The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies [volume 1]
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20. Don Ignacio de Flores, native of Quito, who had served as captain of cavalry in the regiment of the volunteers of Aragon, and who was governor of the province of Moxos, being of the rank of colonel ; he was nominated as president by way of reward for his services, in having been instrumental to the pacification of the Indians of Peru, and to the succouring of the city of La Paz, which was besieged by rebels : he governed until 1786, when he was removed from the presidency.
Charcas, a ferocious and barbarous nation of Indians of Peru, to the s.w. of the lakes of Aullaga and of Paria ; conquered by Mayta Capac, fourth monarch of the Incas. At present they are reduced to the Christian faith in the government of Chuquisaca or La Plata.
Santa Maria Charcas, a settlement, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, being the real of the mines of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, in which are marked the boundaries of its jurisdiction, and those of Nueva Espana, the last district of the bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains a convent of the religious order of St. Francis, and 50 families of Spaniards, ilfwstees, and Mulattoes, as also many of Indians dispersed in the rancherias and the estates of its district: is 130 leagues to the n. J to the n. w. of Mexico, 75 from Guadalaxera, and 18 to the n. e. of the sierra of Pinos. Lat. 22° 55'. Long. 100° 40'.
Charcas, another settlement and real of the mines of the province of Copala, and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya ; situate two leagues from the capital. In its vicinity are the estates of Panuco, in which they work with quicksilver the metals of the mines. To its curacy, which is adminstered by one of the Catholic clergy, are annexed two small settlements of Serranos Indians, amongst whom are found some few of the Tepeguana nation.
(Charles River, in Massachusetts, called anciently Quinobequin, is a considerable stream, the principal branch of which rises from a pond bordering on Hopkinton. It passes through Holliston and Bellingham, and divides Medway from Med field, Wrentham, and Franklin, and thence into Dedham, where, by a curious bend, it forms a peninsula of 900 acres of land. A stream called lother brook runs out of this river in this town, and falls into Neponsit river, forming a natural canal, uniting the two rivers, and affording a number of excellent mill-seats. From Dedham the course of the river is n. dividing Newton from Needham, Weston, and Waltham, passing over romantic falls ; it then bends to the n. e. and e. through Watertown and Cambridge, and passing into Boston harbour, mingles with the waters of Mystic river, at the point of the peninsula of Charlestown. It is navigable for boats to Watertown, seven miles. The most remarkable bridges on this river are those which connect Boston with Charlestown and Cambridge. SeeBosxoN. Thereare seven paper mills on this river, besides other mills.] [Charles County, on the w. shore of Maryland, lies between Potowmack and Patuxent rivers. Its chief town is port Tobacco, on the river of that name. Its extreme length is 28 miles, its breadth 24, and it contains 20,613 inhabitants, including 10,085 slaves. The country has few hills, is generally low and sandy, and produces tobacco, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, &c.)
CHARLES. See Carlos, San.
CHARLESTON, a capital city of S. Carolina, is one of the best of N. America, excelling in beauty, grandeur, and commerce. It is situate upon a long strip of land between two navigable rivers, which are Ashley and Cowper, and the greater part of it upon the latter. This forms in the city two small bays, the one to the n. and the other to the s. The town is of a regular construction, and well fortified both by nature and art, having six bastions and a line of entrenchment ; on the side of the river Cowper it has the bastions of
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Black, Granville, Craven, and a half-moon; on the n. a line, and in front of the river Ashley the bastion of Colliton, and the covered half-moon of Johnson, with a draw-bridge to pass the line, and another to pass the half-moon. Besides these works of regular fortification, it has a fort erected upon a point of land at the entrance of the river Ashley, which commands the channel and the vessels : but the bastions, the palisade, and the ditch on the land-side, having suffered much damage in an hurricane, and it being thought by the Governor Nicholson, that they were of too great an extent to defend themselves, they were by his command destroyed. This city is, as it were, a continual fair, being the market for the fruits of the whole province : the streets are well projected, and the edifices are grand and of fine architecture, especially the church, which is magnificent, spacious, and one of the best in all N . America : there are several other churches belonging to different sects, and the French protestants have a very fine one in the principal street. The town consists of 800 houses built of wood as to the greater part, although there are some of stone ; all of them having glass windows, and manifesting a degree of elegance and ornament in their structure : is the residence of the governor of the province, and in it is held the general assembly and the tribunal of judicature. Here are many rich nobles and opulent merchants, and almost all its inhabitants exhibit a costly appearance, and live in a state of consummate luxury. It has a public library, which owes its establishment to Doctor Thomas Bray. The liberty of conscience enjoyed in this city, and which was granted to its inhabitants a short time after its foundation, caused it to become very populous. This effect was further heightened by the extensive commerce it enjoyed ; and thus has it, with many other qualities of pre-eminence, become one of the finest settlements in America.
[Charleston, the metropolis of S. Carolina, is the most considerable town in the state; situate in the district of the same name, and on the tongue of land formed by the confluent streams of Ashley and Cowper, which are short rivers, but large and navigable. These waters unite immediately below the city, and form a spacious and convenient harbour, which communicates with the ocean just below Sullivan’s island, which it leaves on. the n. seven miles s, e. of Charleston. In these rivers the tide rises in common about six feet and a half; but uniformly rises 10 or 12 inches more during a night tide. The fact is certain ; the cause unknown. The continual agitation which the tides occasion in the waters which almost surround Charleston,
the refreshing sea-breezes which are regularly felt, and the smoke arising from so many chimneys, render this city more healthy than any part of the low country in the s. states. On this account it is the resort of great numbers of gentlemen invalids from the W. India islands, and of the rich planters from the country, who come here to spend the sickly months, as they are called, in quest of health and of the social enjoyments whicli the city affords ; and in no part of America are the social blessings enjoyed more rationally and liberally than here. The following statement exhibits the greatest and least height of Fahrenheit’s thermometer for several years past in Charleston.
State of the weather for 1807, ending December 31.
Thermometer, highest ~ ’ lowest
30° 1' to 30° 77'
1 to 131 42 inches If N.E. S.W,
Ditto mean Barometer Hygrometer Fall of rain Prevailing winds Days of rain
Do. of thunder Do. of snow
Unaffected hospitality — affability — ease of manners and address — and a disposition to make their guests welcome, easy, and pleased with themselves, are characteristics of the respectable people of Charleston. In speaking of the capital, it ought to be observed, for the honour of the people of Carolina in general, that when, in common with the other colonies, in the contest with Britain, they resolved against the use of certain luxuries, and even necessaries of life, those articles which improve the mind, enlarge the understanding, and correct the taste, were excepted ; the importation of books was permitted as formerly. The land on which the town is built is flat and low, and the water brackish and unwholesome. The streets are pretty regularly cut, and open beautiful prospects, and have subterranean drains to carry off’ filth and keep]
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(the city clean and healthy ; but are too narrow for so large a place and so warm a climate. Their general breadth is from 35 to 66 feet. The houses which have been lately built are brick with tiled roofs. The buildings in general are elegant, and most of them are neat, airy, and well furnished. The public buildings are, an exchange, a statebouse, an armoury, a poor-house, and an orphan’s house. Here are several respectable academies. Part of the old barracks has been handsomely fitted lip, and converted into a college, and there are a number of students ; but it can only be called as yet a respectable academy. Here are two banks ; a branch of the national bank, and the S. Carolina bank, established in 1792. The houses for public worship are, two Episcopal churches, two for Independents, one for Scotch Presbyterians, one for Baptists, one for German Lutherans, two for Methodists, one for French Protestants, a meetinghouse for Quakers, a Roman Catholic chapel, and a Jewish synagogue. Little attention is paid to the public markets ; a great proportion of the most wealthy inhabitants having plantations, from which they receive supplies of almost every article of living. The country abounds with poultry and wild ducks. Their beef, mutton, and veal are not generally of the best kind ; and few fish are found in the market. In 1787 it was computed that there were 1600 houses in this city, and 15,000 inhabitants, including 5400 slaves ; and what evinces the healthiness of the place, upwards of 200 of the white inhabitants were above 60 years of age. In 1791 there were 16,359 inhabitants, of whom 7684 were slaves. This city has often suffered much by fire ; the last and most destructive happened as late as June 1796. Charleston was incorporated in 1783, and divided into three wards, which choose as many wardens, from among whom the citizens elect an intendant of the city. The intendant and wardens form the city-council, who have power to make and enforce bye-laws for the regulation of the city. The value of exports from this port, in the year ending November 1787, amounted to 505,279/. 19^. 5d. sterling. The number of vessels cleared from the custom-house the same year was 947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, measuring 41,531 tons, were American ; theothers belonged to Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, France, and the United Netherlands. In the year 1794 the value of exports amounted to 3,846,392 dollars. It is 60 miles s. w. by s. of Georgetown, 150 e. by s. of Augusta, 497 s. by w. of Richmond, 630 s. w. by s. of Washington city ; 763 s. w. by s. of Philadelphia, and 1110 s. w. of Boston. Lat. 32° 48'. Long. 80° 2' w. Knoxville, the capital of the state
of Tennessee, is much nearer to this than to any sea-port town in the Atlantic ocean. A waggon road of only 15 miles is wanted to open the communication ; and the plan is about to be executed by the state.)
Charleston, another capital city of the county of Middlesex in New England; situate on the bank of the river Charles. It is well peopled and of a good construction, occupying the whole of the space which lies between the aforesaid river and that of Mystic, the former river dividing the city from Boston, in the same manner as the Thames divides London from Southwark. It has a raft for the traffic of the river instead of a bridge, the fare or produce of which belongs to the college of Norwood in the city of Cambridge, which is close by : this city is as it were the half of Boston, and its situation, as being upon a peninsula, is very advantageous. At certain times it has fairs, and is the meeting place for the assembly of the county. It has a very large and handsome church, and a marketplace, ornamentally and conveniently situate on the river side, at which there are sold all kinds of flesh, fish, and other necessaries ; it has two large streets leading to it. The river is navigable, and runs through the country for many leagues. Is in Lat. 42° 24' n. Long. 71° 6' ay.
(CHARLESTOWN, the principal town in Middlesex county, Massachusetts, called Mishawun by the aboriginal inhabitants, lies n. of Boston, with which it is now connected by Charles river bridge. The town, properly so called, is built on a peninsula formed by Mystic river on the e. and a bay setting up from Charles river on the w. It is very advantageously situated for health, navigation, trade, and manufactures of almost all the various kinds. A dam across the mouth of the bay, which sets up from Charles river, would afford a great number of mill-seats for manufactures. Bunker’s, Breed’s, and Cobble (now Barrell’s) hills, are celebrated in the history of the American revolution. The second hill has upon its summit a monument erected to the memory of Major-general W arren, near the spot where he fell, among the first sacrifices to American liberty. The brow of the hill begins to be ornamented with elegant houses. All these hills afford elegant and delightful prospects of Boston, and its charmingly variegated harbour, of Cambridge and its colleges, and of an extensive tract of highly cultivated country. It contains within the neck or parish about 250 houses, and about 2000 inhabitants. The only public buildings of consequence are, a handsome Congregational church, with an elegant steeple and clock, and an alms-house, very commodious