The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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constitution left the lower people little more freedom than they would have possessed under the government of the Aztec kings.]
The capital is the city of the same name, founded as far back as the time ofthegentilism of the Mexican empire, when this nation was at enmity with that of Chichimeca ; it was then one of the most populous cities, and contained 30,000 inhabitants and 300 temples, and served as a barrier to Moctezuma, in the attack against the republic of Tlaxclala ; the latter place never having been subjected to the Mexican yoke. This was the city which of all others most thwarted the designs of Hernan Cortes, but the inhabitants were discovered in the conspiracy they had laid against him, when they pretended to receive him with open arrhs and a peaceable and friendly disposition, and were made by him to suffer severely for their hypocrisy ; after which he and his whole army escaped uninjured. This city has many monuments denoting its antiquity ; and although in ancient times idolatry was here carried to its highest pitch, yet the light of the gospel has spread widely around its enlivening rays. It is of a mild and healthy temperature, rather inclined to cold than heat, being situate on a level, fertile, and beautiful plain. It has a good convent of the order of St. Francis, which is also a house of studies. Its inhabitants are composed of 50 families of Spaniards, 458 of Mustees, Mulattoes and Negroes, and 606 of Indians. On a lofty spot which lies close to the entrance, on the c. side of the city, is a handsome chapel, in which is venerated the image of the blessed virgin, which also bears the dedicatory title of Los Rentedios. It is a little more than 20 leagues to the e. of Mexico, and four from Tlaxclala. Long. 98° 14'. Lat. 19° 4'. [Its population is at present estimated at about 16,000 souls.]
CHONE, a settlement which in former times was considerable, but now much impoverished, in the ancient province of Cara, which is at present united to that of Esmeraldas. It lies upon the shore of the river Chones to the n. and is of an hot and moist climate, in lat. 33° s.
CHONES, a large river of the province of Cara in the kingdom of Quito. It runs to the w. and collects the waters of the Sanchez and theTossagua on the n. and on the s. those of the Camaron and the Platanal. At its entrance on the n. stood the city of Cara, of which the vestiges still remain. Where it runs into the sea it forms the bay of Cara, between the s. point of Bellaca and the n. point of laca. Its mouth is nearly two miles and an half wide.
CHONGO, San Miguel de, a settlement of the alcaldíta mayor of Huamelula. It is of a very cold temperature, from its being situate in the vicinity of the sierra Nevada (or Snowy) of the Chontales, which lies on the n. side of it. Its inhabitants amount to 24 families of Indians, who trade in cochineal, seeds, and fruits, of which the country, being naturally luxuriant, produces great quantities. It is watered by rivers which pass at a little distance, and is annexed to the curacy of Tepaltepec of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Nexapa, from whence it lies 20 leagues. It is-, on account of this great distance, combined with the badness of the roads, that the natives so seldom can avail themselves of any instruction in the holy faith ; dying, as they often do, without the administration of the sacraments. Indeed, there is only one day in the year, which is the 29th of September, and on which the Indians celebrate the festival of their titular saint Michael, when they are visited by their curate, who then hears their confessions and says mass. At this time this settlement has somewhat the appearance of a Catholic people ; but being all the rest of the year left to themselves, it is not to be wondered that many relapse into their pristine state of gentilisra and idolatry. Three leagues w. of its capital.
CHONGON, a settlement of Indians of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; situate near a small torrent, renowned for the stones which it washes down, of a certain crystallized matter, which being polished, resemble brilliants, and are used as buttons, rings, and other trinkets.
CHONTALES, a district of the corregimiento or alcaldia mayor of Matagulpa, in the kingdom of Guatemala and province of Nicaragua. It is but small, and its natives have this name from the Spaniards, who would by it express their natural uncouthness and stupidity.
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CINCO-SEÑORES, a settlement of the province of Tepeguana, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions of the Babosariganes Indians, held there by the regulars of the company of Jesuits. Within eight leagues to the s. of its district is a great unpeopled tract, called De las Manos, (Of the Hands), from the infidel Indians having nailed up against some temples in those parts many hands of some unfortunate Spaniards •whom they had killed, when the latter had entered the country under the idea of making proselytes.
CINGACUCHUSCAS, a barbarous nation of Indians, who inhabit the woods to the s. of the river Marañon. In 1652 they were united to the Pandabeques, and established themselves in the settlement of Xibaros of the missions of Maynas, with the exception of some few, who still remain in their idolatry, and lead a wandering life through the woods.
CINTU, a spacious llanura or plain, of the ancient province of Chimu, now Truxillo, on the coast of the S. sea. It was taken possession of by Huaina Capac, thirteenth Emperor of the Incas. It is very fertile, and of a good and healthy climate ; but it is but little inhabited.
CIPOYAY, a country and territory of the province and government of Paraguay, called also the province of Vera, towards the e. and where the nation of the Guaranis Indians dwell. It is of a hot climate, but very fertile, abounding in woods, and well watered by many rivers ; some of which run from e. to w. and enter the Uruguay, and others from s. to n. and enter the Plata.
CIPRE, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito. It takes its course from e. to w. and opposite tlie river Sola, empties itself into that of Esmeraldas, on the w. side, in lat. 28' n.
CIRANDIRO, a settlement and the capital of the alcaldia mayor of Guimeo in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It is of a hot temperature, and inliabited by 90 families of Tarascos Indians. In its vicinity is the estate of Quichandio, in which eight families of Spaniards, and 15 of Mustees and Mulattoes, are employed in making sugar. Also in the estate of Santa Maria are five families of the former. It is 75 leagues to the w. and one-fourth to the s. w. of Mexico.
[CIRENCESTER. See Marcus Hook.]
CIUAPA, a river of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile, towards the «. It is notorious from a species of fish caught in it, called tache, of an extrem.ely delicate flavour. It runs into the S. or Pacific sea, terming a small port of little depth.
CIUDAD REAL, a city of the province and government of Paraguay ; founded in 1557. by Rui Diaz Melgarejo, on the shore of the river Piquiri, three leagues from Parana. It Was destroyed by the Mamalukos Indians of San Pablo of Brazil, in 1630, and in its place was substituted the rich town of Espiritu Santo, the territory of which abounds in fruits, vines, and mines of copper. In the vicinity of the present town is a great waterfall, formed by the above river, upwards »f 3p 2
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COCHABAMBA, a province and corregU miento of Peru ; bounded n. by the cordillera of the Andes, e. by the heiglits of Intimuyo, e. by the province of Misque, s. by that of Chayanta or Charcas, s. w. by the corregimiento of Oruro, w. and n. w. by that of Cicasica. It is 40 leagues in length from n. to s. and 32 in width. This province may with justice -be called the granary of Peru, since it produces an abundance of every kind of seed, through the mildness of its climate. In the higher parts are bred a tolerable quantity of large and small kinds of cattle. It is watered by several small rivers of sweet water, which fertilize the valleys ; and in these are some magnificent estates. Almost all these small rivers become united in the curacy of Capinota ; and their waters, passing through the provinces of Misque and Charcas, become incorporated in the large river which passes on the e. side of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. In former times some mines were worked here, and from 1747, forward, great quantities of gold have been extracted from the lavaderos, or washing-places, upon the heights of Choquecamata, although this metal is not now found there in the same abundance. Some veins of it are, however, to be seen in the cordillera, although these render but little emolument. The greatest commerce carried on in this province depends upon its own productions ; and the market-place of the valley of Arque is so stocked with articles as to have the appearance of a continual fair. It has also some glass kilns, as it abounds greatly in glasswort ; likewise many sugar estates, and streams of hot waters. Its repartirniento used to amount to 186,675 dollars, and its alcavala to 1493 dollars per annum. Its inhabitants may amount to 70,000; and these are divided into 17 curacies, two others being annexed. The capital is the town of Oropcsa, and the rest are,
I Inhabited by a hardy, sober, and active race, Cochabamba (as Azara observes) has risen of late
years to a considerable state of prosperity in the manufactory of glass, cotton, &c. with which, during the late war, it has supplied the whole interior. Blessed with fertility and a moderate climate, it bids fair to be the Manchester of Peru, for 1,000,000 pounds of cotton are already annually consumed in its manufactures. Its surface abounds in a variety of salts and mineral productions, and its forests teem with woods and roots for dyeing. To these Haenke has particularly turned his attention, and has pointed out, besides several new materials for manufacture, other processes for dyeing, worthy of our adoption in Europe. This province joined the new government of Buenos Ayres in September 1810. See La Pcata.]
Same name, an extensive valley, watered by the pleasant streams of the river Condorillo, of the province of this name (Condorillo) ; in which was founded the principal settlement of the Indians, now called Oropesa.
COCHACASA, an ancient settlement of Indians, in the province of Chinchasuyu in Peru. It was one of the celebrated conquests of the hereditary prince of the Incas, Yahuar Huacae, son of the Emperor Inca Roca, sixth in the series of these inonarcbs.
of Atengo, and alcald'ia mayor of Chilapa, in Nueva Espana. It contains 27 families of Indians, and is two leagues to the n. of its head settlement.
COMALA, another settlement, in the head settlement of Almololoyan, and alcald'ia mayor of Colima. It contains 67 families of Indians, who exercise themselves in the cultivation of the lands. Two leagues to the n. e.- of its head settlement.
COMALTEPEC, another, in the alcald'ia mayor of Tecocuilco. It contains 78 families of Indians, who cultivate nothing but cochineal and maize, and these only in as much as is nece.ssary for their sustenance.
COMANJA, a settlement of the head settlement of Tirindaro, and alcald'ia mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 13 families of Indians, and is one league to the s. of its head settlement.
=COMANJA==, another settlement and real of mines in the alcald'ia mayor oi Lagos, of the kingdom and bishopric of Galicia ; the population of which consists of 30 families of Spaniards, Mustees, and Mulattoes, and 50 of Indians, who live by the commerce of and labour in the mines, which, although these inhabitants are little given to industry, produce good emolument. This settlement is at the point of the boundary which divides the settlements of this kingdom from the kingdom of Nueva Espana. Seven leagues e. of its capital.
COMAO, a province of the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. of this river, from the mouth of which it is 40 leagues distant, extending itself along the banks of the same; discovered in 1745 by Francisco de Orellana. The territory is level and fertile, and the climate moist and hot. It abounds in maize, and has some plantations of sugar-cane. It is watered by different rivers, all of which abound in fish, as do also its lakes ; and in these an infinite quantity of tortoises are caught. This province belongs to the Portuguese, and is part of the province of Para.
COMARU, or De los Angeles, a settle-
ment of the missions held by the Portuguese in the country of the Amazonas, on the shore of the river Negro.
COMARU, another settlement in the province and captainship of Pará, and kingdom of Brazil ; situate on th.e s. shore of the river of Las Amazonas, on a point or long strip of land formed by the mouth of the river Topayos.
COMATLAN, another settlement, the head settlement of the district of the alcald'ia mayor of Tequepexpa ; of a hot temperature. It contains 20 families of Indians, who live by cultivating the lands. Fifteen leagues to the s. of its capital.
COMAUUINI, a river of the province and government of Guayana, in the Dutch possessions, on the shores and at the mouth of which they have constructed the fort of Amsterdam. It runs n. and afterwards turning to the s. s. e. enters the Cotica.
COMAYAGUA, or Valladolid, a city and capital of the province of Honduras in the kingdom of Guatemala ; founded by the Captain Alonzo de Caceres, by the order of Pedro de Alvarado. It was at first called Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, and by this title there is still named an hospital which is well endowed and served. Here are also some convents of the religious order of La Merced, and a very good church, erected into a bishopric in 1539. One hundred and ten leagues from the capital Guatemala. Lat. 20° 58' n. Long. 87° 5 P
Bishops who have presided in Comayagua.
1. Don Fray Juan de Talavera, of the order of St. Jerome, prior of his convent of Nuestra Senora del Prado, near Valladolid : being nominated first bishop, he refused the appointment.
2. Don Christoval de Pedraza, elected bishop from the renunciation of the former; at the same time nominated protector of the Indies, and residentiary judge to the conquerors Pedro Alvaredo and Francisco de Montejo, in 1539,