LatAm Digital Edition and Gazetteer

Pages That Need Review

The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]

Needs Review

tlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Xochimilco, in the same kingdom. It contains 210 Indian families, including those of its wards.

ACUA, a river of the kingdom of Brazil, in the island of Joanes or Marajo. It runs s. s. e. and enters the large arm of the river of the Amozonas.

ACUIAPAN, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Zultcpec in Nueva Espana, situate between two craggy steeps, and annexed to the curacy of Temascaltepec. It contains 38 Indian families, who carry on a commerce by the dressing of hides of large and small cattle. Six leagues n. of its capital.

ACUILPA, a settlement of the head settlement of Olinala, and alcaldia mayor of Tlapa, in Nueva Espana. It is of a hot and moist temperature, abounding in grain, chia, (a white medicinal earth), seeds, and other productions, with which its inhabitants carry on a trade* These consist of 92 Indian families. It is a little more than three leagues from its head settlement.

ACUIO, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Cinaqua in Nueva Espana; of a hot temperature, and inhabited only by nine Indian families, whose commerce consists in collecting salt and wild wax. It belongs to the curacy of Tauricato, and in its district are 11 sugar mills, and seven pastures fit for the larger cattle, and which are so extensive and considerable as to employ in them 50 families of Spaniards, and 235 of Mustees, Mulattoes, and Negroes. 30 leagues towards the s. of its capital.

ACUL, a settlement of the island of St. Domingo, in the part possessed by the French; situate on the n. coast, on the shore of the port of Petit-Goave.

ACUL, another settlement in the same island, belonging also to the French; situate s. of the Llanos of the N.

ACUL another] settlement on the s. coast, upon the bay which forms the point of Abacu.

ACUL a river of the above island. It is small, and runs into the sea behind the point of Abacu.

ACULA, San Pedro de, a settlement of the head settlement and alcaldia mayor of Cozamaloapan in Nueva Espana, situate upon a high hill, and bounded by a large lake of salubrious water, called by the Indians Puetla; which lake empties itself into the sea by the sand bank of Alvarado, and the waters of which, in the winter time, overflow to such a degree as nearly to inundate the country. It contains 305 Indian families, and is four leagues to the e. of its capital.

ACULEO, a lake of the kingdom of Chile, which empties itself into the river Maipo, famous for good fish, highly prized in the city of Santiago. It is three leagues in length, and in some parts one in breadth. It is in the district of the settlement of Maipo, of the province and corregimiento of Rancagua.

ACUMA, a river of the captainship of Seara in Brazil]]: it enters the sea between the lake Upieni and the cape of Las Sierras.

ACURAGU, Angoras, or Camosin, a river of the province and captainship of Seara in Brazil, which rises in the province of Pernambuco, runs n. for many leagues, and enters the sea between the points of Tortuga and Palmeras.

ACURAIP1TI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay, which runs s. s. e. and enters the Parana.

ACUTITLAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tepuxilco, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana. It contains 45 Indian families, who trade in sugar, honey, and maize, and many other of its natural productions. It is five leagues n. e. of its head settlement, and a quarter of a league from Acamuchitlan.

ACUTZIO, a settlement of the head settlement of Tiripitio, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 136 families of Indians, and 11 of Spaniards and Mustees. There are six large cultivated estates in its district, which produce abundance of wheat, maize, and other seeds; and these estates keep in employ eight families of Spaniards, 60 of Mulattoes, and 102 of Indians, who have also under their care many herds of large and small cattle, which breed here. It is one league and a half s. of its head settlement.

ADAES, Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Los, a town and garrison of the province of Los Texas, or Nuevas Felipinas, and the last of these settlements, being upon the confines of the French colonies. It is of a mild temperature, very fertile,. and abounding in seeds and fruits, which the earth produces without any cultivation ; such as chesnuts, grapes, and walnuts. The garrison consisis of a captain and 57 men, for the defence of the Indian settlements lately converted by the missions belonging to the religious order of St, Francis. It is 215 leagues from its capital, and 576 from Mexico. Long. 93° 35'. Lat, 32° 9'.

ADAES, a lake of the above province, about five leagues broad, and 10 in circumference, forming a gulph, in which large ships can sail with ease. It is more than 180 fathoms deep, as was once proved, when it was found that aline of that length did not reach the bottom. It abounds in a variety offish, which are caught in vast quantities without nets ;

Last edit over 5 years ago by rodeleon
Needs Review

the same being the case with regard to the numerous rivers which intersect and fertilize the province ; all of them entering and augmenting the already abundant stream of the Mississippi. In the middle of the lake is a pyramidical mount, of above 100 yards in circumference, composed of a stone similar to crystal, and being the loftiest of any in the province. Its borders abound with cattle, called cibolas, a sort of wild cow, having the neck well covered with a long and soft wool, and affording delicious food to the natives. By the fat which they procure from the numerous anteaters, which breed here, they supply {he want of oil. There are also some castors, and other kinds of mountainanimals. Two leagues from the garrison.

Adaes, a river of the above province, which runs 5. e. in the district or country of the Indians, who give it the denomination ; and enters the river Mexicano.

[ADAIZE are Indians of N. America, who live about 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yattasses, on a lake called Lac Macdon, which communicates with the division of Red river that passes by Bayau Pierre. They live at or near where their ancestors have lived from time immemorial. They being the nearest nation to the old Spanish fort, or mission of Adaize, that place was named after them, being about 20 miles from them to the s. There are now but 20 men of them remaining, but more women. Their language differs from all others, and is so difficult to speak or understand, that no nation can speak ten Avoids of it; but they all speak Caddo, and most of them French, to whom they were always attached, and join them against the Natchez Indians. After the massacre of Natchez, in 1798, while the Spaniards occupied the post of Adaize, their priests took much pains to proselyte these Indians to the Roman Catholic religion, but, we are informed, were totally unsuccessful.]

[ADAMS, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 2040 inhabitants, is about 140 miles n. w. of Boston. In the n. part of this town is a great natural curiosity. A pretty mill stream, called Hudson's brook, which rises in Vermont, and falls into the n. branch of Hoosuck river, has, for 30 or 40 rods, formed a very deep channel, in some places 60 feet deep, through a quarry of white marble. Over this channel, where deepest, some of the rocks remain, and form a natural bridge. From the top of this bridge to the water is 62 feet ; its length is about 12 or 15, and its breadth about 10. Partly undcrthis bridge, and about 10 or 12 feet below it, is another, Which is wider, but not so long ; for at the e. end they form one body of rock, 12 or 14 feet thick, and under this the water flows. The rocks here are mostly white, and in other places clouded, like the coarse marble common at Lanesborough, and in other towns in Berkshire county.]

ADAMSTOWN, a town in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, containing about 40 houses; 20 miles n. e. of Lancaster.]

ADAUA, a river of the province and government of St. Juan de los Llanos, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises between the Meta and Meteta, runs e. and enters the Orinoco in the port of San Francisco de Borja.

ADAUQUIANA, a small river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, which rises near the sierra of Parime ; and running from to. to e. enters the sources of the Cauca.

ADA YES. See Mexicano River.]

ADDI, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore of a small river, between the settlements of Uquitoa and Tibutana.

ADDIS, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, one of the Antilles ; situate in the district of the parish of Christ Church, on the s. coast.

ADDISON, a township of the district of Maine in Washington county, 10 miles s. w. of Machias, on the seaboard, between Englishmen's bay and Pleasant river. It was called No. 6. until it was incorporated in Feb. 1797.]

[Addison County], in Vermont, is on the e, side of lake Champlain, and is divided nearly int© equal parts by Otter creek ; has Chittenden county on the n. and Rutland county on the s. and contains 6449 inhabitants, dispersed in 21 townships. It is about SO miles by 27. A range of the green mountains passes through it. Chief town Middlebury, granted Nov. 1761.]

Addison, a town of the above county (Addison County), containing 401 inhabitants. It lies on lake Champlain, and is separated from Newhaven, on the e. by Otter creek. Snake mountains on the s. e. lie partly in this township, granted 1761.1

ADEQUATANGIE Creek, in New York state, is the eastern headwater of Susquehannah river.]

ADICONI, a port on the coast of the N. sea, in the province and government of Venezuela. It is e. of the peninsula of Paraguana.

[ADMIRALTY Bay, and Port Mulgrave, on the n. w. coast of America, lie in Lat. 59° 31' n. Long. 140° 18'.]

ADOLES, a settlement of Indians, of the pro

Last edit over 5 years ago by rodeleon
Needs Review




state to maintain itself. Thus the colonists lived for some years, and in time the productions in which their commerce consisted, increased to such a degree as to have caused them to excel all the other English colonies,

ALUEMAur.E, another county or part of Vir ginia, washed by the river Fluvana on the s. which divides itself into several branches, and adds much to the fertility of the country. It is bounded e. by the county of Goochland, w. divided by a chain of mountains of Augusta, and by that of Louisa on the «. [It contains 12,585 inha bitants, including 5579 slaves. Its extent, about S5 miles square.]

Albemarle, a strait, which is the mouth or entrance into the sea of the river Roanoke.

ALBERTO, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Tlazintla, and alcafdia mayor of Ixmiqailpan, in Nueva Espana.

[ALBION, New, the name given by Sir Francis Drake to California, and part of the n. w. coast of America, when he took possession of it. A large uncertain tract of the n. w, coast is thus called. Its limits, according to Mr. Arrow smith’s chart, are between 27° 12' and 41° 15' 71. lat. Humboldt asserts, that, agreeably to sure historical data, the denomination of New Albion ought to be limited to that part of the coast which extends from the 43° to the 48°, or from Cape White of Martin de x\guilar, to the entrance of Juan de Fuea. Besides, he adds, from the mis sions of the Catholic priests to those of the Greek priests, that is to say, from the Spanish village of San Francisco, in New California, to the Russian establishments on Cook river at Prince William’s bay', and to the islands of Kodiac and Unalaska, there are more than a thousand leagues of coast inhabited by' free men, and stocked with otters and Phocre! Consequently, the discussions on the extent of the New Albion of Drake, and the pre tended rights acquired by certain European na tions, from planting small crosses, and leaving inscriptions fastened to trunks of trees, or the burying of bottles, may be considered as futile. The part of the coast on which Capt. Cook landed on the 7th of March 1778, and which some desig nate as Nezo Albion, is in n. lat. 44° 33'. e. long. 235° 10', which he thus describes : “ The land is lull of mountains, the tops of w hich are covered with snow, while the vallies between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as well as low, are covered with trees, which form a beautiful prospect, as of one vast forest. At first the natives seemed to prefer iron to every other article of

commerce; at last they preferred brass. They were more tenacious of their property than any of the savage nations that had hitherto been met with ; so that they would not part with wood, water, grass, nor the most trifling article without a compensation, and were sometimes very unrea sonable in their demands.” See Calii^ornia, New.]

ALBOR, a small island of the N. or Atlantic sea, one of the Bahamas, between those of Neque and 8. Salvador.

ALBUQUERQUE, Santa Rosa de, a settle ment and real of the silver mines of the alcaldia mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espana. It is 19 leagues s. w. of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltcnango.

Albuquehque, a townof New Mexico, situate on the shore of the Rio Grande (large river) of the N. [opposite the village of Atrisco, to the w. of tlie Sierra Obseqra. Population 0000 souls.]

Albuquerque, a small island, or low rocks, of the N. sea, near that of 8. Andres.

ALCA, a settlement of the province and corre gimienlo of Condensuyos of Arequipa in Peru.

ALCALA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Chiapa, and kingdom of Gua temala, in the division and district of that city.

ALCAMANI, a branch of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Igualapa in Neuva Espana, and two leagues to the n. of the same.

ALCANTARA, S. Antonio de, a town of the province and captainship of Maranam' in the kingdom of Brazil. It luis been frequently invaded by the infidel Indians, who destroyed its work shops, so that its inhabitants have been much reduced.

Alcantara, S. Antonio de, another settle ment in the province and district of Chanco, in the kingdom of Chile, near the shore of the rivec Mataquino.

ALCARAI, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres. It runs e. and enters the river La Plata between those of Lay man and Gomez.

ALCATRACES, Ishmd of the, one of those which lie n. of St. Domingo, between the s. point of the Caico Grande, and the Panuelo Quadrado, (square handkerchief).

ALCIIICHlCd, 8 . Martin de, a ward of the head settlement erf the district and alcaldia mayor of Izucar in Nueva Espana, belonging to that of Santa Maria de la Asuncion.

ALCHIDOMAS, a settlement of the province of the Apaches in Nuevo Mexico, situate on the

Last edit over 5 years ago by rodeleon
Needs Review




shore of the Rio Grande Colorado, (large coloured river), or of the North.

ALCO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chumbivilcas in Peru, annexed to the curacy of Libitaca.

ALCOHOLADES, a nation of Indians of the province of Venezuela. They are of a docile and affable disposition, and live upon the borders of the lake Maracaibo. Their numbers are much diminished, from the treatment they received from the German Weltzers, who, through a covetousness to possess the gold of these people, killed the greater part of them.

ALCOZAUCA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Tlapa in Nueva Espana. It contains 104 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees; not a single Indian dwells in it. It is of a mild temperature, and in its district were the once celebrated mines of Cayro, which were crushed in and destroyed, having been almost unparalleled for the quantity of silver that they produced. Eight leagues from its capital.

ALDAS, a small settlement or ward of the head settlement of the district of Santa Ana, and alcaldia mayor of Zultepec, in Nueva Espana.

ALDEA, DEL Espiritu Santo, a settlement of the province and captainship of Tondos Santos in Brazil, situate on the coast, at the mouth of the river Joana.

Aldea, del Espiritu Santo, another settlement of the province and captainship of Seregipe, in the same kingdom (Brazil), situate on the shore, and at the entrance of the river Real.

[ALDEN, Fort, in Cherry Valley, in the state of New York.]

ALU WORT, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district and parish of Santiago, on the coast.

ALEBASTER, or Eleuthera, an island of the channel of Bahama. See Alabaster.

ALEGRE, a settlement of the province and captainship of S. Vincente in Brasil, situate s. of the settlement of Alto.

[ALEMPIGON, a small lake northward of lake Superior.]

ALEXANDRIA, a city of Virginia, [formerly called Belhaven, and situated on the southern bank of the Patowmac river, in Fairfax county, about five miles s. w. from the Federal city, 60 L from Baltimore, 60 n, from Fredericksburgh, 168 n. of Williamsburgh, and 290 from the. sea; 38° 54' n. lat. and 77° 10' w. long. Its situation is elevated and pleasant. The soil is clayey. The original settlers, anticipating its future growth and importance, laid out the streets

on the plan of Philadelphia. It contains about 400 houses, many of which are handsomely built, and 2748 inhabitants. This city, upon opening the navigation of Patowmac river, and in consequence of its vicinity to the future seat of the federal government, bids fair to be one of the most thriving commercial places on the continent. Nine miles from hence is Mount Vernon, the celebrated seat of the late General Washington.]

[Alexandria, a township in Grafton county. New Hampshire, containing 298 inhabitants, incorporoted in 1782.]

[Alexandria, a township in Hunterdon county. New Jersey, containing 1503 inhabitants, inclusive of 40 slaves.]

[Alexandria, a small town in Huntingdon county, Pennsylvania, on the Frankstown branch of Janiatta river, 192 miles n. w. of Philadelphia.]

ALEXO, S. an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Brazil, in the province and captainship of Pernambuco, between the river Formoso and Cape S. Agustin.

ALFARO, S. Miguel de, a settlement of the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians; situate on the shore of the river Ubay. It has a good port, from whence it is also known by the name of Port of the Chiquitos. It is, however, at present destroyed, and the ruins alone remain.

ALFAXAIUCA, a settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Kilotepec in Nueva Espana. It contains 171 Indian families, and is seven leagues e. n. e. of its capital.

ALFEREZ, Valley of the, in the province and correscimienlo of Bogota in the new kingdom of Granada.

Alfeuez, a river of the province and captainship Rey in Brazil; it runs w. and enters the lake of Mini.

[ALFORD, a township in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, containing 577 inhabitants ; 145 miles w. from Boston.]

[ALFORDSTOWN, a small town in Moor county, North Carolina.]

ALfjrARROBO, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the new kingdom of Granada ; situate on the bank of an arm of the river Perico, in an island which it forms in th« serranias of Guamoca.

ALGODON, Island of the, one of those which are in the N. sea, between the s. point of the Cayco Grande and the Panuelo Quadrado.

Algodon, a settlement of the same name. See Biezmet.

ALGODONALES, a .settlement of the province

Last edit over 5 years ago by admin
Needs Review



[spirit, the famous Andalucian race, from which they sprang. Nor has Nature exhausted her bounty on the surface of the earth ; she has stored its bowels with riches ; valuable mines of gold, of silver, of copper, and of lead, have been discovered in various parts of it. A country distinguished by so many blessings, we may be apt to conclude, would early become a favourite station of the Spaniards, and must have been cultivated with peculiar predilection and care ; instead of this, a great part of it remains unoccupied. In all this extent of country there are not above 80,000 white inhabitants, and about three times that number of Negroes and people of a mixed race. The most fertile soil in America lies uncultivated, and some of its most promising mines remain unwrought.” 16. Of rain . — From the beginning of spring until autumn, there is throughout Chile a constant succession of fine weather, particularly between tlie 24° and 36° of latitude ; but in the islands, which for the most part are covered with woods, the rains are very frequent, even in summer. Tlie rainy season on the continent usually commences in April, and continues until the end of August. In the n. provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo it very rarely rains ; in the central ones it usually rains three or four days in succession, and the pleasant weather continues 15 or 20 days ; in the s. the rains are much more frequent, and often continue for nine or ten days without cessation. These rains are never accompanied with storms or hail, and thunder is scarcely known in the country, particularly in places at a distance from the Andes, where, even in summer, it is seldom ever heard. Lightning- is wliolly unknown in the province of Chile; and although, in the abovementioned mountains, and near the sea, storms occasionally arise, yet they, according to the direction of the wind, pass over, and take their course to the n. or s. In the maritime provinces snow is never seen. In those nearer the Andes it falls about once in five years ; sometimes not so often, and the quantity very trifling; it usually melts while falling, and it is very uncommon to have it remain on the ground for a day. In the Andes, however, it falls in such quantities from April to November, that it not only lies there constantly during that time, but even renders them wholly impassable during the greater part of the year. The highest summits of these mountains, which are constantly covered with snow, are distinguishable at a great distance l)y their whiteness, and form a very singular and pleasing appearance. Those of the inhabitants who are not sufficiently wealthy to have ice-houses, procure

snow from the mountains, which they transport upon mules. The consumption of this article is very considerable, as a general use is made of it in summer to cool their liquors. The maritime countries being at a distance from the Andes, do not enjoy this advantage, but they feel the privation of it less, as the heat is much more moderate upon the coast than in the interior. In the midland provinces is sometimes seen, in the month of August, a white frost, accompanied by a slight degree of cold, which is the greatest that is experienced in those districts. This coldness continues two or throe hours after sun-rise; from which time the weather is like that of a fine day in spring. The dews are abundant throughout Chile in the spring, summer, and autumual nigids, and in a great measure supply the want of rain during those seasons. Although the atmosphere is then loaded with humidity, its salubrity is not injured thereby, for both husbandmen and travellers sleep in the open air with perfect security. Fogs arc common on the coast, especially in the autumn ; they cordinue but a few hours in the morning, and as they consist only of watery particles, are not prejudicial either to the health of the inhabitants, or to the vegetation.

17. Winds . — The n. and n. w. winds usually bring rain, and the s. and s. e. a clear sky ; these serve as infallible indications to the inhabitants, who are observant of them, and furnish themselves with a kindofbarometer to determine previously the state of the weather. The same winds produce directly contrary effects in the s. and in the n. hemisplieres. The n. and northerly winds, before they arrive at Chile, cross the torrid zone, and there becoming loaded with vapours, bring with them heat and rain; this heat is, however, very moderate, and it would seem that these winds, in crossing the Andes, which are constantly covered with snow, become qualified, and lose much of their heat and unhealthy properties. In Tucuman and Cujo, where they are known by the name of sonda^ they are much more incommodious, and are more suffocating than even the siroc in Italy. The s. winds coming immediately from the antarctic pole, are cold and dry ; these are usually from the s. w. and prevail in Chile during the time that the sun is in the hemisphere ; thej' blow constantly towards the equator, the atmosphere at that period being highly rarefied, and no adverse current of air opposing itself to their course : as they disperse the vapodrs, and drive them towards the Andes, it rains but seldom during their continuance. The clouds collected upon these mountains, uniting with those]

Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Needs Review



[w hich come from the n. occasion very heavy rains, accompanied with thunder, in all the provinces bey ond the Andes, ^particularly in those of Tucuman and Cujo, while at the same time the atmosphere of Chile is constantly clear, and its inhabitants enjoy their finest season. The contrary takes place in winter, wl)ich is the fine season in these provinces, and the rainy in Chile. Thes. wind never continues blowing during the whole day with the same force ; as the sun .approaclics the meridian, it falls very considerably, and rises again in the afternoon. At noon, when this wind is scarcely perceptible, a fresh breeze is felt from the sea, which continues about two or three hours ; the husbandmen give it the name of the twelve o’clock breeze, or the countryman’s watch, as it .serves to regulate them in determining tliat hour. Th is sea-breeze returns regularly at midnight, and is supposed to be produced by the tide; it is stronger in autumn, and sometimes accompanied with hail. The e. winds rarely prevail in Chile, their course being obstructed by the Andes. Hurricanes, so common in the Antilles, are unknowu here; there exists indeed a solitary example of a hurricane, which, in 1633, did much injury to the fortress of Caremalpo, in the part of Chile. The mild temperature which Chile almost always enjoys must depend entirely upon the succession of these winds, as a situation so near thetroj)ic would naturally expose it to a more violent degree of heat. In addition to those, the tide, the abundant dews, and certain winds from the Andes, which are distinct from the e. wind, coot the air so much in summer, that in the shade no one is ever incommoded with perspiration. The dress of the inhabitants of the sea-coast is the .same in the winter as in the summer ; and in the interior, Avhere the heat is more perceptible than elsewhere, Reaumur’s thermometer scarcely ever exceeds 25°. The nights, throughout the country, are generally of a very agreeable tem.pcraturc. Notwithstanding the moderate heat of Chile, all the fruits of Avarin countries, and even those of the tropics, arrive to great perfection there, Avhich renders it probable that the Avarmth ofthe soil far exceeds that ofthe atmosphere. The countries bordering on the e. of Chile do not enjoy these refreshing winds ; the air there is suffocating, and as oppressive as in Africa under the same latitude.

18. ]\Teleors . — Meteors are A'ery frequent in Chile, especially those called shooting stars, which arc to be seen there almost the Avliole year ; also balls of fire, that usually rise from the Andes, and fall into the sea. The aurora australis, on the the contrary, is very uncommon ; that which was

observed in 1640 was one of the largest; it was visible, from the accounts that have been left us from the month of February until April. During this century they have appeared at four different times. This phenomenon is more frequently visible in the Archipelago of Chiloe, from the greater elevation ofthe pole in that part of the country.

19. Volcanoes . — That a country producing such an abundance of sulphureous, nitrous, and bituminous substances, should be subject to volcanic eruptions, is not to be Avondered at. The numerous volcanoes in the cordilleras wmdd, of themselves, furnish a sufficient proof of the quantity of these combustible materials ; there are said to be 14 Avhich are in a constant state of eruption, and a still greater number that discharge smoke only at intervals. 'J’hese are all situated in that part of the Andes appertaining to Chile, and nearly in the middle of that range of mountains ; so that the lava and ashes thrown out by them never extend beyond their limits. These mountains and their vicinities are found, on examination, to contain great quantities of sulphur and sal-ammoniac, marcasite in an entire and decomposed state, calcined and crystaliized stones, and various metallic substances. The greatest eruption ever known in Chile was that of Peteroa, Avhich happened on the Sd of December 1760, when that volcano formed itself a new crater, and a neighbouring mountain Avas rent asunder for many miles in extent; the eruption was accompanied by a dreadful explosion, Avhich Avas heard throughout the whole country ; fortunately it Avas not succeeded by any very violent shocks of an earthquake : the quantify of lava and ashes was so great that it filled the neighbouring valleys, and occasioned a rise of tlie Avaters of the Tingeraca, which continued for many days. At the same time the course of the Lontue, a very considerable river, was impeded for 10 days, by a part of the mountain which fell and filled its bed ; the Avater at length forced itself a passage, overfloAved all the neighbouring plains, and formed a lake which still remains. In the Avhole ofthe country not included in the Andes, there are but two volcanoes ; the first, situate at the mouth of the river Rapel, is small, and discharges only a little smoke from time to time ; the second is the great volcano of Villarica, in the country of Arauco. This volcano may be seen at the distance of 130 miles ; and although* it appears to be insulated, it is said to be connected by its base Avith the Andes. 'J'he summit of the mountain is covered with snoAv, and is in a constant state of eruption ; it is 14 miles in circumference at its base, which is principally covered with]

Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Needs Review

440 . C H

ipleasant forests : a great number of rivers derive *heir sources from it, and its perpetual verdure turnishes a proof that its eruptions have never been very violent.

20. Earthquakes . — The quantity of inflammable substances with which the soil of Chile abounds, rendered active by the electric fluid, may be considered as one of the principal causes of earthquakes, the only scourge that afflicts this favoured cotintry. Another, however, not less capable of producing this terrible phenomenon, is the elasticity of the air contained in the bowels of the earth, in consequence of the water which, insinuating itself by subterranean passages from the sea, becomes changed into vapour. This hypothesis will explain why the provinces to the e. of the Andes, at a distance from the sea, are so little incommoded by earthquakes. Two, however, Copiapo and Coquimbo, although near the sea, and as rich in minerals as the others, have never suffered from earthquakes ; and whilst the other parts of the country have been violently shaken, these have not experienced the least shock, or been but slightly agitated. It is a general opinion that the earth in these provinces is intersected by large caverns. The noises heard in many places, and which appear to indicate the passage of waters, or subterraneous winds, seem to confirm this opinion, and it is highly probable that by affording a free vent to the inflamed substances, these caverns may serve to counteract the progress of those convulsions to which the neighbouring country is subject. The inhabitants usually calculate three or four earthquakes at Chile annually, but they are very slight, and little attention is paid to them. The great earthquakes happen but rarely, and of these not more than five have occurred in a period of 244 years, from the arrival of the Spaniards to the present period, J8I2. From a course of accurate observations it has been ascertained, that earthquakes never occur unexpectedly in this country, but are always announced by a hollow sound proceeding from a vibration of the air; and as the shocks do not succeed each other rapidly, the inhabitants have sufficient time to provide for their safety. They have, however, in order to secure themselves at all events, built their cities in a very judicious manner ; the streets are left so broad that the inhabitants would be safe in the middle of them, should even the bouses fall upon both sides. In addition to this, all the houses have spacious courts and gardens, which would serve as places of refuge ; those who are wealthy have usually in their gardens several i^eat wooden barracks, where they pass the night whenever they are

I L E.

threatened wdth an earthquake. Under these circumstances the Chilians live without apprehension, especially as the earthquakes have never been hitherto attended with any considerable sinking of the earth, or falling of buildings ; this is probably owing to subterranean passages coramunicatinowith the volcanoes of the Andes, w Inch are so many vent-holes for the inflamed substances, and serve to counteract tlieir effects. Were it not for the number of these volcanoes, Chile would, in all probability, be rendered uninhabitable. Some pretend that they can foretel an earthquake from certain changes in the atmosphere : although tins does not appear to be impossible, it is altogetlier discredited by many of the best writers on Chile : these observe that they will occur both in the rainy and dry seasons, during a storm as well as a calm.

21. Some detail of productions . — Chile produces none of those dangerous or venomous animals which are so much dreaded in hot countries ; and it has but one species of small serpent, which is perfectly harmless, as the French academicians ascertained when they went to Peru, in 1736, to measure a degree of the meridian. IJIIoa also, in his Voyage, part II. vol. 111. observes, “ This country is not infested by any kind of insect except the chiguas, or pricker, or any poisonous reptile ; and although in the w oods and fields some snakes are to be found, their bite is by no means dangerous ; nor does any savage or ferocious beast excite terror in its plains. The puma, or American lion, which is sometimes met w'ith in the thickest and least frequented forests, is distinguished from the African lion, both by its being without a mane and its timidity ; there is no instance of its ever having attacked a man, and a person may not only travel, but lie down to sleep with perfect security, in any part of the plain, and even in the thickest forests of the mountains. Neither tigers, wolves, nor many other ferocious beasts that infest the neighbouring countries, are known there. Probably the great ridge of the Andes, which is every where extremely steep, and covered with snow, serves as a barrier to their passage. The mildness of the climate may also be unfavourable to them, as the greater part of these animals are natives of the hottest countries. Horses, asses, cattle, sheep, goats, many kinds of dogs, cats, and even mice, have been brought hither by the Spaniards. All these animals have multiplied exceedingly, and increased in size. The price of the best horses is from 100 to 500 crowns ; the asses are strong and stately, though hunted chiefly for their skins; and the mules are]

Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Needs Review


rdistinguished for being very sure-footed and active. The horned cattle have, through the favourable temperature of the climate, acquired a larger size, while their flesh has become better and more nutritive ; the sheep imported from Spain retain a wool as beautiful as that of the best Spanish sheep, each sheep yielding annually from 10 to 15 lbs. of wool ; they breed twice a-year, and have generally two at a birth. The common price of cattle throughout the country is from three to four filippi (fifteen or twenty francs), but in the seaports the price is fixed by an ancient regulation, at 10 crowns ; of which the commandant of the port receives four, and the owner six.

The different kinds of trees known in Chile amount to 97, and of these only 13 shed their leaves : amongst the plants, there are 3000 not mentioned in botanical works. _The melons here are, according to Molina, three feet long, and the only fruits unknown are medlars, service apples, three-grained medlar, and the jujubre. Of the indigenous worms, insects, &c. are 36 species, andthetunicated cuttle-fish found here is of 150 lbs. weight. There are 13 species of crabs and crawfish found on the sea-coast, and four species in the fresh waters. There are 135 species ofland-birds, and of quadrupeds 36, without those imported. The various kinds of esculent fish found upon the coast are computed by the fishermen at 76, the most of them differing from those of the n. hemisphere, and appearing to be peculiar to that sea.

Amongst the earths of this country is a clay thought to be very analogous to kaolin of the Chinese ; another kind called roro, producing an excellent black dye, and represented by Feuille and Frazier as superior to the best European blacks. The membraneous mica^ otherwise Muscovy grass, is also found here in the greatest perfection, both as respects its transparency and the size of its laminae ; of this substance the country people manufacture artificial flowers, and like the Russians, make use of it for glazing their houses. The thin plates which are used for windows are by many preferred to glass, from their being pliable and less fragile, and possessing what appears to be a peculiar property, of freely admitting the light and a view of external objects to those within, while persons without are prevented from seeing any thing in the house.

22. Present revolution. — In Chile, the authority of the mother country has been superseded by the aristocracy of the colony. The government has fallen, peaceably and without resistance, into the hands of the great Creole families, who seem hitherto to have used their power with temper and moderation. See La PijAta.]

Same name, a river of the former kingdom (Chile), in the district of Tolten Baxo. It runs w. and enters the sea between the rivers Tolten and Budi.

Same name, a point of the coast of the province and corregimienio of Arequipa,

Same name, a small island of the S. sea, in the same province and corregimiento.

CHILENO, Paso del, a ford of the river Jazegua, in the province and government of Buenos Ayres, close to the river Cordobes.

CHILERIOS, a river of the province and government of Buenos Aires. It runs North Carolinan and cnler§ the river Negro.

CHILES, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[CHILHOWEE, mountain, in the s. e. part of the state of Tennessee, and between it and the Cherokee country.]

CHILIA, a settlement of the province and |corregimiento of Caxaraarquilla and Collay in Peru.

CHILINTOMO, a mountain of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito ; inhabited by some Indians, who, although reduced to the Catholic faith, are nevertheless of such vile habits as constantly to manifest how deeply idolatry is rooted in them.

CHILIPUIN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.

[CHILISQUAQUE, a township on Susquehannah river, in Pennsylvania.]

CHILLAHUA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Carangas in Peru, and of the archbishopric of Charcas.

[CHILLAKOTHE, an Indian town]on the Great Miami, which was destroyed in 1782 by a body of militia from Kentucky. General Harmar supposes this to be the “ English Tawixtwi,” in H utchins’s map. Here are the ruins of an old fort, and on both sides of the river are extensive meadows. This name is applied to many different places, in honour of an influential chief who formerly headed the Shawanoes. See Tawixtwi.]

[Chillakothe, Old, is an Indian town destroyed by the forces of the United States in 1780. It lies about three miles s. of Little Mimia river j the country in its vicinity is of a rich soil, and is beautifully chequered with meadows.]

CHILLAN, a city, the capital of the district and corregimiento of this name (Chillan) in the kingdom of Chile. It is very small and poor, although it contains some families of distinction. It consists.


Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Needs Review




at the most, of 360 houses : for having been destroyed by tlie Araucanians, in 1599, it as never sine e been able to reach its former degree of splendour. Jt lies between the river Nuble to the n. and the Itala to the s. in lat. 35° 56' s.

another, a mountain or volcano of the same province and corregimiento (Chillan), at a little distance from the former city. On its skirts are the Indian nations of the Puclches, Pehuenches, and Chiquillanes, who have an outlet by the navigation ot the river Demante.

another, a small river of the same province (Chillan).

CHILLAOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of this name in Peru. It is of a hot temperature, and produces some tobacco and almonds.

CHILLOA, a llanura of the kingdom of Quito, near this capital, between two chains of mountains, one very lofty towards the e. and the other lower towards the s. It is watered by two principal rivers, the Pita and the Amaguana, which at the end of the llanura unite themselves at the foot of the mountain called Guangapolo, in the territory of the settlement of Alangasi, and at the spot called Las Juntas. In this plain lie the settlements of Amaguana, Sangolqui, Alangasi, and Conocoto, all of which are curacies of the jurisdiction of Quito. It is of a mild and pleasant temperature, although sometimes rather cold, from its proximity to the mountains or paramos of Pintac, Antisana, Rurainavi, and Sincholagua. Here was formerly celebrated the cavalgata, by the collegians of the head- college and seminary of San Luis dc Quito, during the vacations. The soil produces abundance of wheat and maize. It is much resorted to by the gentlemen of Quito as a place of recreation, it is eight or nine leagues in length, and six in width.

CHILLOGALLO, a settlement of the kingdomof Quito, in the district of Las Cinco Leguas de su Capital.

[CHILMARK, a township on Martha’s Vineyard island, Duke’s county, Massachusetts, containing 771 inhabitants. It lies 99 miles s. by e. of Boston. See Maktha’s Vineyard.]

CHILOE, a large island of the Archipelago or Ancud of the kingdom of Chile, being one of the 18 provinces or corregimientos which compose it. It is 58 leagues in length, and nine in width at the broadest part ; and varies until it reaches only two leagues across, which is its narrowest part. It is of a cold temperature, being very subject to heavy rains and fresh winds ; notwithstanding '

which its climate is healthy. Around it are four other islands ; and the number of settlements in these are 25, which are,

























Isla Grande.

All of these are mountainous, little cultivatad, and produce only a small proportion of wheat, barley, flax, and papas ^ esteemed the best of any in America ; besides some swine, of which hams are made, which they cure by frost, and are of so delicate a flavour as not only to be highly esteemed here, but in all other parts, both in and out of the kingdom, and are in fact a very large branch of commerce. The principal trade, however, consists in planks of several exquisite woods, the trees of which are so thick, that from each of them ars cut in general 600 planks, of 20 feet in length, and of 1| foot in width. Some of these trees have measured 24 yards in circumference. The natives make various kinds of woollen garments, such as ponchos f quilts, coverlids, baizes, and bor~ dillos. The whole of this province is for the most part poor ; its natives live very frugally, and with little communication with any other part of the world, save with those who are accustomed to come hither in the fleet once a-year. Altliough it has some small settlements on the continent, in Valdivia, yet these are more than 20 or 30 leagues distant from this place, and are inhabited by infidel Indians. These islands abound in delicate shellfish of various kinds, and in a variety of other fish ; in the taking of which the inhabitants are much occupied, and on which they chiefly subsist. This jurisdiction is bounded on the n. by the territory of the ancient city of Osorno, which was destroyed by the Araucanian Indians, by the extensive Archipelagoes of Huayaneco and Huaytecas, and others which reach as far as the straits of Magellan and the Terra del Fuego, e. by the cordilleras and the Patagonian country, and w. by the Pacific or S. sea. On its mountains are found amber, and something resembling gold dust, which is washed up by the rains, although no

Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Needs Review




mines have as yet been discovered here. These islands have some ports, but such as are small, insecure, and without any defence, with the exception of that of Chacao. The inhabitants should amount to 22,000 souls, and these are divided into 4 1 settlements or parishes, being formed by the reducciones of the missionaries of St. Francis, and consisting at the present day, for the most part, of Spaniards and Creoles. The capital is the city of Santiago de Castro, in the large island of Chiloe. [For further account, see index to additional history of Chile, chap. lY. § 35.]

CHILON, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Peru ; situate in a valley which is beautiful and fertile, and which abounds in wheat. Twenty-eight leagues from the settlement of Samaypata.

CHILOSTUTA, a settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Zedales in the kingdom of Guatemala.

CHILPANSINGO, a settlement of the intendancy of Mexico, surrounded with fertile fields of wheat. Elevation 1080 metres, or 3542 feet.

CHILQUES Y MASQUES, a province and corregimiento of Peru, bounded by the province of Quispicanchi; s.e. by that of Churabivilcas ; s. and s. w. by that of Cotabambas ; w. by that of Abancay; and n. t®. by Cuzco. Its temperature is various, the proportion of heat and cold being regulated by its different degrees of elevation ; so that in the quebradas or deep glens, it is warm, and in the sierras or mountains, cold. It is 13 leagues in length, and 25 in width ; is watered by three rivers, which are the Cusibamba, passing through the valley of this name, the Velille, and the Santo Tomas ; over these rivers are extended seven bridges, which form a communication with the other provinces. It has likewise eight small lakes, and in some of these are found water-fowl. The hot parts abound in all kinds of fruits ; in wheat, maize, pulse, potatoes, and are well stocked with some sorts of cattle, and great herds of deer. Its natives fabricate the manufactures of the country ; such as cloths, baizes, and coarse frieze, by means of chorillos, or running streams, as they have no mills for fulling, since a royal licence is necessary for the making use of the same. Although the appearance of mines has in many places been discovered amongst the mountains, yet no mines have as yet been worked, and two only have been known to have been opened in former times. This province has suffered much from earthquakes ; and the greatest of these happened in 1707, when many settlements were made desolate. It is composed of 27 settlements, and these contain 16,000 inhabitants. The capital is Paruro ; and the repariimiento of the corregimiento used to amount to 84,550 dollars, and the alcamla The other settlements are.

to 676 dollars per ann. Colcha,


San Lorenzo, Parapacucho,
























Same name, another settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in the same kingdom ; annexed to the curacy of Pucquin.

CHILTAL, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Atacames or Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito ; situate in the valley of Chota, on the shore of the river Mira.

CHILTEPEC, a settlement of the head settlement of Tepalcatepcec in Nueva Espana. Its temperature is the mildest of any part of its jurisdiction. It is situate in the middle of a plain, extending over the top of a hill, on two sides of which are large chasms, so immensely deep, that it is really astonishing to observe how the Indians contrive to cultivate the impoleras on their edges. It contains 67 families of Indians, and is five leagues to thes. of its head settlement.

Same name, a river of the province and alcaldiamayor of Tabasco, which runs into the sea.

CHILUA, San Marcos de, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Huanta in Peru ; annexed to the Curacy of Huamanguilla.

CHIMA, a mountain of the kingdom of Quito, in the government and corregimiento of Chirnbo or Guaranda, to tire zo. of the settlement of Asancoto. It is entirely covered with woods and with streams, which flow down from the heights into the plains of Babahoyo. The river named De la Chima runs from e. tow. until it joins the Caracol. A way has been opened through this mountain which leads to Guaranda or Guayaquil ; but it is passable in the summer only. There is also another pass equally difficult and dangerous, called Angas. The cold is great at the top of the mountain, and at the skirts the heat is excessive, it i.s in lat. 44' s.

3 L 2

Last edit over 5 years ago by LLILAS Benson
Displaying pages 1 - 10 of 44 in total