The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
ALACLATZALA, a branch of the head settlement of the district of S. Luis, of the coast and alcaldia mayor of TIapa in Nueva España. It contains 125 Indian families, and is one league from the settlement of Quanzoquitengo.
ALACRANES, some islands, or rather some hidden rocks, of the N. sea, in the bay of Mexico, opposite the coast of Yucatan. Those who navigate these parts are accustomed to pass round beyond them for fear of venturing amongst them, although there are some good cliannels among them, and withgood soundings. They are for the most part barren, producing nothing beyond a herb called moron, -And deficient in fresh water ; neither do they produce any animal except the mole, which is found here in prodigious numbers. There are, however, a quantity of birds, of three distinct sorts, each forming a community of itself, and entirely separated from the other two ; and it has been observed, that if one party may have fixed upon any place for building their nests, the others never think of disturbing them, or driving them from it ; but the noise these birds make is so great, that one cannot pass near them without suffering considerably from their united clamours.
[ALADAS, a parish situate about 14; leagues s. e, of Corrientes, in Lat. 28° 15' 20" s. Long. 58° SO' e».]
ALAMILLOS, a settlement of the province of Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; one of the missions which belonged to the religious of St Francis. It is close to the town and real of the mines of Santa Eulalia.
ALAMOS, Real de Los, Real de Los, a settlement and real of the mines of the province of Sinaloa in Nueva España. It is situate s. e. of the Sierra Madre, and surrounded by rich silver mines, which would produce abundantly but for want of labourers. There are in its district five estates that are fertile in maize, French beans, and sugarcane. The spiritual concerns of all these parts
are under the direction of a curate, whose jurisdiction extends as far as the river Mayo, which flows down from the sierra. It is 20 leagues distant from the town of Tuerte, and between these lies the valley of Maquipo. [Population 7900 souls]
Alamos, with the dedicatory title of S. Jorge, a town of the province and captainship of Para in Brazil, founded by Jorge del Alamo, who gave it his name, in a place called La Vigia. It has a magnificent parish church, with the title of Nuestra Senora de Nazareth, with a large and good fort, and well furnished with artillery. Also, at the distance of a league and an half from the settlement, is a house of charity belonging to the religious order of the Capuchins of La Piedad.
Alamos, another of the missions belonging to the abolished society of Jesuits, in the province of Taraumara and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya. It is 27 leagues s. w. and a quarter of a league s. of the real of the mines and town of S. Felipe de Chiguaga.
Alangasi, a river of the above corregimiento, and rising in the desert mountain of Sincholagua ; over it there is a large bridge, composed of a single arch, but so strong, that when, in 1660, a part of the mountain fell upon it, and precipitated one half of it into the stream, the other half still remained firm and immoveable. This bridge is built of mud and stone.
ALANGI, Santiago de, a city and head settlement of the district of the province of Chiriqui and government of Santiago de Veragua, in the kingdom of Tierra Firme. It is small, but abounding in fruits and cattle ; in which a regular trade is carried on for supplying the city of Panama. This trade consists principally in pigs.
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either in the service of the United States during the war, or fled to them for protection. The indigence or ill habits of these people occasioned the breaking up of the settlement, and a better sort of inhabitants have now taken their place. The lands are fertile, and two rivers run through it, well stored with fish. It has 575 inhabitants, and three slaves. By the state census of 1796, 76 of the inhabitants are electors.)
CHAMPLAIN, a lake of the same province, of more than 20 leagues in length, and from 10 to 12 in width, abounding in excellent fish. It was discovered in 1609 by a French gentleman of tlie name of Champlain, who gave it his name, which it still retains. It communicates with a smaller lake called Sacrament, and the canal passing from one side to the other of these is extremely rapidand dangerous, from the inequality of its bottom. At the distance of 25 leagues to the s, are some very lofty mountains, which are covered with snow, and in which are found castors and a variety 'of animals of the chase; and between these mountains and the aforesaid lake are some beautiful level meadows or llanuras^ which, when first discovered, were well peopled with Iroquees Indians ; but these have greatly diminished in numbers, through the continual wars Avith the French and English. [This lake is next in size to lake Ontario, and lies e. n. €. from it, forming a part of the dividing line between the states of New York and Vermont. It took its name from a French governor, who was drowned in it; it was before called Corlaer’s lake. Reckoning its length from Fairhaven to St.John’s, a course nearly n. it is about 200 miles ; its breadth is from one to 18 miles, being very different in different places ; the mean width is about five miles, and it occupies about 500,000 acres ; its depth is sufficient for the largest vessels. There are in it above sixty islands of different sizes : the most considerable are North and South Hero and Motte island. North Hero, or Grand isle, is 24 miles long, and from two to four wide. It receives at Ticonderoga the waters of lake George from the s. s. w. which is said to be 100 feet higher than the waters of this lake. Half the rivers and streams which rise in Vermont fall into it. There are several which come to it from New York state, and some from Canada ; to which last it sends its own waters a n. course, through Sorell or Chamblee river, into the St. Lawrence. This lake is well stored with fish, particularly salmon, salmon trout, sturgeon, and pickerel, and the land on its borders, and on the banks of its rivers, is good. The rocks in several places appear to be marked and stained with the former surface of the lake, many feet higher than
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it has been since its discovery in 160S. The waters generally rise from about the 20th of April to the 20th of June, from four to six feet ; the greatest variation is not more than eight feet. It is seldom entirely shut up Avith ice until the middle of January, Between the 6th and 15th of April the ice generally goes off, and it is not uncomtiAon for many square miles of it to disappear in one day.]
CHAMPLE, a large unpeopled tract of the province of Taraumara, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya, in which there is a mountain abounding greatly in silver mines. Here is also a mission Avhicli Avas established by the regulars of the company for the reduction of the natives : is 12 leagues n. e. of the town of Santa Eulalia.
CHAMUINA, a river of the province and government of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala. It empties itself into the S. sea near the limits of this jurisdiction, and of that of Chiriqui in the kingdom of Tierra Firme.
CHANCAY, a province and corregimiento of the kingdom of Peru ; bounded n. by that of Santa ; n. e. and n. by that of Caxatambo ; e. by that of Cauta; and s. by the corregimiento of Cercado. It is 27 leagues in length from n. to s. and the same in width e. w. and has on its coast some ports and creeks not remarkable for their security. It comprehends in its district two territories, one of a cold temperature toAvards the cordillera, called De los Checras; and another of a warm temperature, lying in the valleys towards the sea, called De Chancay. It is irrigated by two rivers, one on the s. side, called Pasamayo, and the other Huama, on the n. The latter has an arched bridge, which was built in the time of the viceroy, the Marquis de Montes Claros, the buttresses of which are two rocks, through which the river passes. On the e. and in the cold part of this province, are found the productions peculiar to the climate, such as papas, ocas, and some wheat and maize. Here are also cattle, ot the fleeces of which
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[CLARE, a township on St. Mary’s bay, in Annapolis county, Nova Scotia. It has about 50 families, and is composed of woodland and salt marsh.]
CLARE, a small island of the South sea, close to the port of Guayaquil. It is desert, and two leagues in length. It is commonly called Amorta~ jado, since, being looked upon from any part, it bears the resemblance to a dead man. Twentyfive leagues from Cape Blanco.
[Clare, a very lofty mountain of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espaila, near the coast of the gulf of California, and in the most interior part. It was discovered in 1698.]
[CLAREMONT, a township in Cheshire county, New Hampshire, on the e. side of Connecticut river, opposite Ascutney mountain, in Vermont, and on the n. side of Sugar river ; 24; miles i. of Dartmouth college, and 121 s.w. hy w. of Portsmouth. It was incorporated in 1764, and contains 1435 inhabitants.]
[Claremont County, in Camden district, S. Carolina, contains 2479 white inhabitants, and 2110 slaves. Statesburg is the county town.]
[Clarendon, a township near the centre of Rutland county, Vermont, watered by Otter creek and its tributary streams; 14 or 15 miles e. of Fairbaven, and 44 «. e. of Bennington. It contains 1478 inhabitants. On the s. e. side of a mountain in the w. part of Clarendon, or in the edge of Tinmouth, is a curious cave, the mouth of which is not more than two feet and a half in diameter ; in its descent the passage makes an angle with the horizon of 35° or 40°; but continues of nearly the same diameter through its whole length, which is 31^ feet. At that distance from the mouth, it opens into a spacious room, 20 feet long, 12| wide, and 18 or 20 feet high ; every part of the floor, sides, and roof of this room appear to be a solid rock, but very rough and uneven. The water is continually percolating through the top, and has formed stalactites of various forms ; many of which are conical, and some have the appearance of massive columns ; from this room there is a communication by a narrow passage to others equally curious.]
Same name, another (settlement), of the same island (Barbadoes), on the 5 .. coast.
[Clarke, a new county of Kentucky, between the head waters of Kentucky and Licking riversIts chief town is Winchester.]
[CLARKSBURG, the chief town of Harrison county, Virginia. It contains about 40 houses, a court-house, and gaol ; and stands on the e. side of Monongahela river, 40 miles s. w. of Morgantown.]
[CLARKSTOWN, in Orange county. New York, lies on the w. side of the Tappan sea, two miles distant, n. from Tappan township six miles, and from New York city 29 miles. By the state census of 1796, 224 of its inhabitants are electors.]
[CLARKSVILLE, the chief town of what was till lately called Tennessee county, in the state of Tennessee, is pleasantly situated on the e. bank of Cumberland river, and at the mouth of Red river, opposite the mouth of Muddy creek. It contains about SO houses, a court-house, and gaol, 45, miles w. w. of Nashville, 220 n. w. by w. of Knoxville, and 940 zso. by s. of Philadelphia. Lat. 36° 25' n. Long. 87° 23' a).]
[Clarksville, a small settlement in the n, w. territory, which contained in 1791 about 60 souks. It is situate on the n. bank of the Ohio, opposite Louisville, a mile below the rapids, and 100 miles s. e. of post Vincent. It is frequently flooded when the river is high, and inhabited by people who cannot at present find a better situation.]
purchase, obtained an act of incorporation, September 3, 1655 ; and this was the most distant settlement from the sea-shore of New England at that time. The settlers never liad any contest with the Indians ; and only three persons were ever killed by them within the limits of the town. In 1791, there were in this township 225 dwelling lionses, and 1590 inhabitants ; of the latter there were 80 persons upwards ot 70 years old. For 13 years previous to 1791, the average number of deaths was 17 ; one in four of whom were 70 years old and upwards. The public buildings are, a Congregational church, a spacious stone gaol, the best in New England, and a very handsome county court-house. The town is accommodated with three convenient bridges over the river ; one of which is 208 feet long, and 18 feet wide, supported by 12 piers, built after the manner of Charles river bridge. This town is famous in the history of the revolution, having been the seat of the provincial congress in 1774, and the spot where the first opposition was made to the British troops, on the memorable 19th of April 1775. The general court have frequently held their sessions here when contagious diseases have prevailed in the capital. Lat. 42° 20'
(Concord, a small river of Massachusetts, formed of two branches, which unite near the centre of the town of Concord, whence it takes its course in a n. e. and n. direction through Bedford and Billerica, and empties itself into Merrimack river at Tewksbury. Concord river is remarkable for the gentleness of its current, which is scarcely perceivable by the eye. At low water mark it is from 100 to 200 feet wide, and from three to 12 feet deep. During floods. Concord river is near a mile in breadth ; and when viewed from the town of Concord, makes a fine appearance.)
CONDACHE, a river of the province and government of Quixos in the kingdom of Quito. It runs n. e. and traversing the royal road which leads from Baza to Archidono, enters the river Coquindo on its s. side, in 37' lat.
Canada. It runs n. and enters the lake Ontario.
CONDE, another of the same name. Sec V E H D E .
CONDESUIOS DE Arequipa, a province and corregimiento of Peru : bounded n. by that of Parinocochas, e. by that of Chumbivilcas, s. e. by that of Canes and Canches, and s. by that of Collahuas. It is generally of a cold temperature, even in the less lofty parts of the cordillera ; of a rough and broken territory, and with very bad roads. Nevertheless, no inconsiderable proportion of wheat is grown in the low grounds, as likewise of maize, and other seeds and fruits, such as grapes, pears, peaches, apples, and some flowers. Upon tlie heights breed many vicunas, huanacos, and vizcachas, and in other parts is obtained cochineal, here called macno, and which is bartered by the Indians for baizes of the manufacture of the country, and for cacao. It has some gold mines which were worked in former times, and which, on account of the baseness of the metal, the depth of the mines, and hardness of the strata, have not produced so much as formerly they did, although they are not now without yielding some emolument : such are those of Airahua, Quiquimbo, Araure, and Aznacolea, which may produce a little more than the expences incurred in Avorkirig them. The gold of these mines is from 19 to 20 carats, and they produce from tliree to four ounces each cfljjow. They are Avorked by means of steel and powder, and the metals are ground in mills. The greater part of the natives of tliis province occupy themselves in carrying the productions of the valley of Mages, of the province of Carnana, such as Avines and brandies, to the other provinces of the sierra; also in the cultivation of seeds, and some in working the mines. It is watered by some small rivers or streams, which, incorporate themselves, and form t-wm large rivers. The capital is 3 T
CONGO, a settlement of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra N ueva ; situate on the shore of a river, which gives it its name, and of the coast of the S. sea, within the gulf of S. Miguel.
CONGURIPO, Santiago de, a- settlement of the head settlement of Puruandiro, and alcaldta mayor of Valladolid, in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan ; situate on a plain or shore of the Rio Grande. It is of a hot temperature, and contains 12 families of Spaniards and Mustees^ and 57 of Indians. Twenty-six leagues from the captital Pasquaro.
CONICARI, a settlement of the province and government of Cinaloa in Nueva Espana ; situate on the shore and at the source of the river Mayo. It is a reduccion of the missions which were held by the regulars of the company of Jesuits.
CONIMA, a settlement of the province and cor-
regimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru ; annexed to the curacy of Moxo.
CONNECTICUT, a county of the province and colony of New England in N. America. It is bounded w. by New York and the river Hudson ; is separated from the large island by an arm of the sea to the s. ; has to the e. Rhode island, with part of the colony of Massachusetts, and the other part of the same colony to the n. It is traversed by a river of the same name, which is the largest of the whole province, and navigable by large vessels for 40 miles. This province abounds in wood, turpentine, and resins ; in the collecting of which numbers of the inhabitants are occupied, although the greater part of them are employed in fishing, and in hewing timber for the building of vessels and other useful purposes. The merchants of the province once sent to King Charles II. some timber or trees, of so fine a growth as to serve for masts of ships of the largest burthen. The great trade of woods and timbers carried on by means of the river has much increased its navigation. This territory is not without its mines of metal, such as lead, iron, and copper: the first of these have yielded some emolument, but the others have never yet produced any thing considerable, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been made to work them. This county is well peopled and flourishing, since it numbers upwards of 40,000 souls, notwithstanding the devastations that it has suftered through the French, the Indians, and the pirates, in the reign of Queen Anne, when all the fishing vessels were destroyed. When this colony was first founded, many great privileges were given it, which have always been maintained by the English governor, through the fidelity which it manifested in not joining the insurrection of the province of Massachusetts, until, in the last war, it was separated from the metropolis, as is seen in the article U n ited States OF America.
(Connecticut, one of the United States of North America, called by the ancient natives Qunnihticut, is situated between lat. 41° and 42° 2' n. and between long. 71° 20' and 7.3° 15' w. Its greatest breadth is 72 miles, its length 100 miles; bounded «. by Massachusetts ; e. by Rhode island ; s. by the sound which divides it from Long island ; and w. by the state of New York. This state contains about 4674 square miles; equal to about 2,640,000 acres. It is divided into eight counties, viz. Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, and New London, which extend along the sound from w. to c. : Litchfield, Hartford, Tolland, and Windham, extend in the same direction on the border of the] 3 T 2