.
CAUCA, a large and copious river of the province and government of Popayán, which rises in the mountains of the government of Mariquita, and running 160 leagues from s. to?i. in which course it collects the ’waters of many other rivers, it passes near the cities of Popaj'iin, Buga, Cali, and Anserma ; from whence it is navigable until it enters the large river of the Magdalena. It is very narrow where it passes through the cities of Popayan and Antioquia, and forms the letter S, taking its course through rocks, which render its navigation very dangerous. The Indians, however, are so dexterous in guarding their canoes from running against the rocks by paddles, that it is very seldom indeed that any accident occurs to them. They call this strait Las Mamas de Caramanta, from a city which was here of this name. Many make this navigation for the purpose of avoiding a round-about journey of many days, and in a bad road through the mountains ; and it is said that some have had the good fortune to discover a route by water free from all difficulties, and that this was actually made by the pontificate of the bishop of Popayan, Don Diego de Montoy.
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rapid current, between high banks on eacli side, and pours the whole body of its water over a perpendicular rock of about 40 (some say more) feet in height, which extends quite across the river like a mill-dam. The banks of the river, immediately below the falls, are about 100 feet high.
A bridge 1100 feet long, and 24 feet wide, resting on 13 piers, was erected, at the expence of 12,000 dollars, in 1794, a mile below the falls, from which a spectator may have a grand view of them; but they appear most romantically from Lansinburgh hill, five miles e. of them. 1
(COHONGORONTO is the name of Potowraack river before it breaks through the Blue ridge, in lat, 39° 45' n. Its whole length to the Blue ridge may be about 160 miles ; from thence it assumes the name of Potowmack, which see.)
COIABAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chilques and Masques in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Calpi. An earthquake was experienced in this province in 1707, Avhich desolated many settlements ; when also happened that extraordinary phenomenon which is accredited and related by Don Cosine Bueno, geographer of Lima, as having taken place ; which was, that a small estate was by this earthquake removed from one side of the river to the other, together with the house, garden, and inhabitants, without their perceiving any thing had happened ; and as the event took place at midnight, Avhen they were all asleep, that they were not a little surprised to find themselves established in the curacy of Colcha. This extraordinary occurrence, however, has its precedent in a similar circumstance which happened in the kingdom of Quito.
COIACHI, a settlement of the missions which were held at the expence of the regulars of the company of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, 18 leagues and an half between the s. w. and s. e. of the town and real of the mines of San Felipe de Chiguagua.
COIAIMA, a settlement and head settlement of the corregimiento of this name in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of an hot temperature, produces cacao, sugar-cane, maize, ^uca<!, plantains, and an infinite quantity of cattle and swine ; but it is much infested with reptiles and insects, vipers, snakes, spiders, and mosquitoes. It also abounds in gold, and the Indians to the number of 450, who go to Santa Fe to pay their tribute, proceed in companies, and are accustomed to collect
in four or five daj's, on Die shores of the river Saldana, as much gold as is necessary for the tribute they are obliged to pay in the city.
COIOACAN, a district and alcaldia mayor of Nueva España. It is one of the most pleasant, and fertile in wheat, maize, barley, and other seeds. Nearly the whole of its population live in country houses, in gardens and orchards which produce quantities of fruit, such as pears of several kinds, peaches, apples, prunes, plums, damsons, pomegranates, quinces, oranges, and lemons, with which a great commerce is carried on rviththe city of Mexico. In some parts of this province cloths and baizes are fabricated. It belongs to the jurisdiction of the marquisate Del Valle de Oaxaca ; to which the tributes are paid, the king retaining the sum of four tomines, (a Spanish coin weighing the third part of a drachm.) The settlements of this district are,
San Angel, Chapultepec,
San Augustin de las Nuestra Senora de los
The capital, which bears the same name, is a large, pleasant, fertile, and well peopled town. It has shady arbours, country houses, and orchards and gardens, which serve as a recreation to the people of Mexico, from whence it is distant two leagues to the s. s. e. Its population amounts to 1885 Indian families. It has a good convent of the religious order of St. Dominic, and many work-shops, in which are fabricated cloths, baizes, and serges. Long. 99° 4'. Lat. 19° 20'.
COIOMEAPA, Santa Maria de, a settlement and head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Theacan in Nueva Espana. It contains 300 families of Indians, and 20 of Mustees and Mulattoes. Twelve leagues s. e. of its capital.