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The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

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finger, but of so hard a texture, that, when split, they cut exactly like a knife. These Indians speak the Tchicachan language, and with the other nations are in alliance against the Iroquees.

ABERCORN, a town of the province and colony of New Georgia, on the shore of the river Savannah, near where it enters the sea, and at a league's distance from the city of this name. [It is about 30 miles from the sea, 5 miles from Ebenezer, and 13 N W of Savannah.]

ABIDE, mountains, or serrania, of the province and government of Cartagena. They run from W to N E from near the large river of Magdalena to the province of Chocó, and the S. Sea. Their limits and extent are not known, but they are 20 leagues wide, and were discovered by Capt. Francisco Cesar in 1536; he being the first who penetrated into them, after a labour of 10 months, in which time he had to undergo the most extreme privations and excessive perils ; not that these exceeded the hardships which were endured by the licentiate Badillo, who entered upon its conquest with a fine army.

ABIGIRAS, a settlement of Indians, one of the missions, or a reduction, which belonged to the regular order of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas, of the kingdom of Quito ; founded in the year 1665, by the father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Curarari, 30 leagues from its mouth, and 240 from Quito.

[Abineau Port, on the N side of lake Erie, is about 13 miles W S W from fort Erie. Lat. 42° 6' N Long. 79° 15' W. ]

[ABINGDON, a town at the head of the tide waters of Bush river, Harford county, Maryland, 12 miles SW from Havre-de-Grace, and 20 NE from Baltimore. Cokesbury college, instituted by the methodists in 1785, is in this town. Lat. 39° 27' 30" N Long. 76° 20' 35" W.]

[another, the chief town of Washington county, Virginia, contained but about 20 houses in 1788, and in 1796 upwards of 150. It is about 145 miles from Campbell's station, near Holston; 260 from Richmond in Virginia, in a direct line, and 310 as the road runs, bearing a little to the S of W Lat. 36° 41' 30" N Long. 81° 59' W.]

[ABINGTON, a township in Plymouth county, Massachusetts; 22 miles SE from Boston, and contains 1453 inhabitants. Lat. 42° 4' 30". ]

[another, a parish in the town of Pomfret in Connecticut. Lat. 42° 4' 30". Long. 70° 51' 30".]

[another, a village in Pennsylvania, 32 miles N of Philadelphia.]

Abipi, a small settlement of the jurisdiction of Muzo, and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a hot temperature, producing some wheat, maize, yucas, plantains, and canes ; it has been celebrated for its rich mines of emeralds, which are, however, at present abandoned from want of water; it is nearly three leagues distant from the large mine of Itoco.

ABIPONES, a nation of barbarous Indians, of the province and government of Tucuman, inhabiting the S shores of the river Bermejo. Their number once exceeded 100000; but they are certainly at present much reduced. They go naked, except that the women cover themselves with little skins, prettily ornamented, which they call queyapi. They are very good swimmers, of a lofty and robust stature, and well featured: but they paint their faces and the rest of their body, and are very much given to war, which they carry on chiefly against such as come either to hunt or to fish upon their territory. Their victims they have a custom of sticking upon lofty poles, as a landmark, or by way of intimidation to their enemies. From their infancy they cut and scarify their bodies, to make themselves hardy. When their country is inundated, which happens in the five winter months, they retire to live in the islands, or upon the tops of trees: they have some slight notion of agriculture, but they live by fishing, and the produce of the chase, holding in the highest estimation the flesh of tigers, which they divide among their relations, as a sort of precious relic or dainty ; also asserting that it has the properties of infusing strength and valour. They have no knowledge either of God, of law, or of policy; but they believe in the immortality of the soul, and that there is a land of consummate bliss, where they shall dance and divert themselves after their death. When a man dies, his widow observes a state of celibacy, and fasts a year, which consists in an abstinence from fish: this period being fulfilled, an assembly run out to meet her, and inform her that her husband has given her leave to marry. The women occupy themselves in spinning and sewing hides; the men are idlers, and the boys run about the whole day in exercising their strength. The men are much addicted to drunkenness, and then the women are accustomed to conceal their husband's weapons, for fear of being killed. They do not rear more than two or three children, killing all above this number.

Abisca, an extensive province of the kingdom of Peru, to the E of the Cordillera of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and to the S of Cuzco. It is little known, consisting entirely of woods, rivers, and lakes; and hither many barbarous nations of Indians have retired, selecting for their dwelling places the few plains which belong to the province. The Emperor Yupanqui endeavoured to make it subservient to his controul, but without success: the same disappointment awaited Pedro de Andia in his attempt to subjugate it in the year 1538.

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A G U

captainship of the Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near the coast, and runs s. s. e. entering the sea close to the cape of San Roque.

Aguada, a sharp point or small island of the S. sea, near the coast, in the province and corregimiento of Atacama.

Aguada (point in Cartagena), a point on the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cartagena. It is one of those which form the mouth of the gulph of Uraba or Darien.

AGUADILLA, a river of the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme. It rises in the mountains on the s. and enters the large river Chagre very near its mouth, and the castle of this name. Here ships take in water, on account of the convenience of a bay, for the defence of which there is, upon the shore, a battery belonging to the same castle, which was built under the directions of Don Dionisio de Alcedo, in 1743.

AGUADORES, River of the, in the island of Cuba. It runs into the sea on the s. coast of this island, having at its mouth a watch-tower and guard to give notice of vessels which may enter the port of Santiago de Cuba, from whence it is seven leagues distant.

AGUAIO, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda, in the bay of Mexico, and kingdom of Nueva España, founded in the year 1748 by the Colonel of the militia of Queretaro, Don Joseph de Escandon, Count of Sierra Gorda.

Aguaio, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Miguel, in the new kingdom of Leon, inhabited by Spaniards ; 10 leagues distant from La Punta.

AGUAIUS, a settlement of the province and government of Quixos and Marcas in the kingdom of Quito.

AGUAGE, a settlement and real of mines of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva España. Lat. 29°w. Long. 111° 5'

AGUAJES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguna, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, situate on the shore of the river of Las Nasas.

AGUALEI, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, which rises in the sierras of Usupama, and enters the Caroni on the e. side.

AGUALULCO, a settlement and capital of the jurisdiction of [Izatlan]] in Nueva Galicia. It has a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and in 1745 it contained upwards of 100 families of Indians, including the wards of its district; 17 leagues w. of Guadalaxara. Lat. 20° 44' n. Long. 103° 33' w.

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AGUAMENA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Santiago de las Atalayas, and government of San Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, annexed to the curacy of that city. It is of a hot temperature, and produces the same fruits as the other settlements of this province.

AGUAMIRO, a settlement of the province and cer re gimiento of Huamalies in Peru, celebrated for some medicinal and very salutary baths.

AGUAN, a river of the province and government of Honduras, which runs into the sea at the gulph of this name.

AGUANATO, Santa Maria de, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Puruandiro, ^.nAalcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a cold temperature, situate at the foot of the sierra of Curupo, and contains 36 families of Indians, who gain their livelihood by trading in dressed hides. Sixteen leagues from Pasquaro or Valladolid.

AGUANO, a lake of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito. ' It is formed by an arm or channel of the river Guallaga, and is very near the shore of that river.

AGUANOS, San Antonio de, a settlement of the province and government of Mainas in the kingdom of Quito ; one of those which belonged to the missions held there by the Jesuits, and thus called from the nation of Indians of whom it is composed. It was founded in 1670 by the father Lorenzo Lucero.

Aguanos, another settlement, with the dedicatory title of San Francisco, in this province, and of these missions.

AGUAPAI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay. It rises between the Parana and the Uruguay, near the settleiment of San Carlos, runs j. forming a curve, and returning c. enters the last of the above rivers not far from the settlement of La Cruz.

Aguapai, another river of the same province and government, which runs w. and enters the Parana close to the Juan Gazu.

AGUAPEI, a river of the same province and government as the two former. It is very small, and rises in the mountains of Nuestra Senora de Fe ; runs from n. to s. and enters the Parana.

AGUARAU, a river of the province and government of Paraguay, which runs w. and enters the Parana between the Inau and Piray .

AGUARICO, San Pedro de, a settlement of Indians, converted by the missions of the Jesuits, in the province and government of Mainas; situate on the shore of the river Napo.

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[1803 amounted to 5,500,000, and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 4,000,000 dollars. He also states the population in 1808 at 900,000 souls. The receipts of Caracas, Guatemala, and Chile, are consumed within the country. The population of some of the chief cities is thus stated ; Caracas 40,000, La Guaira 6000, Puerto Cabello 7600, Coro 10,000. The harbour, or La Vela de Coro, as it is commonly called, and its environs, are supposed to contain not less than 2000. In 1797 three state prisoners were sent from Spain to Caracas, on account of their revolutionary propensities. Being treated with great indulgence by the officers and soldiers to whose care they were committed, they formed the project of a conspiracy against the government. They engaged a number of persons, some of them of consequence, in their party. After gaining their first converts, the spirit did not spread. The coldness and apathy of the people did not admit of the effervescene they desired. After the plot had been kept a secret for many months it was disclosed to the government. Some of the ringleaders escaped, and others were taken. It was found that seventy-two had entered into the conspiracy; six were executed. The rest either escaped, or were sent to the galleys or banished from the country. For an account of the recent revolution in Caracas, see Venezuela.]

Caracas, some islands of the N. sea near the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Cumana. They are six in number, all small and desert, serving as places of shelter to the Dutch traders, who carry on an illicit commerce on that coast.

Caracas, a small port of the coast of Tierra Firme, in the province and government of Vene;zuela, between the capital and cape Codera.

CARACHE, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, situate n. of the city of Truxillo, on the shore of a small river which enters the Matazan.

CARACHIS, San Carlos de a settlement of the province and country of the Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which belonged to the abolished order of the Jesuits. It is at the mouth of the river Huerari, where this enters the Maranon.

CARACOA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Parinacoche in Peru, where there is a spring of warm medicinal water.

CARACOL, Port, on the coast of the S. sea, and of the province and government of Panamá ; it is near the point of Garachine, behind mount Zapo.

CARACOLI, a port of the coast of the kingdom of Tierra Firme, and of the province and government of Venezuela, to the w., of cape Codera.

Caracoli, a bay formed by the s. coast, in the province and government of Darien, of the kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it lies at the back of point Garachine.

Caracoli, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande de la Magdalena, and on the n, of the town of Maria.

CARACOLLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Oruro in Peru, eight leagues distant from its capital.

=CARACOTO== a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lampa in Peru.

Caracoto, another, in the province and corregimienlo of Sicasica in the same kingdom.

==CARAGAIAS, a town of the island of Cuba, situate on the n. coast between Cadiz and Nizao,

CARAGUATAI, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; it runs s. s. w. and enters the Ayum or Yumeri.

CARAGUET, a small river of Nova Scotia or Acadia ; it runs e. and enters the sea in the gulf of St. Lawrence, opposite the island of its name.

CARAHUACRA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy ofYauli.

CARAIBAMBA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Chalvanca.

CARAIMA Alta, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Quillota in the kingdom of Chile ; situate on the coast between point Caraimilia and point Pena Blanca.

CARAIMILLA, a settlement on the coast of the province and corregimiento aforementioned, between point Caraima Alta, and the isle of Obispo.

CARAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada.

CARAMANTA, a city of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Gratiada ; founded by Sebastian de Benalcazar in 1543, near the river Cauca. Its temperature is hot and unhealthy, but it is fertile in maize, vegetables, grain, and abounds with herds of swine : near it are many small rivers which enter the Cauca, and some salt pits of the whitest salt. On the mountains within its jurisdiction, are some settlements of barbarian Indians very little known. This city is indifferently peopled, and is 65 leagues distant to the n. e. of Popayan, and 50 from Antioquia. Long. 75° 33' w. Lat. 5° 58' «.

CARAMATIBA, a settlement of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil ; situate on the shore of the river Carabatang.

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Rio Negro, on a great island formed by this river and that of Pasimoni.

Carlos, San, a bay of the w. coast of Florida, 45 leagues from the soundings of Tortuguilla. Lat. 27° 10'. Long. 284° 30'.

Carlos, San, a small island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, in the interior of the same, and very close upon the coast.

Carlos, San, a river of the island of Guadalupe, which runs nearly due n. e. and enters the sea in the bay of the Great Cul de Sac.

Carlos, San, a settlement (with the surname of Real) of the province and government of Buenos Ayres ; situate on the shore of the river La Plata, near the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese. In its vicinty, on the n. n. e. part, there is a lake of very good sweet water.

Carlos, San, an island of the straits of Magellan, between the mountain of the Pan de Azucar and cape Galand of the n. coast.

Carlos, San, a valley in the province and government of Tucumán, which is very fertile in vines, wheat, maize, carob-trees, tar, and in birds and animals of the chase. Its natives are those who most of all infested the Spaniards when they conquered this province.

Carlos, San, a settlement and fort of the island of St. Christopher, one of the Antilles.

Carlos, San, another, of the island of Cuba; situate on the n. coast, on the point of land called the Pan de Mantanzas.

Carlos, San, another, of the province and government of Maracaibo ; situate in the island Paxara, on the shore of the Gran Laguna, or Great lake.

Carlos, San, another, of the province and country of Las Amazonas ; a reduccion of the missions which were held there by the regulars of the society of Jesuits. It lies between the rivers Araucaso and Shiquita, in the territory of the Cahumaris Indians.

Carlos, San, another, of the province and government of Guatemala ; situate on the shore of the river of S. Juan, or Del Desaguadero.

Carlos, San, some sierras or mountains, called De Don Carlos, in the province and captainship of Rey in Brazil. They run parallel to the sierra of Los Difuntos, in the extremity of the coast formed by the mouth of the river La Plata.

CARLOSAMA, a large settlement of Indians of the province and corregimiento of Pastes in the kingdom of Quito, on the 5. shore of the river of its name. Its territory is most fertile, but the climate is very cold, and the streets almost always

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Impassable. It is to the zo. n. zo. of the settlement of Ipialos, and e. n. e. of that of Cumbal.

CARLTON, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district and parish of St. Thomas.

CARLUTAS, a river of the province and captainship of Rio Grande in Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs s. s. e. and enters the sea between the Genibabu and the Rio Grande.

CARMA, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Porco in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Porco.

(CARMEL, a township in Dutchess county, New York. By the state census of 1796, 237 of its inhabitants were electors.)

(CARMELO, a river on the coast of New Albion, s. e. of Francisco bay. A little n. from it is Sir Francis Drake’s harbour, where that navigator lay five weeks.)

Carmelo, Sierras del, a cordillera of very lofty mountains of the province of California ; they run to the sea-shore from the sierra of the Enfado, as far as the cape of San Lucas.

CARMEN, a river of the province and colony of Surinam, in the part of Guayana possessed by the Dutch. It rises in the sierra of Rinocote, runs from w. to e. and gathering the waters of many others, enters in a large body into the Mazarroni.

Carmen, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate in the district of the mountains of Marca, between those of San Jacinto and San Francisco de Asis. It is one of those new settlements that were founded by the Govemor Don Juan Pimienta in 1776.

Carmen, another settlement, with the addition of Frayeles de el, which is the village of the province and captainship of Todos Santos in Brazil ; situate between the rivers Rans and Tucumbira.

Carmen, another, in the same kingdom ; situate near a stream and on the shore of the river Tocantines, on the e. side, and not far from the Arrayal of San Feliz.

Carmen, a large island of the gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, near the coast, between the islands of San Ildefonso and Agua Verde.

Carmen, a town of the province and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil ; situate on the shore and at the head of a river which gives it this name.

CARMOT, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca la Grande in Peru ; situate on the shore of the river Chicama.

CARNELAND, Islas de, islands near the coast of the province and government of Honduras,

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an hermitage dedicated to St. Denis the Areopagite. It lies to the s. of the city of Barquisimeto, Between that of Tucuyo and the lake of Maracaibo. (Carora is 30 leagues to the s. of Coro. Its situation owes nothing to nature but a salubrious air. Its soil, dry and covered with thorny plants, gives no other productions but such as owe almost entirely their existence to the principle of heat. They remark there a sort of cochineal silvestre as fine as the misleca, which they suffer to perish. The land is covered with prolific animals, such as oxen, mules, horses, sheep, goats, &c. ; and the activity evinced by the inhabitants to make these advantageous to them, supports the opinion that there are but few cities in the Spanish West Indies where there is so much industry as at Carora. The principal inhabitants live by the produce of their flocks, whilst the rest gain their livelihood by tanning and selling the hides and skins. Although their tanning be bad, the consumer cannot reproach the manufacturer, for it is impossible to conceive how they can sell the article, whatever may be its quality, at the moderate price it fetches. The skins and leather prepared at Carora are used in a great degree by the inhabitants themselves for boots, shoes, saddles, bridles, and strops. The surplus of the consumption of the place is used throughout the province, or is sent to Maracaibo, Cartagena, and Cuba. They also manufacture at Carora, from a sort of aloe disthica, very excellent hammocs, which form another article of their trade. These employments occupy and support a population of 6200 souls, who, with a sterile soil, have been able to acquire that ease and competency which it appears to have been the intention of nature to deny them. The city is well built ; the streets are wide, running in straight parallel lines. The police and the administration of justice are in the hands of a lieutenant of the governor and a cabildo. There is no military authority. Carora lies in lat. 9° 50' n. and is 15 leagues e. of the lake of Maracaibo, 12 n. of Tocuyo, IS n. w. of Barquisimeto, and 90 w. of Caracas.)

Carora, a great llanura of the same province, which extends 16 leagues from e. to w, and six from n. to s. It was discovered by George Spira in 1534, abounds greatly in every kind of grain and fruit, but is of a very hot temperature. Its population is not larger than that of the former city, to which it gives its name.

CARORI, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the shore of the Chirimichale, in the point of Hicacos.

(CAROUGE Point, the northernmost extremity

of the island of St. Domingo in the W. Indies ; 25 miles n. from the town of St. Jago.)

CARPE, Island of the, in lake Superior of New France, between the n. coast and Cape Breton.

CARPINTO, Punta De, a point on the coast of the province and government of the Rio del Hacha.

CARQUIN, a port of the coast of Peru and S. sea, in the province and corres^imiento of Chancay.

(CARR, a small plantation in Lincoln county, district of Maine.)

(CARRANTASCA Lagoon, or Cartago, is a large gulf on the s. side of the bay of Honduras, about 70 miles n. w. of cape Gracios a Dios, and nearly as far s. e. from Brewer’s lagoon.)

CARRASCAL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuio in the kingdom of Chile; situate s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shore of the river of this name.

CARRETAS, Puerto de las, a port in the sierra of its name, in Nueva España,

CARRETO, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena ; situate on the shore of the cano or dike near the sea-coast.

Carreto, a river of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firme ; it rises in the mountains of the n, coast, and enters the sea behind the bay of Calidonia.

CARRION DE Velazco, a small but beautiful and well peopled city of the kingdom of Peru, in the pleasant llanura of Guaura ; it is of a mild, pleasant, and healthy climate, of a fertile and delightful soil, and inhabited by a no small number of distinguished and rich families.

CARRIZAL, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela; situate on the coast and point of Coro, to the n. of this city.

Carrizal, sierra or chain of mountains of the same province and government, which runs from e. to w. from the shore of the river Guarico to the shore of the Guaya.

Carrizal, another settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate near a river, between the settlements of Bategui and San Marcelo.

Carrizal, another, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua in the kingdom of Chile, to the s. of the city of Mendoza, and on the shore of the river of this name.

Carrizal, another, of the province and government of the Rio del Hacha, situate on the coast of the country of the Guajiros Indians, be-

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