The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
It is distant 30 leagues to the n. of Tunja, and eight from the town of Suata.
CAPIUARI, a small river of the province and captainship of San Vincente in Brazil. It rises in the mountains near the coast, runs almost directly from e. to w. and enters the Harihambu or Tiete, between the Piraciacaba and Jundiaya.
Capiuari, another river of the province and government of the Chiquitos Indians, and in the kingdom of Peru ; it rises to the s. e. of the settlement of San Rafael, runs to the n. and enters the Ytenes with a slight inclination to the n. w.
CAPLITOILGUA, an island of the N. sea, in the straits De Magellan, one of those which form the s. coast, at the mouth of the canal of St. Isidro.
Caplitoilgua, a bay in the former island.
Capot, a bay on the coast of the same island, on its n. w. side, between the town of Carbet and the bay of Giraumont.
CAPUCINS, Morne des, or Morro de los
Capuchinos, a mountain of the island of Martinique, at the back of the city of fort Royal.
CAPUE, with the addition of Baxo (low), to distinguish it ; another settlement of the same island and dominion as the former.
CAPUIO, a small settlement of the head settlement of Etuquaro, and alcaldía mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacán ; in which district there are some cultivated lands, and in these, as well as in the settlement, reside some Spanish families, and some of the Mustees and Indians, who gain their livelihood in tilling the ground, in making lime, and cutting wood. Four leagues w. of its capital.
CAPULA, a village of a small settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Zultepec in Nueva España ; situate in the cleft or hollow part of a mountain covered with trees ; its inhabitants, who consist of 63 Indian families, make charcoal and timber, these being the articles of their commerce.
CAPULALPA, San Simon de, a small settlement of the head settlement and alcaldía mayor of Tezcoco in Nueva España, situate on the top of a hill; it has a very good convent of Franciscans, and contains 75 families of Spaniards, Mulattoes, and Mustees, and 196 of Indians : its territory is very fertile, and the most luxuriant of any in the same jurisdiction ; notwithstanding there is a lack of moisture, there being no running streams. They are used to gather most abundant crops of wheat, maize, barley, vetches, beans, and French beans ; they have large breeds of hogs, both in the village and in the farms and neighbouring fattening stalls, which they carry for sale to Mexico, to La Puebla, and other parts. One league n. of its capital.
CAPULUAC, San Bartolome de, a head settlement of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec in Nueva España; it contains 524 Indian families, including those who inhabit the wards of its district, and it is two leagues to the s. e. of its capital.
vince and government, on the shore of the river Masparro, between the cities of New and Old Barinas.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and government of La Sonora in Nueva Espana ; situate in the country of the Sobaipuris Indians, on the shore of a river which enters the Gila, between the settlements of San Cosme and San Angelo.
Catalina, Santa, another settlement of the province and alcaldia mayor of Los Zoques in the kingdom of Guatemala.
Catalina, Santa, an island of the N. sea, near the coast of Tierra Firme, opposite the Escudo de Veraguas. It is of a good temperature, fertile, and abounding in cattle and fruits. It had in it a settlement defended by two castles, called Santiago and Santa Teresa; which, together with the town, were destroyed by an English pirate, John Morgan, who took the island in 1665 ; and although it was recovered in the same year by the president of Panama and Colonel Don J uan Perez de Guzman, it remained abandoned and desert.
Catalina, Santa, a valley, in which there is also a small settlement, in the Nuevo Reyno de Leon ; annexed to the curacy of its capital, from whence it lies three leagues to the w. It contains 20 families in its neighbourhood, and produces only some sorts of pulse and some goats.
CATAMAIU, a large and rapid river of the province and government of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito, also called Chira, at the part where it enters the sea. It rises in the paramo or desert mountain of Sabanilla ; and collecting the waters of several smaller rivers, runs from s. to n. until it unites itself with tlie Gonzanama, which enters it on the s. side, in lat. S° 47' s. ; it then turns its course to the xo. and afterwards to the 5 . w. and receives the tributary streams of the rivers Quiros, Macara, and Pelingara ; all of which enter it on the s. side. Being swelled with these, it takes the name of Amotape, from the settlement of this name, situate on its shore. Near its mouth this river is called Colan, and it empties itself into the sea in the corregimiento and province ofPiura. The countries which it laves are fertile and beautiful, and its banks are covered with orchards and plantations of sugar-canes of the territory of Loxa. The climate here is very hot, and in the valleys formed by this river the inhabitants are much afflicted with the tertian fever ; its waters are generally very cold and unwliolesonic.
C E R
ters the sea between the river Rosa and the settlement and parisli of Cul de Sac.
CERINZA, a settlement of the corregimiento of Tunja in tlie Nuevo Reyno de Granada, is of a cold temperature, and abounds in cattle and the productions peculiar to the climate. It contains 300 families, and lies in a valley, from which it takes its name.
CERMEN, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela ; situate on the side of the town of San Felipe, towards the e. between this town and the settlement of Agua Culebras, on the shore of the river Iraqui.
CERRALUO, a town and presidency of the Nuevo Reyno de Leon, garrisoned by a squadron of 12 soldiers and a captain, who is governor of this district, for the'purpose of restraining the bordering infidel Indians. Between the e. and n. is the large river of this name ; and from this begins a tract of extensive country, inhabited by barbarous nations, who impede the communication and commerce Avith regard to this part and the provinces of Tejas and Nuevas Felipinas. Is 35 leagues to the e. of its capital.
Cerraluo, a bay of the coast and gulf of California, or Mar Roxo de Cortes, opposite an island which is also thus called ; the one and theother having been named out of compliment to the Marquis of Cerraluo, viceroy of Nueva Espana. TJie aforesaid island is large, and lies between the former bay and the coast of Nueva Espana.
Cerrito, another, with the surname of Santa Ana. See Ctuayaquie.
==Cerro, another, called San Miguel de Cerro Gordo==, which is a garrison of the province of Tepeguana in the kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. Its situation is similar to the road which leads to it, namely, a plain level surface ; although, indeed, it is divided by a declivity, in ivhich there is a pool of water, and by Avhich passengers usually pass. This garrison is the residence of a captain, a Serjeant , and 28 soldiers, who are appointed to suppress the sallies of the infidel Indians. In its vicinity is a cultivated estate, having a beautiful orchard, abounding in fruit-trees and in zepas, which also produce fruit of a delicious flavour. The garrison lies 50 leagues n. w. of the capital Guadiana.
Cerros, San Felipe de los, a settlement of the head settlement of Uruapa, and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mcchoacan. It contains 26 families of Indians, and lies eight leagues to the e. of its head settlement, and 10 from the capital.
CESARA, a large and copious river of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, which was called by the Indians Pompatao, meaning in their idiom, “ the lord of all rivers,” is formed of several small rivers, which flow down from the snowy sierras of Santa Marta. It runs s. leaving the extensive llamtras of Upar until it reaches the lake Zapatosa, from whence itj issues, divided into four arms, which afterwards unite, and so, following a course of 70 leagues to the w, enters the Magdalena on the <?. side, and to the s. of the little settlement called Banco.
CESARES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Chile towards the s. Of them are told many fabulous accounts, although they are, in fact, but little known. Some believe them to be formed of Spaniards and Indians, being those Avho Avere lost in the straits of Magellan, and belonged to the armada which, at the beginning of the conquest of America, Avas sent by the bishop of Placencia to discover the Malucas. Others pretend that the Arucanos, after they had destroyed the city of Osonio, in 1599, took aAvay with them the Spanish Avomen ; and that it Avas from the production of these Avomen and the Indiatis that this nation of the Cesares arose. Certain it is, that they are of an agreeable colour, of a pleasing aspect, and of good dispositions. They have some light of Christianity, live without any fixed abode ; and some have affirmed that they have heard the sound of bells in their territorj". It Avas attempted in 1638, by the governor of Tucuman, Don Geronimo
C H A
C H A
America called New South Wales. Its territory consists of a white dry sand, and it is covered with small trees and shrubs. This island has a beautiful appearance in the spring to those Avho discover it after a voyage of three or four months, and after having seen nothing but a multitude of mountains covered with frost, which lie in the bay, and in the strait of Hudson, and which are rocks petrified with eternal ice. This island appears at that season as though it were one heap of verdure. The air at the bottom of the bay, although in 51“ of hit. and nearer to the sun than London, is excessively cold for nine months, and extremely hot the remaining three, save when the n. w. wind prevails. The soil on the e. <^s well as on the w. side produces all kinds of grain and fruits of fine qualities, which are cultivated on the shore of the river Rupert. Lat. 52“ 12' n. Long. 80“ w.
CHARO, Matlazingo, the alcaldía mayor of the province and bishopric of Mechoacán in Nueva España, of a mild and dry temperature, being the extremity of the sierra of Otzumatlan ; the heights of which are intersected with many veins of metals, which manifest themselves very plainly, although they have never yet been dug out ; and in the wet seasons the clay or mud pits render the roads impassable. It is watered by the river which rises in the pool or lake of Valladolid, and by which the crops of wheat, maize, lentils, and the fruits peculiar to the place, are rendered fertile and productive. This reduced jurisdiction belongs to the Marquises of Valle, and is subject to the Dukes of Terranova. Its population is reduced to some ranchos, or meetings for the purpose of labour, and to the capital, which has the same name, and which contains a convent of the religious order of St. Augustin, this being one of the first temples built by the Spaniards in this kingdom, the present dilapidated state of it bearing ample testimony to its great antiquity. It contains 430 families of Pirindas Indians, employed in labour and in the cultivation of the land, and in making bread, which is carried for the supply' of Valladolid, the neighbouring ranchos and estates. It should also have 45 or 50 families of Spaniards, Mustees^ and Mulattoes. Is .50 leagues to the w. of Mexico, and two to the e. of Valladolid. Long. 100° 44'. Lat. 19“34'.
CHARPENTIER, Fond du, a bay of the n. e.
coast of the island of Martinique, between the town and parish of Marigot and the Pan de Azucar.
CHARRUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of Paraguay, who inhabit the parts lying between the rivers Parana and Uruguay. These Indians are the most idle of any in America, and it has been attempted in vain to reduce them to any thing like a civilized state.
Charruas, a settlement of this province and government.
Charruas, a river of the same province, which runs s. s. w. and enters the Paraná.
(Chartier’s Creek. See Canonsburg and Morganza.)
(CHARTRES, a fort which was built by the French, on the e. side of the Mississippi, three miles n. of La Prairie du Rocher, or the Rock meadows, and 12 miles n. of St. Genevieve, on the w. side of that river. It was abandoned in 1772, being untenable by the constant washings of the Mississippi in high floods. The village s. of the fort was very inconsiderable in 1778. A mile above this is a village settled by 170 warriors of the Piorias and Mitchigamias tribes of Illinois Indians, who are idle and debauched.)
tilizes the valley which gives it its name ; and runs 30 leagues, collecting the waters of many other streams, mountain floods, and rivulets, which augment it to such a degree as to render the fording of it impracticable just where it enters the sea.
CHICAMOCHA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises in the paramo or mounlaindesert of Albarracin, between that city and the city of Santa Fe, on the 7i. side : when it passes through Tunja, being then merely a rivulet, it has the name of the river of Gallinazos, which it afterwards changes for that of Sogamoso ; and for that of Chia, Avhen it passes through this settlement. It is afterwards called Chicamocha, and passes through various provinces, until it becomes incorporated with the Magdalena, into which it enters in one large mouth. A little before this it forms a good port, called De la Tora, where there was formerly a settlement, but which is at present in a state of utter ruin.
(CHICAPEE, or Chickabee, a smrdl river in Massachusetts, which rises from several ponds in Worcester county, and running s.zo. unites with Ware river, and six miles further empties into the Connecticut at Springfield, on the e. bank of that river.)
CHICASAWS, a settlement of Indians of S. Carolina, comprising the Indians of this nation, who have here many other settlements ; in all of which the English have forts, and an establishment for their commerce and defence.
Chicasaws, a river of this province, which runs w. and enters the Mississippi 788 miles from its mouth, or entrance into the sea.
(CHICCAMOGGA, a large creek, which runs n.w. into Tennessee river. Its rnoutli is six miles above the Whirl, and about 27 s. w. from the mouth of the Ilivvassee. The Chiccamogga Indian towns lie on this creek, and on the bank of the Tennessee. See Ciiickamages.)
Quiaca serving as the line of division, vo. by that of Lipes, and n. by that of Porco. The district of Tarija belonging to this corregimiento, which is 40 leagues distant from the capital of Chichas, is bounded e. by the territories of the infidel Chiriguanos, Chanaes, and Mataguayos Indians, to the first settlements of which from the last habitations of Tarija there is a narrow, craggy, and mountainous route of 14 leagues in length. It is also bounded on the n. and w. by the valley of Pilaya, and on the s, by the jurisdiction of Xuxui. The district of Chichas is 140 leagues in circumference, and that of Tarija 80, being either of them intersected by some extensive seiTanias : in the boundaries of the former there are many farms and estates for breeding cattle, where are also produced potatoes, maize, wheat, barley and other grain, likewise some wine. Here are mines of gold and silver, which were formerly very rich ; it having been usual for the principal ones to yield some thousand marks in each caxon ; this being especially the case in the mines of Nueva Chocaya, which still yield to this da}-- 60 or 60 marks. Many of the metals found in these mines are worked up for useful purposes. The mines of Chilocoa have, on the Whole, been most celebrated fortlieir riches. The rivers, which are of some note, are that of Supacha, which flows down from the cordillera of Lipes, and running e. passes through the middle of the province until it enters the valley of Cinti, of the province of Pilaya and Paspaya ; and another, called Toropalca, which enters the province of Porco, and passes on to the same part of Cinti. The inhabitants of this district amount to 6200. In the settlement of Tatasi both men and women are subject to a distressing lunacy, which causes them to run wildly and heedlessly over the mountains, without any regard to the precipices which lie in their way ; since it has generally been observed that they dash themselves headlong down : if, however, it should happen that they are not killed, the fall, they say, frequently restores them to a sane mind. The observation, that the animals of this country, namely, \\ie vicunas and the native sheep, are subject to this malady, is without foundation ; but it is thought to arise from the peculiar eflluviasof the minerals abounding here, and which have a great tendency to cause convulsions. The women of tlie aforesaid settlement, when about to bring forth children, like to be delivered of them in the low parts of the qiiebradas, or deep glens. The settlements of this province are,
Santiago de Cota- San Antonio de Rio gaiia, Blanco,